Purpose: According to self-determination theory well-being of individuals rests upon meeting the psychological need to autonomy, competence, and relatedness and the environment which provides the ground to meet these needs can facilitate psychological well-being of people. The goal of present research is to investigate the role of paternal and maternal autonomy support and warmth in psychological and social well-being of female students. Methodology: The design was correlational studies; 182 female freshmen students of Mashhad Payam-Noor University were selected using multistage random sampling and completed Perceptions of Parents Styles (POPS; Robbins, 1994), psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) and social well-being (Keyes, 1998) questionnaires. Data analysis was done using correlation coefficients and stepwise regression in SPSS software. Findings: The findings showed that there was significant and positive relationship between paternal autonomy and social integration. Maternal warmth has positive relationships with self-acceptance, personal growth, social integration and social well-being. Paternal warmth has a positive significant relationship with self-acceptance, personal growth, psychological well-being, social integration, social contribution and social well-being. There was no significant relationship among maternal autonomy support with none of the research variables. Conclusion: It seems that warm and friendly behavior along with parents' affection toward children can have sustainable impacts on children's well-being.
The Effect of Student's Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education with Respect to the Moderating Role of Gender and Family Background(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of students' attitudes toward entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial environment on entrepreneurial intention with respect to the moderating role of gender and family background. Methodology: The present research was applied in terms of purpose and quantitative research in terms of data collection. The statistical population included all business management students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch of Science and Research, who have taken entrepreneurship courses as part of their curriculum. To determine the sample size, stratified random sampling was used and 297 people were selected using Morgan table. The data collection tool was the Jena Standard Questionnaire (2020) based on a 5-item scale. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed in terms of form and content by several experts, the validity was confirmed by calculating the trough and the validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by calculating the square root of the AVE. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained through Cronbachs alpha for the whole questionnaire of 0.968.for data analysis, Cronbach's alpha tests, orthodontics (AVE), AVE root matrix, Kolmogrofs-Smirnov, confirmatory factor analysis and t-test bootstrap approach were used. Findings: The results showed that each of the components of attitude (emotional, behavioral and cognitive) and entrepreneurial environment has a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. Discussion: This study also confirmed the effect of control groups (gender and family history of the entrepreneur) on the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and intention.
Purpose: The present study was conducted to design a model of media literacy curriculum in teacher training centers. Methodology: This research was applied in terms of purpose and qualitative in terms of research method and data type. Experts in the field of media literacy and education, including university professors, were considered as the research community. By conducting a snowball method with 20 interviews, the collected information reached saturation point. The data collection tool was a review of relevant national and international research as well as a semi-structured exploratory interview. Finally, after collecting information from the interview sections and reviewing the sources, at this stage, the data foundation and coding methods were used to classify the data. In order to check the internal validity of the findings, in addition to selecting and confirming the data by studying theoretical foundations, research background, sources, and interviews with focal individuals, the opinions and guidelines of a group of experts were also taken into account. The final was done. In order to confirm the accuracy of the data, the study method was used by the research members to validate the study. Findings: The findings of the study indicated that the appropriate model of media literacy curriculum for teacher training centers, consisting of dimensions such as public media literacy, specialized media literacy, media understanding, media management, media construction and Moral literacy was media. Conclusion: Media literacy is a technique that strengthens the discriminating power by creating dynamism against media messages.
The Role of Scaffolding in Nature School to Promote Sustainable Development in Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scaffolding in nature school in order to promote sustainable development in education. This research was practical in terms of purpose and survey in terms of descriptive method. Methodology: the present study was practical in terms of purpose and survey in terms of descriptive method. This statistical population consisted of 75 principals, deputies and teachers of the nature school in Mazandaran province. According to Cochran's formula, 63 people were selected as a sample using simple random sampling method. Scaffolding questionnaire with 60 questions and sustainable development questionnaire with 25 questions were used to collect data. The face and content validity of the tools were confirmed by experts and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for Scaffolding questionnaire 0.92 and sustainable development 0.89. Structural equation test was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results showed that; The role of Scaffolding in nature school on sustainable development in education is positive and significant and the proposed model has a good fit. Conclusion: Scaffolding is an important concept in teaching and learning in which teachers and students create meaningful relationships between teachers 'cultural knowledge and students' daily experience.
