Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology, Vol 1, Number 2 (2017) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Reducing the Maladaptive Schemas of Posttraumatic stress disorder in Veterans' Wives(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Maladaptive Schemas Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)

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تعداد بازدید : 969 تعداد دانلود : 584
Article history: Received date: 11 September, 2016 Review date: 12 October 2016 Accepted date:13 November 2016 Printed on line: 5 January 2017 Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on Young's areas of manipulative schema in spouses of veterans with Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Materials & Methods: A quasi-experimental method with per-test and post- test with control group design was conducted. Twenty spouses of veterans with PTSD after the screening were assigned to experimental and control groups. Secondary trauma stress scale was used for screening, and veterans' spouse who have low score in this scale were identified and were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. The early manipulative scheme Scale-Short Form (YSQ-SF), was used for gathering of data. Treatment program was used in 31 sessions for experimental group. Data were analyzed with test of ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Findings: The results showed that the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on modifying of early manipulative schema was significant in three areas of Disconnection/ Rejection, over vigilance/Inhibition and Other-Directness. But in the areas of Impaired Autonomy and/or Performance, and Impaired Limits did not change significantly. Discussion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy could significantly change early manipulative schema in spouses of veterans with PTSD

Developing and Validation of Moral Behavior Styles Inventory(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: Moral behavior styles inventory Factor Structure Test Developing

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تعداد بازدید : 987 تعداد دانلود : 746
Purpose: The present study was done to introduce an efficient tool in the field of moral behavior. Material & Method: method of the study was correlational, its approach was test developing and its population was students of Islamic Azad University- Astara and Karaj branches. The study was conducted in three stages according to topic and was sampled in three steps. First, 328 students of Astara university were selected by the multistage sampling, in the second step 42 students of that university were selected by the available method and in the third step 277 students of Karaj university were selected by the multistage sampling. Findings: Data were analyzed by the principal component analysis, Pearson correlational coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis after collecting data by the questionnaire. Three factors structures of the moral behavior styles were extracted using principal component analysis in the first step of the research and named as people-oriented, task-oriented and self-centered. Then, using the Pearson correlational coefficient revealed that scores of the extracted components have acceptable test-retest reliability. In addition to concurrent validity, using confirmatory factor analyzing showed that the three factors structure of the moral behavior styles has acceptable fit whit the collected data, in the third step. Discussion: Totally, in the base of results concluded that three components moral behavior styles inventory has acceptable psychometric properties.

High school students test anxiety: The role of thinking and learning styles(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: thinking styles Learning Styles test anxiety

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تعداد بازدید : 802 تعداد دانلود : 462
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between thinking styles functions and learning styles with the rate of test anxiety of students. Material & Method: Method of research was correlation. Statistical population was the high school students (male& female) in Arak city. According to the multistage cluster random sampling, first, the dual areas of education Arak city was selected by one area of education, then 400 students (200 female & 200 male) completed the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory (1991) and Sternberg-Wagner thinking Styles Inventory (1992). Data were analyzed using descriptive findings Including mean, standard deviation and frequency distribution and also were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and one-way Anova. Findings: findings indicated significant relationship between the executive and judicial thinking styles and also legal thinking style with students' test anxiety. The results showed that assimilate learning style than most other styles have been less test anxiety. Discussion: students who follow thinking and learning styles which best fits to their personality characteristic experience less test anxiety.

Investigating philosophical thought in gifted third grade high school students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: philosophical thought third grade high school gifted student

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تعداد بازدید : 840 تعداد دانلود : 564
Purpose: The aim of the current research was investigating the rate of philosophical thought in gifted third grade high school students of Zahedan on the basis of Smith Theory. Materials and method: Research methodology was deceptive-correlational. 180 students were selected employing random cluster sampling method among a Statistical population including 360 students and Smits (1998) philosophical mind questionnaire with a 97 percent Cronbach alpha was applied for data collection as a research instrument. One sample t test was employed for analyzing the data. Findings: Findings reveal that students were in desirable and acceptable position in 4 components of Smith’s Theory which was released from inflexibility, evaluating theories and thoughts free from their source, having a multidimensional view and patience in temporary augment. Also results reveals that flexibility of gifted third grade high school students of Zahedan was higher than mean score of normal students. Discussion: it was as a result of high intelligence capability of gifted students.

