Purpose: The present study aimed to discuss the effectiveness of mindfulness training method on male students’ self-efficacy and intelligence beliefs. Methodology: The present study method of data collection was descriptive and correlational method. The statestical population consists of all male students in secondary schools of Qouchan city in academic year of 96-97. The studied sample includes 30 members , who were selected from the intended population employing multicluster sampling method and were randomly substituted in a experimental group (15 members) and control group (15 members). Findings: The results indicated that mindfulness training influenced male students’ self-efficacy and intelligence beliefs. Descriptive results indicated that the average scores of pretest and posttest for variables of self-efficacy and intelligence beliefs was not different. Also the results of effect tests among subjects which were conducted by covariance method, indicated that scores of intelligence beliefs and self-efficacy in test group was higher than control group. Discussion: It deserves that teachers and educators provide more and better opportunities for learning, by preparing appropriate conditions for self-efficacy growth and extrinsic intelligence beliefs increase, by mindfulness training method.
Purpose: Entrepreneurship is the basis and foundation of successful economy and a hope for developing economic systems. Nowadays, engineering students must become engineers with entrepreneurial attitude. Unemployment of graduates of higher education is one of the recent problems of many countries of the world and one basic issue of higher education is development of factors affecting entrepreneurship in graduates. Method: In terms of method, this study is a descriptive study and in terms of purpose, it is an applied research and is also a qualitative study in terms of data. Data collection instrument is semi-structured interview and to determine sample size, purposeful sampling is used because of considering quality of data from sampling to theoretical saturation. Result: Academic experts and entrepreneurship lecturers and faculty members in relation with entrepreneurship and industry are selected and after the interviews, the data analysis is done through open and axial coding. Discussion: Hence, 15 factors affecting entrepreneurship of students are classified including education, research, motivation and entrepreneurial capacity, attitude, personality, information technology, management support, environment, entrepreneurship skills, culture, family, entrepreneurship lesson, commercialization and infrastructure.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of cognitive behavior couple therapy (CBCT) and the approach of Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on psychological well-being, marriage intimacy and quality of life of chaotic couples. Method: In order to achieve this goal, the quasi-experimental design including pre-test and post-test with control group as the main method was used. Findings: The population of this study included 14 couples who referred to counselling centers in Tehran in 1394 due to chaotic problems in their marriage relationships. The purposive sampling was also used in this study. The instruments of this study included marital adjustment test, psychological well-being questionnaire by Reef, intimacy scale by Walker and Thompson (1983) and quality of life. Conclusion: The results showed that cognitive-behavioral couple therapy has been effective (p<0.000psychological well-being, marital intimacy, and couples quality of life.
Purpose: Introduction: One of the most recent problems of the technology era is the use of extreme or addiction to the Internet, which has caused mental and social disorders, especially in young people. The present study aimed to investigate the degree of dependence, recognition of the relationship and the prediction of the mental health of Internet user students based on Dependence on the Internet Method: This research was a descriptive and correlational study. The population included students aged 14 to 18 years old in Baku and Tehran in 2015. The samples were selected by cluster sampling method. 250 students using the internet were selected from Baku and 250 students using the internet were selected from Tehran. To collect data, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used and data analysis was performed at two descriptive (mean, percentage, standard deviation) and inferential levels ((Regression and Pearson). Findings: According to the level of Internet dependency, 43.4% were mild and 24.8% moderate and 23.4% were severe addicts and internet addicts. The level of internet dependency is a positive and significant predictor of general health (R2 = 0.38). Physical health (R2 = 0.32) is anxiety (R2= 0.43) and depression (R2 = 0.39), but between internet dependency and social function is not significant. Conclusion: The level of internet dependency predict mental health components (physical health, anxiety and depression) but is poor in explaining social functioning. There is a positive and significant relationship between the level of Internet dependency and physical health, anxiety and depression of Internet user students.
