Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology, Vol 1, Number 10 (2018) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



The Impact of the Inverse Learning Method on Self-Directed Learning in Entrepreneurship Lessons(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: inverse learning Self-directed Entrepreneurship

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۸
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of flipped learning method on self-directed learning in entrepreneurship lesson. Methodology: This quasi-experimental study was a pretest-posttest one with the control group. The statistical population of this research included all master students in the in the Islamic Azad University of Yadegar Imam (RA), in the academic year 2015-2018. 150 individuals were randomly selected among the master students in the accounting department of the Islamic Azad University of Imam Khomeini, for sampling. Then, before implementing the entrepreneurship lesson with the flipped learning method, and after training, Williamson's Self-directed Learning Questionnaire (2007), which consists of five components and 60 items (components' separation including the awareness, learning strategies, learning activities, evaluation, and interpersonal skills) have been used and implemented on all of them. Findings: In general, the Finding of the research showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the experiment group and the control group regarding the effect of flipped learning method on self-directed learning of students in entrepreneurship lessons in the post-test phase (P <0.01). Discussion: Totally we can say with the Inverse Learning Method we are able to improve Self-Directed Learning in Entrepreneurship Lessons.

Providing a Desirable Model for Implementing Social Network Policies in Iran (With a social and ethical responsibility approach based on the explanation of its related factors)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Related factors implementation of public policy cyber social networks cyberspace Social Responsibility

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۴
Purpose: Cyber social networks and cyberspace are like a double-edged sword that brings favorable and unfavorable consequences. The advantages cannot prevent us from neglecting its dangerous disadvantages that disregard the ethical principles and community values. The present research has been carried out to explain the factors related to the implementation of cyber social network policies in Iran with the social responsibility approach. Methodology: The research is descriptive and also developmental-practical in terms of objective. Three researcher-made questionnaires including the questionnaires of related factors, social responsibility and the implementation level of social network policies were used to collect data. The validity of questionnaires was approved according to the opinion of professors and experts. As well, the reliability was confirmed using the Cronbach alpha. The statistical population of this study includes two categories: the first group consists of experts selected by purposive non-random sampling method; the second group consists of experts in the field of cyberspace, cyber social networks, media and general issues selected by quota sampling. Data analysis was performed using SPSS and AMOS. Findings: The research results showed that among the relationships between factors related to the implementation of cyber social network policies in Iran, the technical factor had been identified as the most important external factor and the structural factors as the most important internal factor. The implementation level of cyber social network policies and social responsibility is lower than moderate. Discussion: According to the results of the model fit analysis as well as the experts’ opinion, it can be concluded that the designed model is not sufficiently effective.

Providing A Talent Management Model for Shahed University Staff(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: model talent management Delphi Method Central Index Shahed University

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۷۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۲
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a talent management model for staff of Shahed University. Methodology: The methodology of the present study was applied in terms of purpose, qualitative in terms of data, and foundation data in terms of the nature and type of study. The statistical population of the study consisted of academic specialists. Thirty specialists in the field of management were selected using the targeted snowball sampling. The research tool was a semi-structured interview form were set up. Models, findings, studies and theories were first examined, then, the indices were counted by open coding; after the categorization of the central coding, the final form of the interview was sent to 30 field specialists to make selective coding. Findings: The results of the findings showed that the most important category of effective index on the promotion of talent management model is the "excellence" category which includes the indices: career path management, succession and organizational commitment. Subsequently, “recruit" category consists of indices: identification, selection and employment. Finally, the model of indices influencing the talent management model was drafted which included 13 indices in five main categories; "recruit ", " retaining ", "training and development", "performance management" and "excellence." in this model, the mean of each category and order of importance of indices in each category was presented. Conclusion: Applying this template, its dimensions, its components and indicators, enables universities to manage their human resources and, as a compass, change their scientific movement from day to day planning and improve the quality of the university. Provided.

