Purpose: A descriptive study was conducted at Aluminum Corporation in Iran in order to construct a causal model of organizational citizenship behavior based on personality factors with mediation of job involvement, job self-efficacy, factual well-being and organizational commitment. Material and method: The research sample consisted of 360 employees of the mentioned company selected by stratified random sampling method. Organizational citizenship behavior, personality, job involvement, job self-efficacy, occupational well-being, and organizational commitment questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings: The research analysis was performed using correlation, structural equations. Finally, the findings of the research showed that between personality factors and organizational citizenship behavior is significant relation. Job self-efficacy factors and organizational commitment have a direct and indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior. Discussion: However, the factor of well-being of the subject only had a direct effect on organizational citizenship behavior. Also, the factor of job involvement only indirectly influences organizational citizenship behavior.
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of schema therapy and mindfulness based cognitive therapy on the rate of using negative automatic thoughts in women with major depression in Mashhad. Participants were 36 depressed women clients, randomly selected and randomly designated to 3 groups (two experimental group and control group). Materials and method: This study was a quasi-experimental with a pre-test, post-test and 2 months follow-up design. Negative automatic thoughts questionnaire used to gather data about subjects negative automatic thoughts. Descriptive statistics and differential statistics (repeated analysis of variance) were employed to test the research hypothesis. Findings: Results showed that schema therapy and mindfulness based cognitive therapy were effective in decreasing negative automatic thoughts in women with depressive disorder. Discussion: schema therapy and mindfulness based cognitive therapy can significantly help depressed people to control their negative automatic thought.
Purpose: The present study investigated the psychometric properties of a Persian version self- reassurance/ self-criticism Inventory in the male and female teachers. Materials & Methods: This study was of a validation type. The participants were 444 teachers selected through a multistage-cluster random sampling among the teachers in high school second period in the city of Bojnord of the 2015-16 years. The three scales administrated in this study were: self- reassurance/ self-criticism Inventory, self-efficacy Scale and happiness Inventory. A Cronbach’s and test-retest reliability was calculated to examine the reliability of the self- reassurance/ self-criticism Inventory and to check the validity of the method convergent validity, divergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis was used. Findings: The calculated α for the inventory was for self-criticism 0.69 and for and self- reassurance 0.77. Neutralizing dimensions respectively self-criticism and for and self- reassurance examined through correlating it to the self-efficacy scale and happiness Inventory given signification. Using factor exploratory analysis confirmed the two-factor structure. Discussion: The Persian version of the self- reassurance/ self-criticism Inventory seems satisfactory for measuring self- reassurance/ self-criticism symptoms in teacher's samples. Future research is, however, needed to confirm these data in a sample of OCD teacher's.
Purpose: the transformation of marriage patterns and family formation by following transition from traditional society to a modern society causes changes in goals, function of family formation. The aim of this study was comparative investigation of the attitudes of single and married individuals about marriage function. Materials and method: the study performed by qualitative method. The statistical society included all married and single men and women in Tehran city. Sample size was 55 single and 57 married men. 66 single and 60 married women. They were selected using purposeful and available sampling method. First, the statistical analysis performed through content analysis of the subject’s response to an open question as "What is the function of marriage” and after categorizing the responses by several psychologists, using the chi-square test was evaluated agreement between comments of married and single people. Findings: the response of subjects classified in six categories of physiological (physical), psychological, social, economic, religious and spiritual functions and comparison of groups showed significant differences in these categories. There was consistent between single and married people's comments about physiological function of marriage. Disagreement seen with regard to psychological, social and economic function. The married groups more than the single groups had investigated spiritual and religious category. Discussion: despite consistent and discrepancies resulting from the change in people's views about marriage function; as individuals consider functions and benefits for marriage, indicating the place and value of marriage in today's society and in consultations.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare theory of Mind, IQ and attention of normal and hypothyroidism students. Materials & Methods: The research method was causal – comparative. The statistical society of it includes students studying in first-grade section of Saveh city that among them, 346 people were selected using random cluster sampling. In the first stage, 30 students were diagnosed with hypothyroidism by clinical examination and measurement of urinary iodine and 30 people were selected as healthful group (witness). In the second stage, the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the color-word Stroop test was performed to measure IQ, theory of mind and attention in both hypothyroidism and normal groups. Multivariate variance analysis, the mean and standard deviation were used to test the hypothesis. Findings: The results showed that there was a significant difference between theory of mind, the amount of IQ and attention of normal students with hypothyroidism students. The mean verbal and nonverbal and overall IQ of healthy group compared to hypothyroidism group was respectively 21.5 and 25 and 25.5 more .also, the theory of mind and attention in hypothyroidism group was reduced compared to normal group. Theory of mind, attention and IQ of hypothyroidism students was lower than normal students. Conclusion: in addition to intelligence, theory of mind and attention of hypothyroidism students was different from normal students.