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was Presentation of Competency Model Needed by Elementary Education Graduates of Farhangian University based on the theory Deliberative Inquiry. The method of qualitative research, type of phenomenology and content analysis, was a statistical society of faculty members in the field of curriculum and all scientific sources and documents. Method: The semi-structured interview data collection method and the use of checklist and encoding were used. Also, for interpreting the data, an interpretative analysis method was used. Findings: The results of the research show that the experts of the curriculum have considered contemplative, developing thinking, arts and aesthetics, perception, problem solving, decision making, skill orientation, and professional development. Conclusion: Accordingly, four main curriculum elements Flexibly, including educational goals, educational content, teaching methods and evaluation, were analyzed and the optimal model of elementary curriculum for teacher students of Farhangian University was designed in 3 main areas of knowledge, attitude and ability (skill), and was evaluated and validated The validation results show that the proposed pattern is relatively favorable.
Purpose: The aim of this research was to Empowerment predisposing variables in Islamic Azad University. This study defines and discusses the concept of empowerment in Islamic Azad university. Method: In this study, books and documents and treatises and theses and dissertations and scientific journals related to the topic, 20Faculty of Islamic Azad University, which was associated with empowerment study were selected based on snowball sampling method. Grounded theory was based on research looking. In order to approve the efficiency, we have used this method in a case study and explained its implementation step by step. Finding: The methodology of Grounded theory has been chosen for this purpose. Grounded Theory is a powerful research method for collecting and analyzing research data. It was ‘discovered’ by Glaser & Strauss (1967) in the 1960s but is still not widely used or understood by researchers in some industries or PhD students in some science disciplines. Conclusion: The results showed, Charm goals, planning, Compliance, Accountability, Environmental conditions, The nature of the job The predisposing factors of empowerment were identified by experts in Islamic Azad University.
Purpose: A teaching organization is one whose members are all teaching and learning. This study investigated the model of teaching organization for Farhangian University. Materials and Method: To this end, 35 experts and clear sighted individuals working in this university and are aware of this university function were interviewed and data were elicited. The method was the systematic plan of data-based theory. Measuring validity of data using interviewees and experts' comments and estimating reliability through experimental interviews were done. Findings: The results during 3 steps of open, axial and selective coding indicated 54 components, which were in a paradigm model including: hardware infrastructures (educational equipment, physical space and new technologies); software infrastructures (proper curriculum programming, organizational and media relations, organizational atmosphere, organizational value internalization, ideas and organizational subjective patterns, financial resources management, paving the way for mutual learning, members cooperation in mutual learning, organizational culture of teaching and scientific-social networks); thought ware infrastructures (human capitals, inter-members mutual trust, management subjective pattern, edge, members empowering, members attitude and mentality, members energy and motivation and teachable points of view); social factors, informational and technical factors, political factors, value factors, economic factors, environmental-biological factors, and team learning, common perspective, systemic thought, personal dominance, subjective models, producing knowledge and conveying knowledge. Discussion: They are reflected the model of a teaching organization for Farhangian University.
Purpose: The present study aims at offering an appropriate pattern for strategic human resources management (SHRM) based on intellectual, cultural and psychological capitals in Islamic Azad Universities from Mazandaran Province. The current study is a descriptive-analytical research in terms of the objectives it is in pursue of and it is generally enumerated among the applied research. Method: The study population included all the faculty members from Islamic Azad Universities in Mazandaran Province who were studied in the curriculum year of 2015-2016. 320 individuals from faculty members’ population in various Islamic Azad University branches in Mazandaran Province were selected as the study sample volume based on Morgan’s table and through taking advantage of a simple randomized sampling method. The data were collected by the use of intellectual capital questionnaire designed by Bontis in 1998, the cultural capital questionnaire made by Gerami in 2012) and the psychological capital questionnaire constructed by Luthans et al (2005) and finally through administering the strategic human resources management questionnaire made by Boyle et al (2015). Finding: To analyze the data, structural equations model was used. The study findings are suggestive of the idea that human capital, structural capital, cultural capital, relational capital and psychological capital exert positive and significant effects on the strategic human resources management. Conclusion: Furthermore, structural capital, cultural capital, relational capital and psychological capital were not found having a significant effect on the structural capital and it is through investing on intellectual, cultural and psychological grounds that a competitive advantage can be obtained through improving the strategic human resources management.