The effectiveness of Meta cognitive skills training on the reduction of academic procrastination and anxiety exam in Female students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Depression Meta cognitive skills training academic procrastination and anxiety exam

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تعداد بازدید : 552 تعداد دانلود : 65
Purpose The aim of the present study was to study the impact of Meta cognitive skills training on the reduction of academic procrastination and anxiety exam in Male students. Material & Method: Statistical population in this study consisted of all high school female student of Bojnourd in 93-94 academic year. 40 students were selected using the multi cluster sampling method and they were placed in two groups as experimental group (20 person) and control group (20 person). The used tools include the anxiety exam (1980) and academic procrastination (1989) Questionnaire. This study was a semi- pilot design and its research design (plan) was the pretest - posttest with control group. Findings: The data analysis was performed by Covariance Analysis. The results showed that cognitive-behavioral skills training have a significant effect on the reduction of academic procrastination and anxiety exam in Male students of experimental group. In other words, Meta cognitive skills training results in reduction of academic procrastination and anxiety exam in Male students of experimental group. Discussion: Through employing Meta cognitive skills and self-information, self-awareness, task awareness and learning strategies awareness students can reduce their academic procrastination and anxiety exam.

The relationship between emotional intelligence, attachment styles and optimism with Martials satisfaction(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Emotional Intelligence attachment styles Optimism mental health Satisfaction

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تعداد بازدید : 899 تعداد دانلود : 961
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence, attachment styles and optimism with mental health and marital satisfaction of couples who refer to Andimeshk counselling centers in the period of 3 months. Material & Method: 15o volunteer couples who were selected by applying multi cluster sampling method. Measurement tools include Emotional intelligence scale (Wang and Lu, 2002) Adult attachment scale (Collins and Reid, 1990) Optimism inventory of couples (Rajabi, 2002) Goldberg’s general health questionnaire (1989) and marital satisfaction scale (sanaee, 2001) were applied to measure variables. Findings: The data analysis was performed by Pearson correlation coefficient and step by step regression. Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence, Adult attachment scale, Optimism, general and marital satisfaction. results of regression analysis show that emotional intelligence, Adult attachment scale, Optimism, general health can predict marital satisfaction significantly Discussion: finding reveals for finding marital satisfaction couples should be able to emotionally

Investigating the effect of organizational citizenship) OCB ( behavior components on organizational agility(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: organizational citizenship behavior organizational agility

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تعداد بازدید : 145 تعداد دانلود : 696
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to explain the impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational agility Customs staff of Zahedan city, the present study in terms of purpose is functional and in terms of collection method of data is descriptive survey based on correlation method. Materials & Methods: The statistical societies of this study are all employees of Zahedan customs surveillance area in 1395 that the number of them is 200 people. 131 people were selected as sample to determine the sample size using Morgan table, sampling method is simple random method. Padsakf Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire (2000) and organizational agility questionnaire of Sharif and Zhang (2008) was used to collect data to test hypotheses. Findings: Results of step by step regression shows that, work ethic, courtesy and chivalry as the component of organizational citizenship can significantly predict organizational agility. Work ethic explains higher prediction for organizational agility. After that Courtesy and chivalry had the higher prediction respectively. Discussion: improving organizational citizenship through work ethic of organization’s personnel can strengthen the organizations goal and agility. At the second level courtesy and chivalry can be considered on the part of managers for achieving more agility in organizations.