The Relationship between Cognitive Appraisals and Social Problem Solving with Coping Styles with Stressful Factors in University Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this research was determining the relationship between cognitive appraisals and social problem solving with coping styles with stressful factors in university students. Methodology: The present study was cross-sectional from type of correlation. The research population was all undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University of Saveh branch in 2019-2020 academic years. There were 418 of them the sample size was calculated according to Cochran's formula 220 people who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The research tools were the questionnaires of cognitive appraisals (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985), social problem solving (D’Zurilla & et al, 2002) and coping styles with stressful factors (Endler & Parker, 1990). Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling method with using path analysis in LISREL-8.8 software. Findings: The findings showed that the primary appraisals had a significant negative effect on problem-oriented style and a significant positive effect on emotion-oriented and avoidance styles, secondary appraisals had a significant positive effect on problem-oriented style and a significant negative effect on emotion-oriented and avoidance styles, adaptive social problem solving had a significant positive effect on problem-oriented style and a significant negative effect on emotion-oriented and avoidance styles and maladaptive social problem solving had a significant negative effect on problem-oriented style and a significant positive effect on emotion-oriented style (P<0.05), but maladaptive social problem solving had no significant effect on avoidance style (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, to improve coping styles with stressful factors (increase problem-oriented style and decrease emotion-oriented and avoidance styles) can be designed and implemented programs to increase secondary cognitive appraisals and adaptive social problem solving and decrease primary cognitive appraisals and maladaptive social problem solving.
Predicting Academic Engagement Based on Academic Optimism, Competency Perception and Academic Excitement in Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: Academic engagement as a basis for reformist efforts in the field of education is very important in achieving learning experience so that indirectly guarantees students' academic achievement. Therefore, purpose of this study was to prediction of academic engagement based on academic optimism, perception competence and achievement emotions in students. The descriptive- correlation method was used. Methodology: The statistical population consists of all male students studying of Hewraman region in year academic 2019-20 to 1476 student. In this study, according to random cluster sampling method, 100 married students by formula Plant of Tabachnick & Fidell (2007) were selected as samples and they were asked to academic engagement scale (AES) of Reeve (2013), perception competence scale of Harter (1982), academic optimism scale (AOS) of Tschannen‐Moran, Bankole, Mitchell and Moore (2013) and achievement emotions questionnaire (AEQ) of Pekrun, Goetz & Perry (2005). Findings: The data were analyzed by tests of Pearson correlation and multivariate regression. Results: Findings showed that there was positive and significant correlation between spdemic optimism, perception competence and positive achievement emotions with academic engagement (P<0/01). There was negative and significant correlation between negative with academic engagement (P<0/01). Regression analyses also revealed that %79/2 of variance of academic engagement was explained by academic optimism, perception competence and achievement emotions. Conclusion: This study confirmed the significant contribution of academic optimism, perception competence and achievement emotions in academic engagement of students. The results of this research can help planners and implementers of education organization to adopt appropriate educational policies in order to engage students in academic studies and the factors affecting it.
Designing Teacher's Participatory Decision-Making Model Using Delphi Combined Method and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) (Case study: Second Year of Secondary Education in Lorestan Province)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design a participatory decision-making model for teachers of the second year of secondary education in Lorestan province. In this regard, first, using library and field studies, the components of teachers' participatory decision-making were initially identified. Then, using interviews with experts and based on the Delphi method, the identified factors are finalized. Statistical society is given by the teachers of the second year of secondary education in Lorestan province. Methodology: The research was finalized using Delphi method including 5 main indicators of individual-personality traits, team-collective characteristics, communication-social characteristics, organizational characteristics and technical-specialized characteristics and related sub-indices. Then, using identified factors and based on interpretive structural modeling (ISM), a native model of teachers' participatory decision making was presented. Findings: Relationships between factors indicate the effectiveness of improving and eliminating challenges and promoting the participatory decision-making model of teachers. Conclusion: The factor of organizational characteristics is the most effective factor if factors such as individual-personality characteristics and communication-social characteristics have both effectiveness and effectiveness, as well as team-collective characteristics and technical-professional characteristics among the mentioned factors, only It is effective in determining the levels of effectiveness of the proposed indigenous model, practical suggestions were provided to address the challenges.