Purpose: The purpose of the present research is to review the effectiveness of philosophy education program for children on critical thinking and its components in elementary fourth-grader girl students. Material and method: This was a semi-experimental study with designing pretest and posttest and the control group with following-up phase. Findings: This statistical population consists of elementary fourth-grader girl students in Arak, district 2. The sample of this research consists of 50 students that were selected by convenience sampling method and divided to two control and test groups. Shabani (1999) critical thinking questionnaire was used for data collection. Discussion: The results of covariance analysis showed that execution of the philosophy education program for children improves critical thinking, recognition ability, analogizing, and judgments in children (P<0.05). Furthermore, the effectiveness of philosophy education program for children was durable in fallowing-up test.
Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the role of Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) and Social Entrepreneurship (SE) on predicting beliefs of educational supervision of the managers at the public schools of one region Zahedan city. Materials and method: The method of study was descriptive and correlation, statistic society of this study consists of 149 managers and sample is 108 managers that were selected based on Morgan table and stratified random sampling in according to educated grade. Data collection was done through three standard questionnaires of PKM, SE and beliefs of educational supervision. The validity and reliability of questionnaires were calculated by Content Validity Ratio and Cronbach's Alpha that are 0.832 and 0.835 for PKM, 0.809 and 0.894 for SE and 0.862 and 0.790 for beliefs of educational supervision. It means they have appropriate reliability and validity. Findings: The result of the study indicated that PKM and SE are predictive educational supervision beliefs. In actual, PKM and SE are predictive of democratic and collaborative supervision beliefs positively; But they cannot predicted beliefs of bureaucratic supervision of managers. Discussion: Therefore, it is suggested the managers of schools attempted in order to increasing the quality of instructional supervision about improving personal knowledge level and Social Entrepreneurship with active engaging in a Process of Continuous Innovation, Adaptation, and Learning.
Purpose: One of the concerns of the majority of Iranian families is the acceptance of their children at the university entrance exam, and in this way each one will provide facilities to their children. Method: The amount of facilities available to children is influenced by the size of households' economic capital and therefore there is a significant difference between them in achieving success. But there are kinds of capital that can largely provide a relatively fair background for breakthroughs. Therefore, this article seeks to answer the question of how much students' success in getting to university is influenced by the social and cultural capital of their families? The research method is survey-based and 374 students who participated in the national entrance examination of 2017-18 compromised the sample size. First, using the U-Mann-Whitney test, it was shown that male and female students had a relatively similar background in cultural and social capital. Findings: The findings of this research show that family cultural capital, as Bourdieu stated, is effective on students' academic achievement, which at the level of sig= 0.01, the correlation was 0.24, although in relation to the effect of social capital on the dependent variable unlike Coleman's theory, especially in the two domains of intra-family relationships (sig = 0.45), and out-of-family relationships (sig =0.6), given the significant level of sig> 0.05, the hypotheses are not confirmed. Conclusion: social and cultural capital of parents influences the academic achievement of admission to university, but contrary to basic research.
