Every year, crises cause extensive and occasionally irreversible damage to countries and human societies affecting communities, economies, and environments. Identifying, proper planning, and optimum managing of crises are among the priorities of government programs and procedures. With the expansion and complexity of the societies and variety and innumerability of crisis-making factors, mere use of traditional methods of reinforcement and crisis management would not be efficient. One of the most important ideas brought about in the present decade for crisis management and urban planning is creating resilient cities in the face of various crises by increasing their capacity in all aspects. The significance of this standpoint is the comprehensive look at crisis-making factors, controlling crises, and reduction of vulnerability, particularly in human resources, which speeds the resilience process. Although all infrastructural or environmental, economic, social-cultural, and organizational or institutional aspects have been taken into consideration in resilience, the focus on social and cultural capacitating in each and every citizen would be greatly effectual in a developing country such as Iran. This land endures weak infrastructures and structures, but enjoys a rich cultural and national support from the citizens’ creativity and participation that can help us with achieving the goal of flexibility in crisis management by spending the least amount of time and money. In the present paper, the experiences of other nations and novel concepts such as creative cities, resistant development, principles of futures study and planning, and process-oriented strategic management have been studied along with the current state of Iran. Finally, the method of “Strategic Futures Study and Planning based on GIS” is suggested as a suitable approach in crisis management planning. In the author’s point of view, complete use of this method could help us significantly reduce the losses of disasters and pioneer in the field of crisis management among developing countries.<br /> <strong> </strong>
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Comparing the Effects of Physical, Cognitive and Combined Rehabilitation on the Improvement of Working Memory and Cognitive Flexibility of the Elderlyy
The present study aimed to compare the effects of physical, cognitive and combined rehabilitation on improving working memory and cognitive flexibility of the elderly living in the nursing home. This quasi-experimental study was carried out with a pretest-posttest design in four groups with the control group. The statistical population consisted of all elderly residents of a nursing home in Tehran. 48 people were selected randomly and divided into four groups (three experimental groups and one control group). For the experimental groups, intervention programs, including physical, cognitive, and combined rehabilitation, were conducted in three sessions of one hour each week for two months. The data were collected using a working memory capacity scale and a cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI). Data was analyzed using a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Bonferroni post hoc test using SPSS software version 22. The results showed that all three types of rehabilitation programs have a significant effect on improving the working memory and cognitive flexibility of the elderly (P <0.001). Also, the mean of the groups in the pre-test and post-test stages showed that among the three programs, the combined rehabilitation program had more efficacy in improving the working memory and cognitive flexibility of the elderly and there was no difference between the two types of physical and cognitive rehabilitation programs (P> 0.001) According to the findings, combined rehabilitation programs can be effective in improving the working memory and cognitive flexibility due to the focus on both physical and cognitive aspects.
This study explores the use of influence strategies and social mechanisms by the manufacturer to achieve supplier flexibility. Major components of marketing research of previous studies related to influence strategies and measures flexibility in the supply chain context are used. This empirical study utilized 300 survey samples from senior management at Small Medium Enterprises (SME)s. Results show that using influence strategies has positive effects on supplier mix flexibility. Furthermore, the effects of trust on shared vision is positive on manufacturer flexibility.