Designing an Optimal Model for the Educational System in University of Applied Science and Technology(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Designing the Model educational system University of Applied Science and Technology

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۹
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design a suitable model for the educational system in University of Applied Science and Technology. Methodology: This research was a qualitative-quantitative research. In the qualitative section of the research, the main components of the model for the educational system of this university have been identified by interviewing the experts. In the quantitative section, the components identified from the qualitative section, were validated. For sampling in the qualitative section of the study, using a snowball sampling method, 10 experts from the university with the theoretical saturation, were selected as sample and for validation of the model, according to the size of the statistical population of the research in the quantitative section, using the Cochran formula, 266 rectors, assistants and professors of the centers were selected by stratified sampling method. Findings: Data analysis was performed by confirmatory-factor analysis test.The results of the test showed that the structure of the educational system of the university was assessed in four indices of professors with 9 items, the curriculum with 9 items, the educational facilities with 10 items, and the assessment with 7 items and their factor loads are 0.85, 0.64, 0.78, and 0.82 respectively. Discussion: A suitable model for the educational system of the University of Applied Science and Technology was designed with 4 indices of the university professors, university curriculum, university educational facilities and university assessment system.

Exploring the concept of cultural capital and its role in Promoting the citizenship culture(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Cultural Capital embodied cultural capitalism Objective cultural capital Citizenship culture

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۸
Purpose: one of the requirements for solving problems affecting citizens and modifying their behavior is the existence of an appropriate citizenship culture, known to be one of the fundamental and permanent grounds for citizenship. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the issue of analyzing the concept of cultural capital and its role in promoting the citizenship culture. Methodology: The methodology is applied based on the purpose and, in terms of data collection is, of documentary-library and surveying. The tool for collecting data is a questionnaire that was randomly distributed among 70 lecturers, staff and students of the Farhangian University of Hamedan. Findings: The findings of the research indicated that the variables of the embodied capital on the citizenship culture (β = 0.05, P75 = 0) and the objectified capital on citizenship culture. Discussion: In the present age, the citizenship culture is considered to be a necessity, forming various meanings in the society as multidimensional constructs, caused by the socioeconomic, political, and cultural contexts of the society, along with the diversity of cultures. There has been made much attempt to examine the relationship between cultural capital and citizenship culture by reviewing concepts and views and having extracted the indicators, to present the most important determinants.

Investigating the Mediator Role of the Capital Business Path in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Hope and Resiliency with Job Performance(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Job Performance Capital Business Path Hope flexibility Self-Efficacy

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۷۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۳
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediator role of the capital business path in the relationship between hope, resiliency and self-efficacy as the three components of positive organizational behavior and job performance. Methodology: The statistical population of the research is all employees in the organizations located in Isfahan city. The sample consisted of 217 people who were randomly selected from the staff in three companies. Five Self-evaluation questionnaires were used for collecting data. Findings: The results of statistical analysis showed that three variables of hope, resilience and self-efficacy had a positive and significant effect on the job performance indirectly through capital business path. The results also showed that direct effect of hope on job performance was not significant, but direct effect of self-efficacy and resilience was positive and significant. Discussion: These findings indicated the role of the capital business path in directing the common motivational factor of three constructs of positive organizational behavior of hope, resilience and self-efficacy.

Studying the Organizational and Intra-Organizational Factors Affecting the Faculty Members' Organizational Silence in Islamic Azad University(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Organizational Silence organizational factors intra-organizational factors Faculty Members

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۳
Purpose: This research was conducted with the aim of explaining the effect of organizational and intra- organizational factors affecting the faculty members' organizational silence in branches of Islamic Azad University. Methodology: The statistical population of this study was all faculty members of Islamic Azad University. The sample of this study was 380 ones according to the Cochran formula. After completing 380 questionnaires, analyzing the questionnaires was done using SPSS-23 software at the descriptive level of demographic characteristics including mean and standard deviation, minimum and maximum score of research variables and at inferential level using AMOS-23 software, multivariate analysis of variance and side findings by single-t and t-dependent tests. Findings: analysis of the results using SPSS-23 and AMOS-23 software showed that all factors of the organization had coefficients or impact factors higher than 0.3 at the level 0.001, and six dimensions related to the organizational factor and eight dimensions related to the intra-organizational factor, all affect the faculty members' organizational silence. Among the organizational dimensions, the human resources management and among the intra-organizational dimensions, the type of community culture had the highest impact on the organizational silence in Islamic Azad University. Two models with good fitting were presented for the organizational and intra-organizational factors. Discussion: All dimensions of human resource management, the characteristics of faculty members, the organization's characteristics, the organization culture, organizational climate, and organizational structure are effective in the organization factor. Human resource management has the most impact on silence and the organization type has the least impact on the silence

Relationship between Family Functioning and Attitude towards Delinquency in Adolescents in Babol County(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Family Functioning Delinquency adolescents Babol Regression