Purpose: The purpose of organizational culture is a system of common inference that members have toward one organization, and this same feature divides the two organizations into one another. Members of the organization train new members in order to solve external compatibility issues and internal consistency as the best way to solve problems, written and even written culture of their organization. Therefore, having the capacity to change and transform organizational culture, it is possible to change the actions of thoughts and feelings of a large part of the organization's members. Methodology: The research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of collecting field and descriptive information that is carried out using a combination of exploratory (qualitative-quantitative) method and the reason for its exploration is to develop an appropriate model of organizational culture. The statistical population of the study consisted of 30 senior managers of the welfare organization. According to them, the dimensions of the research were identified and finally, the hypotheses and the final questionnaire were designed. A sample of 381 individuals was selected according to Morgan's table. Then, a relative cluster sampling Each area was randomly selected. Amos software was used to measure the assumptions. Results: The results showed that there is a reverse and significant relationship between organizational culture and organizational silence. There is also a direct and significant relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Conclusion: In the end, it should be noted that the organizational culture variable has been able to positively influence the organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior through the organizational silence variable.
Purpose: The present study aims to identify factors affecting the design of green technical and vocational curriculum and provide a curriculum design pattern for green technical and vocational education of secondary school in Iran and its validation. Green technical and vocational training relies on issues such as environmental pollution reduction and creation of workforce for clean industries, such as the recycling industry. This type of training is based on the new labor market (green economy) that has been created to address the environmental problems of human industrial life in the present age. Method: In order to achieve the research objective, qualitative research method with an approach to grounded theory has been used. Twenty-five individuals have been selected from among all faculty members and experts in the fields of curriculum and environment through targeted sampling. Analysis of data gathered through open interviews has been done using coding. Findings: In the final analysis, the extracted concepts have been classified into 86 sub-categories and 17 themes or categories. Conclusion: According to the research results, the components that directly affect the implementation of green technical and vocational education curriculum of secondary school are identified and a favorable pattern is presented. Based on this, “design of green technical and vocational curriculum,” as the axial category, is realized based on the context of causal factors of “macro environmental policies,” “relationship with the green labor market linked to the green economy through modular principles” and internship standards through the principles of “teacher participation in the design of green curriculum” and “continuous engagement with scientific and research centers” taking into account “learners’ characteristics” and “professional qualifications required for green employment (as the background of the model).” Therefore, it will lead to the realization of “educational and economic consequences”.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the job intelligence, job burnout and happiness among the high school principals in Zahedan City, district 1. Methodology: The research method is descriptive-correlational and the statistical population of this study is all the principals of district 1 high schools who worked in the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was also equal to the population size (100 ones). To collect the data, Schering's Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Maslow Job Burnout Questionnaire and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. One-sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multivariate regression were used for data analysis. Findings: It was concluded that there was a significant negative relationship between the emotional intelligence and job burnout, and there is a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and happiness. There is a significant negative relationship between all components of emotional intelligence of principals with their burnout. Among all components of emotional intelligence, two components of self-control and social skills had a significant positive relationship with the happiness of school principals. Among the components of emotional intelligence, the components of social consciousness and social skills can predict the job burnout of school principals. Also, among the components of emotional intelligence, social skills, self-awareness, self-control and self-motivating, can predict the happiness of school principals. Conclusion: The mean scores of all three emotional, happiness and burnout variables were less than the hypothetical mean among the principals.
Purpose: Penal procedure is a long process starts from crime discovery and ends to penal verdict execution. The result of such process can be observed in final step of penal procedure, that is, penal verdict execution. Convictions mentioned in penal verdict in Iranian legal system are too diverse so they can be initially divided into financial and nonfinancial convictions. Methodology: The present research is applied in terms of purpose and content analysis method. In the organization of research, the documentary and library methods have been used and the information analysis has been obtained qualitatively and based on the inference of the researcher on the sources and texts. Findings: The execution of penal financial convictions including cash fine, property restitution, crime – related loss, blood money, expropriation and destroying the assets are encountering with a series of radical challenges. Iranian Penal Procedure Law (2013, amended in 2015) and law on How to Execute Financial Convictions (2015) have resolved some relevant problems while some issues such as abusing the payment of financial convictions in instalments, the possibility of abusing in proving insolvency by the attestation of two witness, transferring the burden of proving losing party’s affordability to winning party are still remained. Conclusion: In this vein, some conflicts between legal provisions, transferring procedure previous problems to penal verdicts execution, lack of an independent and strong structure and machinery to execute penal verdicts are, inter alia, the most important challenges for executing penal financial convictions in Iran.