Designing a Model for Implementing Human Resource Strategies in the Field of Health(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: One of the main organizational planning is human resource planning. The purpose of this study was to design a model for the implementation of human resource strategies in the field of health. Methodology: The combined research method and research design were also of the type of mixed exploratory research design. In the qualitative section, using the method of "samples contain rich information" with 20 heads of medical universities and senior managers of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, using the Delphi method and using semi-structured questionnaires; Was interviewed. In the quantitative part of the research, a researcher-made questionnaire with multi-stage relative stratified sampling method was distributed among 334 senior and middle managers of the country's medical universities and the data were used by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Analyzed with SPSS and AMOS software. Findings: The results indicate that "human resource strategies" have six dimensions: 1. Human resource provision, 2. Training, 3. Performance evaluation, 4. Development and improvement, 5. Service reward and 6. Participation And "strategy implementation" has three dimensions and nine components as described: a- Structural dimension (1. structure of the implementing organization, 2. Capacities, 3. Resources), b- Environmental dimension (4. Macro environment, 5. Intermediate environment 6. Execution environment) and c- Behavioral dimension (7. Performers 'behavior, 8. Target community behavior and 9. Developers' behavior). The results of the quantitative section showed that the impact of all dimensions of human resource strategies on the structural, environmental and behavioral dimensions of strategy implementation was confirmed. Conclusion: Special attention to human resources, especially in organizations providing health services and health in the community as the most vital element of organizational success and creating a sustainable competitive advantage is always important in management.
Investigate the Mediating Role of Attitudes to Cheating in the Relationship between Social Support and Educational Justice with Cheating Behavior(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: This research aimed to investigate the mediating role of attitudes to cheating in the relationship between social support and educational justice with cheating behavior. Methodology: Present study was cross-sectional from type of correlation. The research population was all high school female students of Tehran city in 2018-19 academic years with number of 120000 people. The sample size was calculated according to Cochran's formula 400 people who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The research instruments were the questionnaires of attitudes to cheating (Fealy & et al, 2014), social support (Zimet & et al, 1988), educational justice (Golparvar, 2011) and cheating behavior (Newsted & et al, 1996). Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling method with using path analysis in Amos-23 software. Findings: The findings showed that social support and educational justice had a negative and direct effect on attitudes to cheating and cheating behavior and attitudes to cheating had a positive and direct effect on cheating behavior. Also, social support and educational justice with mediating attitudes to cheating had a negative and indirect effect on cheating behavior (P<0.01). In addition, the model of mediating role of attitudes to cheating in the relationship between social support and educational justice with cheating behavior had a good fit. Conclusion: Based on the results, to reduce cheating behavior can be developed and implemented through workshops programs to change in social support, educational justice and attitudes to cheating.