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۷
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family functioning and attitude towards delinquency in adolescents. Methodology: The research method was correlational. The statistical population of the study included all high school students in Babol in the academic year of 2016-2017. Among them, 689 people (334 boys and 355 girls) were selected by cluster sampling method. The research tool was Fazli’s questionnaire for attitude towards delinquency and McMaster family functioning scale. The results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is a negative and significant relationship between family functioning and its dimensions including problem solving, roles, communication, emotional attachment, emotional association, control, and attitude towards delinquency. Findings: The results of stepwise multivariate regression indicated that among the components of family functioning, only the component of roles explained the 0.03 of the variance of attitude towards delinquency. Conclusion: Based on the results of this research, it is suggested that in schools, family education programs should have emphasized the family psychological empowerment and promotion of family functioning. Family counselors should also work on counseling sessions and work with families to improve family functioning, in particular, component of roles.

A Model for Knowledge Sharing Among the Faculty Members of Islamic Azad University(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Knowledge Sharing structural equation model Faculty Members

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۷
Purpose: the aim of this study was to provide a model for sharing knowledge among the faculty members of Islamic Azad University, due to the increasing need for organizations to share the knowledge at all organizational levels. Methodology: In terms of purpose and data type, this is a mixed study. The statistical population in the qualitative section consisted of 23 specialists and experts, and in a small section, 1803 faculty members were selected in the cluster sampling method using Krejcie-Morgan table. A questionnaire was developed to determine the knowledge sharing indices using the previous studies and interviewing with the experts. Findings: Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed through face validity, content and construct, and its reliability was obtained greater than 0.70 for all components, using Cronbach's alpha and the mixed reliability coefficient. Based on the obtained structural equation, the organizational factors (0.89) and individual factors (0.38) explain the variance of knowledge sharing among the faculty members. The value of fitting goodness index is greater than 0.9 and the value of the mean square error estimate was obtained 0.051. Conclusion: For the successful implementation and deployment of knowledge sharing at all levels among the faculty members, the organizational factors must be strongly considered and the probable barriers eliminated; as well as the individual and personality factors to be taken into account.

Identifying the Components of a Comprehensive and Local Model for Evaluation of the Education Effectiveness (Case Study)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: educational evaluation effectiveness Evaluation of the Education Effectiveness

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۱
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the components of a comprehensive and local model for evaluation of the education effectiveness in Students working in Iran Khodro. Methodology: This research was applied in terms of purpose, an exploratory (qualitative) one in terms of collecting data, and the foundation data (qualitative stage) type in terms of research methodology; because the aim of an applied research is to solve the problem and eventually access information to make decisions and to meet immediate needs and problems. The statistical population of the study consisted of the students, managers and experts of Iran Khodro education as well as the experts in the field of evaluation of the education effectiveness. 11 people were selected using snowball purposive sampling method as a statistical sample. The data collection instrument was the semi-structured interview. The Auerbach & Silverstein six-step technique (2003), were used for analyzing the Findings: data obtained from the interview. The findings of this study showed that the model of education effectiveness evaluation in Iran Khodro Company includes the field dimensions (including components of period appropriateness and organizational support), input (including comprehensive components, curriculum, lecturer, facilities, equipment, and budget), process (including component of teaching-learning), and individual output (including components of reaction, learning, and behavior), organizational output (including financial and non-financial components), and social outputs (including customer satisfaction component). Conclusion: The evaluation model of organizational education effectiveness of Iran Khodro Company leads to its employees' awareness and development and ultimately leads to improvement of individual and organizational performance.

Providing an Optimal Model for the Effectiveness of Entrepreneurship Education on Graduates (Case Study)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: entrepreneurship education Graduates Social factors educational factors

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۵
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an optimal model for the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education on graduate students in university. Methodology: This research was carried out in a mixed method. The statistical population of this research in the qualitative part included experts in the scientific community and academic experts who had executive backgrounds at decision-making levels and the quantitative part all graduates of the management faculty in the Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran branch, which were a total of 1500 graduate students. Using Cochran's equation, 305 subjects were evaluated. The subjects were randomly introduced from the statistical population and selected as the statistical sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting data on a five-point scale containing 42 items. Its face and content validity was confirmed by 10 experts and its reliability in a preliminary test with 30 subjects for all variables studied was obtained above 0.7, which was acceptable. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics of structural equation analysis in Smart PLS software and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in SPSS software were used. Findings: The findings showed that the cultural, economic, political, social, educational and demographic factors influenced entrepreneurship education. Conclusion: Entrepreneurship education is one of the most important categories in the field of education, which serious attention to it causes the economic, educational and social development of students. Therefore, raising entrepreneurs in the country can be considered as a first step in the development of education.