One of the most important basic human issues is the education, which has always been considered by many thinkers. The issue of education has gone a long way from the past to the present; so that in the contemporary world, it has entered new realms with the emergence of new schools such as pragmatism and postmodernism. One of the most important of these arenas is the emergence of critical thinking in the field of education. Critical education is a theory in the field of education that emphasizes the development of critical thinking and knowledge of students, and the curriculum elements are designed in such a way that critical knowledge of political, cultural, economic and social developed in it. Thinkers such as Paulo Freire , Henry Giroux, Michael Apple, Jurgen-Habermas and Peter McLaren, who plotted and made their point of view. The present research sought to determine the main elements of the curriculum of critical education based on the views of theorists on this field. Identifying the philosophical and social foundations and determining the main elements of the curriculum, such as the role of school, teacher, student, and evaluation, finding teaching methods and curriculum content in critical education, emphasizing the notion of prominent scholars of this field were among the goals of this research. First, the critical theory of the Frankfurt School and then the foundations and elements of the curriculum in postmodernism and critical education were examined and then the views and ideas of the major theorists of this field were analyzed. The findings of this research made it clear that prominent scholars of this field followed humanists in their philosophical and psychological foundations and to achieve their educational goals, which were critical awareness, propose a problem and in this case, dialogue played an essential role.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the harm of successful deployment of knowledge management system in urban management. Methodology: This was an applied study in terms of the purpose, and a descriptive-survey one in terms of method. The statistical population (403 ones) included all managers, deputies and experienced staff of selected municipalities in west of Mazandaran Province (Ramsar, Tonekabon, Noshahr, Noor, Amol and محمودabad) in 2018; the research was done based on data collected from 201 participants were according to the Cochran formula with relative stratified sampling method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, single sample t-test, confirmatory factor analysis and Friedman test were used to test the research hypotheses. Findings: Chi-square statistic in the model was 37.241, the freedom degree of the model was 100, which was approximately in the range of acceptable value. On the other hand, the fit indices of model such as NNFI, NFI, GFI, CFI and IFI were all appropriate and the RMR index was 0.083. Conclusion: According to the results of standard coefficients, t values and R2 values in confirmatory factor analysis, in all dimensions introduced in the conceptual model of the research including 1. Organizational structure, 2. Environmental factors, 3. Technology factors, and 4. Human resources, were effective as a social harm in the failure to the successful deployment of knowledge management in urban management.
Introduction: The main purpose of this research is investigating the attitude of educational managers toward Pluralistic Curriculum. Methodology: To achieve this goal, the research method combined with the exploratory approach is used. The research method was the grand theory in the qualitative section, and survey in the quantitative part. Based on purposeful sampling, 30 school principals who were expert in this area, selected and were interviewed using the in-depth interview method. The interview continued until the theoretical saturation point. In the quantitative part, according to the results obtained from the previous studies the target group interviews, a questionnaire prepared by the researcher and used. In the qualitative section, the acquisition of credibility, through believability, transferability and verifiability were achieved. In the coding processes to increase the trust two encoders were used. Three types of open, axial and selective coding were used in the method of data analysis in the qualitative section. The factor analysis and Friedman test were also used in the quantitative part. Findings: The result of the research revealed that from the viewpoint of educational managers, the pluralistic curriculum has five components, including racial and ethnic inequality, linguistic diversity, gender inequality, social inequality, and religious diversity. Conclusion: The dimensions of the pluralistic curriculum in comparison with the existing situation that, consisting of two components including racial and ethnic inequality and gender inequality, has five components, including racial and ethnic inequality, linguistic plurality, gender inequality, social inequality, and the Religious diversity.