Purpose: Present study was conducted with the aim of the effects of teaching method of writing with brain-based learning on educational self-efficacy and written ability of female students in fifth grade of primary school. Materials & Methods: A quasi-experimental method with designing pre-test and post-test with unequal control group was used and to select the sample, the one-stage cluster sampling method was applied. The population of this study included all Esfarayen elementary school fifth grade female students in the academic year of 94-95 that their number was 483 people. The current sample consisted of 30 people who were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. Findings: Examining and analyzing of obtained scores, using covariance analysis showed between written language of the control group and the experimental group as well as between academic self-efficacy of experimental and control group there is statistically significant difference. Discussion: Accordingly, training writing with the method of brain-based learning was effective on written language of students. Therefore, it can then be concluded brain-based approach training had desirable effect and can be used practical.
Purpose: Nowadays, participation and involvement have attracted serious consideration in all aspects of life, schools of thought, and religions. This issue is more intensely emphasized in education and parental involvement in school curriculum due to their knowledge of the interests and needs of their kids. Methods: the comments and ideas of curriculum experts were collected and analyzed through Delphi technique in order to conduct the present study and determine the significance of parental involvement and its components in the design and implementation of curriculum. Sampling was done using snowball technique and its volume was determined through saturation law. Findings: The main findings and components of this research include the necessity of parental involvement as an essential source of information. Conclusion: parental involvement as an essential requirement of today’s education, recognizing strong and weak points of the plan, providing necessary context for the participation of involved individuals and components, empowering curricula, realizing Islamic teachings and social customs, involvement as a social necessity, more precise and effective recognition of social norms, recognizing natural situations and necessary equipment, creating optima conditions for training an enlightened generation, removing the defects of involvement-free education, and establishing more cooperation among administrators and recovers of educational services.
Purpose: The aim of the present study is Identify and develops effective components on competency model of elementary school principals in Tehran. Method: This study is combinations type that discovery in the form of mixed research. The study population included all managers and assistants Tehran elementary schools in the qualitative section using theoretical sampling 35 subjects and in quantity section, using simple random sampling method, 250 managers and deputies managed primary schools were selected as samples. The data collected from semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. The data were analyzed using content analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings: The obtained results indicate four components eligibility of the individuals, competence, interpersonal, managerial competencies and academic merit and expertise with the index 137. That in order of priority managerial competencies 32 index, Eligibility of the individuals with 54 indexes, Interpersonal competencies 24 Index and academic and professional qualifications of with 17 indicators, Scientific competence and expertise with 10 indexes, career and professional qualifications of the 27 indicators competency model are as the most important components of the country's education system elementary school principals. Conclusion: And these components have a significant positive effect on the competence of elementary school principals and managerial competencies.
Purpose: This paper aims at studying the effectiveness of training metacognitive skills on academic achievement among the first grade female high school students. Materials & Methods: The population consists of the first grade female high school students in Shirvan in the academic years of 2014-2015.The sample includes 40 students and divided into two groups of 20 who were randomly grouped in experimental and control groups. The students’ means in two semesters was used as the tools of this paper. The methodology used in this paper is quasi-experimental, in which both groups took a pre-test, and then, the samples in test group were taught the metacognitive skills in 16 sessions, and finally, there was a post-test for both. Findings: The results show that training metacognitive skills can result in increasing the students’ academic achievement. Discussion: In this context, it can lead to more interest in education and learning as well as acquiring appropriate skills and experiences and finally, academic achievement.
Purpose: The aim of the current research was to Predict Collective leadership of governor’s employers through organizational trust & professional ethic. Method: The method of this study was a descriptive and correlational study. Statistical society included all employees of Sistan and Baluchistan Governor who were 140 people. All the society members were considered as the sample of the study. But 11 employees were not volunteer for the study and nearly 9 questionnaires were not completed perfectly so they were omitted and was considered as the missing data. Other remaining persons who were 120 people were considered as the study samples. The same process was employed for all participants. Collective leadership, organizational trust & professional ethic questionnaire was employed for the assessment of the variables. Organizational Trust was assessed using the scales created by Vanhala et al. Findings: Collective leadership was significantly and positively correlated with, organizational trust and professional. Also there was a significant positive correlation coefficient between organizational trust and professional ethic The results showed that employee’s Collective leadership was predicted by organizational trust (β=.112, p < .05) and & professional ethic. Discussion: Increasing employees trust and ethic capacity through creating collective leadership atmosphere in the organizations and applying new management techniques to improving employee’s skills in their special field can strengthening organizations position and let employee help each other in a collective way to acquire organizational goal.