Providing a Curriculum Model with an Entrepreneurial Approach for Top Talented Students in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The present study was conducted with the aim of providing a curriculum model with an entrepreneurial approach for top talented students in Iran. Methodology: Research method in terms of purpose, was basic-applied. In terms of data type, it was mixed (qualitative) of exploratory type; and in terms of data collection time, it was cross-sectional and in terms of data collection method or the nature of the research, it was descriptive survey. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative section included all the heads of the Provincial Elite Foundation and the heads of the talented departments of the General Directorate of Education and the provinces and also 20% of the teachers implementing the Shahab project. Quantitatively, the statistical population includes junior high school students in gifted schools. The number of these students was 7000, using Cochran's formula, 364 people were selected. Sampling method was done through multi-stage cluster sampling. In the qualitative part of this study, the Delphi questionnaire based on CVR and CVI forms was used and in the quantitative part, the questionnaire was used to analyze the data. The validity and reliability of the instruments were evaluated and confirmed. Findings: The results showed that the curriculum with entrepreneurship approach for top talents including environmental components, economics, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship, factors affecting the implementation of this approach in the curriculum, including components of support, teacher, system policies and influential factors of The curriculum was introduced with an entrepreneurial approach, including talent discovery, improving top talents and self-efficacy. Finally, a model was presented from two parts, quantitative and qualitative, which had a good fit. Conclusion: Recognizing talented students is one of the priorities of education and paying attention to the curriculum with an entrepreneurial approach to top talented students is an issue that has good consequences for students and society.
Provide a Model for the Establishment of the School in Accordance with the Indicators and Requirements of the Education Transformation Document(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide a model for school establishment in accordance with the indicators and requirements of the Education Transformation Document. Methodology: The research method was basic-applied in terms of purpose, descriptive-survey in terms of data collection method and combined in terms of data type. The statistical population of the study in the qualitative section included managers and staff of the Ministry of Education, provincial administrations and education districts, and in a small part, all staff staff of the Ministry of Education and staff of provincial departments. The sample size in the qualitative part was determined using the principle of theoretical saturation of 23 people who were selected using purposive sampling method. Also, in the quantitative part, according to the statistical population, 384 subjects were obtained using Morgan table, the subjects were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling method. In the present study, a semi-structured interview tool was used to collect data in the qualitative section and a researcher-made questionnaire was used in the quantitative section, which confirmed the validity and reliability of both tools. Data analysis in the qualitative part was performed by coding method and in the quantitative part, descriptive and inferential statistical methods (factor analysis (confirmatory and exploratory) and one-sample t-test) were used. Findings: The results showed that the factors that make up the top school at the level of the transformation document included moral, social, economic, political, biological / physical, scientific and technological education; Causal conditions in the implementation of the superior school at the level of the transformation document included teacher, curriculum, management, educational space and equipment, information technology, as internal requirements and Islamic society, media, family, educational justice, as external requirements; The consequences of implementing a top school at the level of the fundamental transformation document included agility, maturity, and continuous learning. Finally, the model presented in this study had a good fit. Conclusion: Top schools smoothly put moral education at the top of the agenda and moral education of students in such a school should be a key factor in development and progress, because this factor is a prerequisite for achieving maturity in various areas of life.
Purpose: Teacher competencies in the education system is among the most influential and important issues. This importance is rooted in the critical role of teachers in educating people in a society, because the more teachers are prepared and qualified, the greater their impact on upgrading the education system. Methodology: In this regard, upstream documents, as the most extensive strategic and guidance texts, have given much attention to the teacher competencies, with regard to their mission, including directing and drawing the ideal human and the pursuit of a pure life. This study was conducted aimed at presenting a model for the teacher competencies in elementary education based on upstream documents. For this purpose, three major activities were carried out. Initially, upstream documents were examined to identify the components and instances of the teacher competencies, and the opinions of experts in the field were also used. Then, the model of the teacher competencies was designed according to the extracted instances and components. The qualitative method was used in this study and documentary research method was also used to investigate the first question. Findings: In this method, all the upstream documents, including the document of fundamental transformation of education, the national document as well as the scientific documents and literature in this field, were carefully studied so that all explicit and implicit instances and components of teacher training are extracted. Moreover, semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain the viewpoints of the experts in order to achieve the representing themes of competencies through content analysis. Discussion: Finally, the model of professional competencies was designed on the basis of the teacher competencies developed in the previous stages to examine the second question.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate teachers' experiences of social status. Methodology: The present study was conducted using descriptive phenomenological method. The statistical population of the study included all the official teachers of education in the country in the academic year of 2018-19. The research sampling method was purposive and the data collection method was semi-structured interview. Accordingly, 14 teachers with at least 10 years of experience were interviewed. The selected teachers were from all over Iran and were not limited to a specific province. To analyze the data, the descriptive phenomenological method of Kliz, which has seven stages, was used. Findings: The findings of the study indicated that teachers' lived experiences of social status fall into three general dimensions: definition of social status, deterrence of social status and promotion of social status. The definition of social status from the teachers' point of view includes three central dimensions: social status as psychological need, social status as social status, and social status as class status. Deterrence of social status includes the following categories: teacher's imagery, inappropriate social imagery of the teacher, systematic discrimination, lack of professional identity, job gaps, lack of accountability and institutional support, sense of institutional inefficiency, media inefficiency, Weak trade union organization, professional inefficiency, and unequal power relations. Also promoting social status such as macro policy reform, institutional cohesion and cooperation, job identity development, professional empowerment, strengthening social authority, strengthening social authority, reforming managerial and organizational practices, strengthening teacher-centered participation, improving welfare facilities and Includes strengthening trade union organization. Conclusion: The social status of teachers is a cultural and social matter that finds meaning based on the context of teachers' activities.