Design and Validation of a Desirable Model for Developing Critical Thinking in The First-Grade High School Curriculum Based on The Upper Documents of Education in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Critical thinking Design and Validation Critical Thinking Development Model Iranian Education Curriculum

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تعداد بازدید : 94 تعداد دانلود : 512
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design and validation of a desirable model for developing critical thinking in the first-grade high school curriculum based on the upper documents of education in Iran. Methodology: This research is an evaluation study which the field research has been used in doing that. In this study, three methods were used to collect data. With reviewing the literature review of the research, the components of common critical though by various theorists and researchers were specified then, the national curriculum was analyzed with respect to the components of critical though. In the next step, the proposed model was designed and validated according to the components emphasized in the upper documents. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for validation. The research community consists of all curriculum practitioners who are as permanent members in Iranian Student Planning Association (500 people). In this research, simple random sampling method was used for sample selection and Morgan table was used to determine the sample size (217 ones). Findings: In addition to descriptive statistics, Chi-square method with an acceptable error rate of 0.05 was used for data analysis. The results of the research indicate that all the hypotheses and the appropriateness of the proposed model have been confirmed by specialists. Discussion: According to the results of the research Reviewing the objectives, content, learning activities and evaluation practices in Iranian first-grade high school education system with emphasis on developing the critical thinking in students can be proposed.

Qualitative Analysis of Elemental Components of Social Education in Elementary Curriculum Emphasizing the High Hand Records(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

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تعداد بازدید : 98 تعداد دانلود : 891
Purpose: This research was conducted with the aim of studying the essential components of curriculum social education in the elementary period. Methodology: The statistical population of the study included upstream documents such as the Transformation Document and the National Curriculum, both fully analyzed and analyzed. The statistical population and the statistical sample are equal in this research. The sample was the subject of the research. The results of this research show that social education in upstream documents is not as good as the goals. In the goals, the cognitive dimension is considered more than two other dimensions. Functional dimension has been neglected. To succeed, a program requires full attention to all three dimensions (cognitive, emotional, and functional). Findings: According to the research findings, the essential components of social education are the sense of truth of truth; tendency toward goodness; tendency towards gamal; tendency to creativity; virtue; aestheticism; creativity and innovation; love and worship; an inherent tendency toward worship ; Perfectionism; desire for immortality; truthfulness; desire for goodness; human tendency towards absolute perfection and worship; human tendency toward absolute perfection and worship; nature and freedom; nature and authority; opposition to human humility against one's being with fitting ; The integrity of jihad and defense; nature and justice; the requirements of nature regarding the homework and social rights of individuals; The integrity of the building of the tomb and its pilgrimage; the nature of truth-seeking and realism and adherence to the right. Discussion: The essential components of social education are the reference to the universe for the subjection of science; the adherence to science; the innate nature of science to the outside world; the innate logic of thought through the compilation of the premises And deduction from it; the nature of love; the nature of the attenuation and the nature of the possibility; the subjection of nature; the nature of the hope and the rhya; the nature of the illness and the nature of the defect and the principle of the principle.

Causal Model of Job Motivation with Organizational-Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and the Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment in Teachers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Job motivation Organizational-citizenship behavior Organizational commitment

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تعداد بازدید : 991 تعداد دانلود : 520
Purpose: The aim of this study was to present a causal model of job motivation with organizational-citizenship behavior (OCB) and the mediating role of organizational commitment in teachers in Ramhormoz, Iran. Methodology: The sample was 250 (125 females and 125 male) teachers, selected by stratified random sampling method, in the academic year of 2016-2017. The study was applied and research method was correlation using structural equations. The measurement tools used were Herzberg Job Motivation Questionnaire (1966), Oregon and Kanovsky (1996) OCB Questionnaire (1996), and Allen and Meyer (1990) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). Coefficients and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. Findings: The findings in the direct paths of the model indicated positive direct effect of citizenship behavior on different aspects of organizational commitment and job motivation. Moreover, continuous commitment and emotional commitment had a direct effect on job motivation, but normative commitment did not have this effect. In the intermediary path of the model, citizenship-organizational behavior had positive indirect and negative indirect effects on job motivation, respectively through emotional and continuous commitment, but this effect was not significant through normative commitment. Discussion: According to the results of the research fitness of the proposed model increased after eliminating irrelevant paths and adding up new paths, so a good fit analysis was created for the final model.