Purpose: Teachers, like other human beings are affected by the fallacy of ‘Halo Effect’. Regarding their role in teaching and training students, this study tried to investigate the halo effect in relation to appearance, gender, and proficiency of teachers. Methodology: In order to perform such an evaluation, this study used 350 males and female EFL students and 53 males and female EFL teachers of universities and institutes of Karaj. Three questionnaires (appearance, gender, and proficiency questionnaires) were designed and evaluated. The questionnaires were distributed among students and after the students answered them the questionnaires were gathered. Findings: The results of this study showed that proficiency was the most important feature for both male and female students. The second important feature for students was teacher's appearance. Gender was the least important feature of a teacher for students. The students think of the proficiency as the most important factor. According to the results of data analysis of students' final marks in real situation (classroom environment), the most important factor affecting the achievement of students in a positive way was appearance of a teacher. Thus, appearance of a teacher can cause halo effect. Teachers and educational system can benefit from the results of this study. Conclusion: Teachers should be sensitive to proficiency and appearance in order to be better teachers, and educational system can understand strengths and weaknesses of the process of hiring teachers regarding appearance and proficiency.
Take comprehensive and holistic social harm, risks and damage. Check the rights of consumers, from this perspective, a new look and dynamic, because the causes, effects and risk of non-compliance with consumer rights as a kind of social harm, discussed and examined. The first goal of manufacturers of goods and services in the economic cycle profitability. In fact, growers intend to sell their products and earn money in this regard, in some cases, consumer rights, the most important manufacturers of survival is to be applied. Disregard the social consequences of mistrust producers to consumers' rights, prosperity foreign goods, intangible victimization and lack of support from the government and bring the manufacturer. The authors of this paper shows that the foundations of Consumer Rights to the pathology violation of consumer rights and finally conclude that the population of consumers as a single entity, need to deal with the lawsuit group and institution building spontaneous, and finally, the request to amend the consumer protection Act, the community's social ills and dangers, is protected
Sociological analysis of the foreign investment process in Iran during the pre and post Islamic Revolution periods has undergone many fluctuations. Foreign investment in Iran was under the influence of political fluctuations, and attempts have been undertaken in each period to create a safe environment for attracting foreign capital by resorting to various compilations. What sets Islam as a privileged and outstanding religion at any given time is that it considers all aspects of life and, principally, has put all parts of human life in the path of true evolution with its original special laws. The basic role of jurisprudence in relation to the economy and the appropriate solutions for regulating economic relations and the formulation of a standard in the economic regulations has been highlighted in the foreign investment affairs, the use of rules, regulations, and principles of the law in the conflict of individual and social interests. After the Islamic Revolution, foreign investment, with emphasis on jurisprudential and Islamic foundations, brought about tremendous changes in the field of Iranian-Islamic urban spaces.
Purpose: In today’s world learning a second language, especially English, has become vital for success, both academically and professionally. Yet, learners’ characteristics like affective features and linguistic background may impact either the ultimate level of achievement. Methodology: This study was carried out to determine whether there is a difference in test anxiety, attitude, integrative and instrumental motivation of the monolingual and bilingual university students in English. To this end, 227 questionnaires obtained from freshman university students majoring in various fields from 125 bilingual students at the University of Payame Noor and Islamic Azad University of Meshkin Shahr and 125 monolingual students at the Payame Noor University of Qazvin in Iran. Three Independent t-tests were run to compare these two groups’ attitude, instrumental and integrative motivations and test anxiety. Findings: The findings revealed that the bilingual students had a significantly more positive attitude and showed a significantly higher integrative motivation towards learning English. However, no significant difference was observed among the two groups regarding their instrumental motivation and test anxiety. Discussion: Pedagogical implications of the study will be discussed. The bilingual students possess a higher level of motivation towards learning English language than do the monolingual students.