Identifying the Components of Distance Education in Rural Areas to Provide a Distance Education Model for Secondary Schools in Villages of Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the components of distance education in rural areas in order to provide a model in secondary schools in the country. Methodology: The combined research method was exploratory. In the qualitative part of the study, content analysis with inductive approach was used. Research environment in this section, 84 documents including 67 articles and books, 17 texts of interviews in the field of distance education that were selected as a sample, the components obtained in this research include 7 main components including management and leadership infrastructure, Economic infrastructure, technical infrastructure, educational infrastructure, socio-cultural and value infrastructure, organizational infrastructure and human infrastructure and 25 sub-components. The relative content validity coefficient was used to assess the validity and the Holsti coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the themes. The extracted reliability coefficient was 0.98 which indicated the high reliability of the themes. In the quantitative part, 290 members of the sample were selected by Cochran method and stratified random sampling method. The research tool was a 70-item researcher-made questionnaire. To evaluate the validity of the questionnaire, face, content and structural validity were used, and to assess its reliability, Cronbach's alpha with a value of 0.90 was used. Descriptive statistical methods were used in the analysis of quantitative data including frequency distribution tables and graphs and in the inferential section of confirmatory factor analysis. According to the relative Chi-square fit indices, adaptive fit, adaptive fitting and barbell, the model had a good fit. Findings: The results showed that among the identified components, educational infrastructure was ranked highest and human infrastructure was ranked lowest, respectively. Discussion: E-learning is useful for rural areas in terms of knowledge, better job opportunities, advancement and learning of developing technologies in marketing, and focusing on rural areas helps people's social development and mental ability.
Evaluation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and High-risk Behaviors Due to the Mediating Deficit of Positive Adolescent Development among Adolescent in West Azerbaijan Province(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between health literacy and high-risk behaviors with respect to the mediating role of positive adolescent development among students in West Azerbaijan province. Methodology: The research method was descriptive-correlational modeling of structural equations. The statistical population of this study was all high school girls and boys in West Azerbaijan province with the age range of 11 to 18 years who were studying in the 2019-20 academic year. 560 people were selected from the statistical sample by cluster random sampling as a research sample. Research scales were Iranian Adolescents Risk Scale (Zade محمدi, احمدabadi, Heidari, 2011), Adolescent Positive Development Scale (Geldhof, et al, 2014), Adolescent Health Literacy Questionnaire (Ghanbari, Ramezankhani, Mehrabi, Montazeri, 2015). Structural equation modeling and AMOS software were used to investigate the causal relationships between the variables of the present study. Findings: The findings of the present study showed that there was a significant direct relationship between health literacy and tendency to high-risk behaviors in adolescents (p <0.05). There was also a significant direct relationship between health literacy and adolescent positive development in adolescents (p <0.05). There was a significant indirect relationship between health literacy and tendency to high-risk behaviors mediated by positive adolescent development (p <0.05). Conclusion: Health literacy and positive development of adolescence reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. Accordingly, health literacy by providing cognitive resources, positive adolescent development by improving the processing of cognitive processes related to health and the growth of health resources and opportunities, causes Adolescents become less prone to risky behaviors.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of artistic intelligence components on students' mental health. Methodology: his study was applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlational in terms of data collection and quantitative in terms of method. The statistical population was all the first high school students in Sari city in the academic year 20-2019 that according to Krejcie and Morgan table, 361 people were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The measurement tool was a researcher-made questionnaire of art intelligence with 55 items and mental health of Omidian and Alavi Langroudi with 46 items whose construct validity, using factor analysis method and reliability value through Cronbach's alpha coefficient, respectively. 