The sociolinguistic content analysis of imported ELT textbooks’ cultural values (global or local) and their impact on Iranian EFL learners’ social identity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: culture Globalization Identity Construction Social Identity

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۳۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۳
Purpose: Investigating the cultural content of EFL textbooks is significant in critical discourse studies. The effect of cultural values on EFL learners’ social identity has been less investigated in the Iranian context. This study aimed at identifying type of cultural values embedded in New Interchange and Passages textbooks in terms of being global, local or glocal and the impact of these textbooks’ cultural values on Iranian EFL learners’ social identity. Methodology: 90 upper-intermediate EFL learners at 2 private language institutes and high schools in the city of Gilanegharb were selected among a population of 120 EFL learners based on taking an Oxford Placement Test (OPT). They were randomly divided into an experimental group (45 learners) and a control group (45 learners). The experimental group received global cultural teaching through exposure to private institute textbooks’ cultural values while the control group was taught through local cultural values embedded in the local textbooks. A Student Identity Questionnaire (SIQ) was used as both pre-test and posttest. Data were analyzed through Independent Sample T-tests using SPSS 21 software. Findings: The results indicated that the most frequent textbook cultural values were social power through the U.S. superiority, social relation through friendship and party, and accomplishments through success. Further analysis showed that the textbook cultural values had a significant impact on social identity scores of Iranian EFL learners showing stronger agreement with global cultural values promoted in the imported textbooks. Discussion: Results had implications for EFL teachers, learners, policy makers and material developers.

The Effect of Learning Memory Strengthening Skills on Improving Dictation in Female Students with Learning Disabilities in Arak Education Area(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: learning disorder dictation memory enhancement skills

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۲
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of training memory enhancement skills on improving the dictation of female students with learning disabilities (writing). Methodology: The present study was a semi experimental design with pre-test / post-test design with control group. The population of the study consisted of all female primary schoolchildren with dictation disorders who were studying in Arak district schools in the academic year of 1995-94. Among the referral students had problems with dictation by a teacher of 30 students who had diagnostic criteria for dysfunction disorder. They were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (15 people) and control (15 people). Information was collected by version 5 of Stanford / Binet's Intelligence Lab and a researcher-made spelling. The experimental group was trained in memory enhancement skills in 10 sessions while the control group did not receive any training at this time. Data analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS-22 software. Findings: The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the post test scores of the two experimental and control groups at the level of 0.05 and the students' writing scores improved after the training sessions. Discussion: The training method used in this study can be suggested as a desirable method for improving the dictation of dyslexic students.

Designing a Curriculum Model Based on the Development of Social Capital for Iran Higher Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: curriculum pattern Social capital Higher education

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۱
Introduction: This research was aimed at designing a curriculum model based on the development of social capital for higher education in Iran. Method: The present study was an applied and qualitative research that was carried out using the theme analysis method to answer the research questions. The statistical population of this study included all planning, sociology and management specialists. The statistical sample of this study was 15 faculty members of Islamic Azad University. A sample sampling method was used to select the sample members. Data gathering tool The data of this study were semi-structured interviews. Results: Data analysis was carried out using OmegaCard software using MaxQDA software. In order to calculate the reliability of the interviews, the reliability of the review and the method of internal agreement were used. The results of the topic analysis led to the identification of 115 initial codes, which decreased to 79. Based on these findings, four components of goals, content, materials and educational methods and evaluation were identified as the main components of social capital based curriculum in the university, each of which has three structural, cognitive, and cognitive components. Conclusion: Higher education, in the light of the curriculum patterns, can provide opportunities for social capital development, and has the potential for implementation and necessary changes to the curriculum model for the development of social capital.

Pathology of The Psychedelic Drug and Narcotic-Related Crimes in The Law of Iran and The United Kingdom(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Drugs and Psychedelics Pathology Penal System Repressive Punishments Iran Law England Law