Purpose: The current study was conducted to discover the possible relationship between self-esteem and the productive skills of EFL learners in Iran across genders. Methodology: The design of the study was ex post facto or correlational design. Three instruments were used for data collection in the present study. A language proficiency test (Oxford Placement Test (OPT)) to measure the participants’ proficiency level, Cooper smith Self-Esteem Inventory and finally two tests of speaking and writing adopted from Preliminary English Test (PET). To begin the study, with the purpose of clearing the language proficiency level of the learners, the researchers gave all learners a language proficiency test in Payame Noor University in Tabriz. After the test, 52 candidates whose test scores were between one SD below and above the mean finally were selected as the homogeneous sample for further data collection. Then some parts of the data were collected by Copper smith's self-esteem questionnaire to find out the participants’ self-esteem. Finally the last part of the data which was the participants’ productive skills was gathered by two tests of speaking and writing adopted from PET. To test all the research hypotheses in the current study, the researchers run Pearson correlation analysis as the chief statistical analysis. Findings: The results indicated that, there was significant relationship between the self-esteem and productive skills of the learners in both genders. Conclusion: feelings of competence, confidence and good directedness influence learners’ performance. It means that, self-esteem could have a significant impact on the learners’ learning processes.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of Diamond-Levitt and knowledge management, organizational effectiveness, in PNU Kermanshah province. The study was a descriptive - survey. The population of the study, 470 employees of Payame Noor University in Kermanshah province, are included. Using Cochran formula, 212 people were selected. Materials and method: Data collection tools, questionnaires Diamond Levitt, and knowledge management researcher, and organizational effectiveness Parsons (1969). Questionnaire, approved three professors, and reliability with Cronbach's alpha for diamonds Levitt, knowledge management and organizational effectiveness, respectively (86%, 82% and 77%) are. Findings: By SPSS and LISREL, research data were analyzed. The results of the analysis and stepwise linear regression, 95% indicated that the diamond Levitt knowledge management variables (0.226), and organizational effectiveness (0.227) and knowledge management and organizational effectiveness (0.178), have a significant positive effect. The results of the study showed that, in effect Diamond Levitt knowledge management, organizational effectiveness as a mediator (0.263) is. Discussion: Also in this study to test the conceptual model, structural equation modeling was used, the results of direct effects diamond variable Levitt, knowledge management, (0.87) and organizational effectiveness (0.66), and the direct effect of knowledge management on organizational effectiveness (0.52), and the indirect effect and the effect of variable diamond-Levitt, organizational effectiveness, respectively (0.69) and (0.11) is indicated and the t-statistic is also witness to the significance of the results is. Finally, the mediating role of knowledge management, the relationship between the Diamond-Levitt, and was supported organizational effectiveness, so that the diamond Levitt indirect impact on organizational effectiveness, with the role of knowledge management (indirect effect = 0.69), Levitt diamonds larger than the direct impact on organizational effectiveness (direct effect = 0.66) is. The above results indicate fit (RMSEA = 0.072 and GFI=0.93) was the optimal model.
Purpose: The complexity of drug crimes and the educational problems and the proof of these crimes, due to its harmful effects on society, has led to the adoption of livestock in defense of the community. the perpetrator's personality can be effective in committing a crime, it should be taken into account that trapping will act in the face of an offender who is suffering from mental disorders, since trapping operations may be carried out depending on the person's organization committed with Ease or greed more, in addition, the person committed the crime can facilitate the discussion of the issues and the ways in which it is applied. The main objective of this study is to investigate ethical considerations and the legal status of police trafficking in detecting drug offenses. Methodology: The present research is a descriptive-analytical in terms of the purpose-oriented problem-oriented research, in terms of the method of collecting information in a documentary and library way. Findings: About the role of the police as general judiciary in proving drug crimes show that, among the evidentiary evidence of crime, the police report can be of great importance as a discipline and in line with the judge's knowledge. Conclusion: The results showed that: that in Iranian law the main reason is the lack of livelihoods in the process of discovery of crimes due to contradiction with the constitution and ethical and religious conflicts. Therefore, its admission is limited and limited, and obtaining the necessary permissions Judicial authority is possible
Purpose: The present article studies the issue of nationality in Iran’s law and then analyze the conflict of nationality and seeks for international solutions. Methodology: The present research is applied in terms of purpose and content analysis method. In the organization of research, the documentary and library methods have been used and the information analysis has been obtained qualitatively and based on the inference of the researcher on the sources and texts. Findings: A positive conflict of nationality laws occurs when a person has two nationalities at the same time, and a negative conflict of nationality happens when no state treats a person as its own national. As a solution to the positive conflict of laws, the Iranian government states that a person who acquires a new nationality without the permission of the government is recognized as Iranian national, and he will be recognized as a foreigner if the request for foreign nationality is accepted. However, they have retained the right to withdraw the nationality of their own state if they have acquired a foreign nationality without the permission of the government. Conclusion: In the context of the negative conflict of nationality, the Iranian governments, under the title of repayment, granted the right to their former national to return to their primary nationality. Regarding the positive conflict of nationality, Iran and the majority of international tribunals consider that the person is a national of the state whose nationality is dominant and effective.