0.94 And 0.92 were calculated. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Findings: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between artistic intelligence and its components (artistic talent, artistic attitude, artistic taste, artistic activity, artistic skills and art economics) with students' mental health. The components of artistic intelligence have a significant impact on mental health, as a total of 57% of students' mental health is explained (predicted). Also, the artistic taste component has the largest share in predicting students' mental health. Conclusion: By creating the necessary opportunities, the necessary grounds for the flourishing of talents and the participation of all talented and artistic students can be provided, and by thanking and appreciating them and awarding prizes on various occasions. , Provided the grounds for their encouragement to develop their artistic skills.
The Effect of Empowerment Components on Human Resource Performance in the Department of Sport and Youth of West Azerbaijan Province(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to predict the effective variables of empowerment on human resource efficiency of the Sports and Youth Organization of West Azerbaijan Province using the TOPSIS technique. Methodology: The method of the present study was descriptive-analytical, applied. The statistical population of the study, in the first part included the experts of the sports and youth departments of West Azerbaijan province in the winter and spring of 1397-1397 and in the second part all the employees of the sports and youth departments of West Azerbaijan province. In the first part of the research, the researcher ranked the research options with a survey of 15 experts and in the second part, using Morgan table, 150 people were estimated as a research sample, which was done by random sampling among the staff of the Sports and Youth Department of Azerbaijan province. It was western. In the first part, with the exploratory approach and extraction of components, 8 indicators and 39 items were extracted, which were used for design in the model design stage, and in this part, according to the sample size, which was less than 200. In this study, in order to describe the data from descriptive and inferential statistics and from TOPSIS statistical software for the best and worst desired situation in evaluating the options, SPS24 and the partial least squares technique with the help of Smart Cup software. S2 was used. Findings: The results showed that 8 extracted indicators (organizational culture, 0.79, organizational support 0.76, technical factors 0.74, individual factors 0.653, job-related factors 0.646, educational factors 0.60, Systemic factors (0.495 and environmental factors (0.367, respectively) indicated empowerment and productivity of human resources from the perspective of respondents. Conclusion: Empowering employees on organizational performance of employees significantly increases organizational performance.
Consequences and Shared Psychological Experiences of Female with Free Marital Relations(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The main purpose of the present study was to gain a deeper insight into the common psychological consequences and experiences of girls with free marital relationships. Method: The nature of the present issue was "qualitative" in terms of research time, measured in "quantities" research, and in terms of type, "descriptive phenomenology." Participants in the study included 12 girls with free marital relationships in Tehran who were selected by purposeful snowball sampling method. In this study, data collection was done through semi structured Interview (in-depth phenomenological interview). Data analysis was performed according to the Colaizzi approach (seven steps). Then, the main themes were extracted. The research findings were presented in two parts: descriptive and analytical findings. Findings: The results of the research by employing grounded theory and content analysis showed that the common psychological areas led to the formation of free relationships among the girls, consisting of three main categories include psychological, conscious, and non-conscious factors. Their shared psychological experiences consisted of three main categories of emotional, affective, emotional, emotional and emotional experiences. Conclusion: the common psychological consequences of the associations included the three main categories of short-, medium-, and long-term outcomes.