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Different communities have been involved with the dangers of drugs from long ago, and the variety of the drugs is increasing day by day; especially when the drugs became industrial, and new drug called “psychedelic drug” was created with the various effects on the individuals’ mind and will. Hence, different legal systems deal with different types of crimes related to these drugs with different approaches. The criminal policy governing drug crimes primarily focuses on the government's responses, both criminal and non- criminal, but the role of organs and NGOs is significant in the field of prevention and treatment of non-drug responses. The relative decimation of addiction, the participation of NGOs in the treatment of drug addicts and the drug rehabilitation, the perpetrator of industrial psychotropic drugs, and the reduction of the confiscation of the perpetrator’s entire property to the property derived from crime, cooperation with the other countries in the prosecution of drug crimes, the guarantee for the implementation of the cancellation of the passport for perpetrators and the intensification of the punishment of the heads and perpetrators of drug crimes from the cases of the 2010 Amendment of the Counter Narcotics Law, have the influenced of the general anti-narcotics policies adopted in 2006, as well as international documents. Contrary to Iran pathology approach, it is possible to use social and non-repressive punishments for some minor drug crimes in the UK's legal system.

Comparison of Academic Procrastination and Academic Engagement of Rural and Urban Students in Bojnourd City(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Academic procrastination academic engagement Elementary

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۱
Purpose: The school is one of the most important social and academic institutions and the most important element of education, which is established and administered in accordance with the goals approved by the academic curriculum and the standards and guidelines of the Ministry of Education. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the degree of academic procrastination and the students’ academic Engagement. Methodology: The research was descriptive in terms of purpose, and applied in terms of methodology. The statistical population consisted of all female students of the sixth grade of rural and urban elementary schools of Bojnourd City; 1164 sixth-grade girls in urban schools and 669 girls in rural elementary schools, according to a report prepared by the Ministry of Education of Bojnourd in the academic year 2017-2018. The stratified sampling method was used to determine the sample size. A sample of 320 urban students and 268 rural students were selected based on Cochran formula at the error level 5%. The instruments for data collection were Solomon & Roth Blum Academic Procrastination Questionnaire (1984), and Academic Engagement Questionnaire of Frederic et al. (2004), which had formal and content validity, and reliability was obtained 0.84 and 0.87, respectively, according to Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed by SPSS-21 software using t-test at the significance level of 0.05. Findings: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the academic procrastination scores of rural and urban students (p <0.05). The mean of urban students' procrastination was greater than that of rural students. There was also a difference between academic Engagement of rural and urban students (p <0.05). Conclusion: About 47 percent of rural students and about 53 percent of urban students had academic procrastination. Also, about 57% of rural students and about 63% of urban students had a high degree of academic Engagement.

The study of the effectiveness of teaching philosophy in the form of a loop and exploring the working memory of blind students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: working memory philosophy for children blind students

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۲
Purpose: The main goal of the philosophy education program is to create intellectual challenges for students, which plays an important role in the ability of cognitive skills. Methodology: The present study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of teaching philosophy in the form of a curriculum on the working memory of elementary school students in Mashhad in the academic year 1391-1396. Twenty-eight female and female students were voluntarily selected and randomly divided into two groups: control and Experiments were conducted. Then all the participants responded to the Wechsler memory test. The research method was experimental and pre-test and post-test design with control group. Then, the classroom method was used in a circle method with the help of the stories of Sharp Lepman and Robert Fisher. Seven training sessions were conducted for the experimental group and the control group was performed on the waiting list They were. After completing the training sessions again, "all participants responded to the Wechsler memory test. To test the hypotheses, the covariance analysis method was used. Findings: The results showed a significant difference in the working memory of the experimental group. Therefore, it seems that training with Slow-hole technique can have a positive effect on the blindness of blind children. Conclusion: The workload of the motor-driven motor is in many complex cognitive activities requiring hard-coded controlled processing. Encourages the use of high-level cognitive skills in students, and this can be done Depending on the workload, it is related to work memory.

Development of a Causal Model of Virtual Social Networking Dependence in High School Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Rumination Social support loneliness Social anxiety dependence on social network and self-regulation

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱۹
Purpose: Extreme dependence on virtual social networks has devastating consequences such as academic underachievement, sleep disorder, and social isolation, clearly highlighting the need for research in this area. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rumination, social support, loneliness and social anxiety on dependence on virtual social networks with an emphasis on the mediating role of self-regulation. Methodology: The statistical population included all female upper secondary school students in Tehran who studied in the academic year of 2017-18. Six hundred (600) students were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. Research data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings: The results indicated that the model had a good fit. Also the direct and indirect effects of social anxiety and social support, as well as the direct impact of loneliness on the dependence on virtual social networks, are rejected at the alpha level of 0/05 and are not significant. Discussion: Rumination and self-regulation variables were significant in direct effect. Rumination and loneliness variables were also significantly correlated with self-regulation mediation in indirect effect.


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