Comparing the optimal and existing framework of social responsibility training in social studies curriculum of Iran elementary school(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Social Responsibility Accountability Training Curriculum Social Studies Elementary School

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تعداد بازدید : 816 تعداد دانلود : 359
The purpose of this study was to compare the desirable and existing framework of social responsibility training in the social studies curriculum of elementary school in Iran. Regarding this issue, in this research, the data have been gathered from expert opinions, related subject books, articles, and such cases. Therefore, the present research method is applied in a mixed approach ( Qualitative - quantitative). Also, the research method was descriptive-survey. The statistical population in the qualitative part included books from 4th, 5th and 6th grade (review of documents) and 20th course planning experts selected by purposeful sampling. In the quantitative part, the statistical population included all faculty members of the educational sciences and science units of Azad Shahr Azad University and Farhangian University of Gorgan, 40 people (women and men) who were selected by available sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire, a collection of information and a checklist of researcher-made questionnaires: a checklist for the contents of textbooks on social studies in the elementary school of Iran, a content analysis syllabus, syllabus syllabus curriculum, social studies, elementary studies and a checklist for analyzing the content of books A guide to teaching. The faculty and content validity of the tool was approved and approved by experts and experts. The reliability of the tools was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient test, which was verified statistically. In order to analyze the obtained data in different stages of the research, the descriptive statistics and the percentage and also inferential statistics of t-test were used. The results of the research indicated that desirable social responsibilities were considered for inclusion in the social studies curriculum of the elementary period of Iran (social accountability, religious accountability, economic accountability, cultural responsibility, political accountability, environmental responsibility, occupational accountability). Research findings also showed that attention to all types of social responsibilities and dimensions of primary education was not the same, but mainly focused on the cultural and religious responsibilities of the subject and the cognitive dimension of social responsibility training. Also, the least attention is paid to environmental and economic responsibilities, and the functional dimension of the education of socialism has not been overlooked either.

External Factors and Iranian EFL Teachers’ Performance: Examining the Effectiveness of Self- regulation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: External Factors EFL teachers’ performance self-regulation

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تعداد بازدید : 256 تعداد دانلود : 733
Purpose: This paper follows a two-fold objective: First it examines the relationship between the external factors of compensation, support, empowerment, boundaries and expectations, pre-service and in- service training and Iranian EFL teachers’ performance. Second, it searches for the moderating effect of self-regulation on the relationship between teachers’ external assets and their performance. Methodology: To achieve the above aims, a quantitative approach to research was employed. The samples included two hundred Iranian EFL teachers of universities and English institutes of Kerman, Iran. The data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and analyzed by AMOS software. The direct structural model was employed to determine the path relationships between the external factors and teachers’ performance. Findings: The result showed that external assets had a positive and significant effect on the Iranian EFL teachers' performance as dependent variable (β = .372, C. R= 6.211, P <.05). Moreover, self-regulation moderates the path relation between two of the variables: boundaries and expectation and the EFL teachers' performance. The path relation between the other four variables of the external assets including pre-service and in- service training, support, compensation and empowerment for low and high self-regulation was not found to be significant, i.e. self-regulation moderation effect for these relations was not supported. Discussion: Working conditions for teachers should be best promote effective learning and enable teachers to concentrate on their professional tasks.

Determining the Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment (ACT) Therapy on Interdependence, loneliness Feeling and attribution style of the wives of addicts(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

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تعداد بازدید : 147 تعداد دانلود : 703
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of acceptance-based treatment and commitment to interdependence, loneliness and Attributional styles of addicts' wives. The present study was a quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest with control group and from the perspective of the purpose, the research was applied. The statistical population of the study consisted of all wives of drug addicts in Tehran. The sample of the present study was based on objective sampling based on available sampling including 30 subjects (15 subjects in each group, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group). The research instruments were Spen-Fisher questionnaire (1991), loneliness questionnaire, Attributional style styles, and adherence-based therapy package. Data were analyzed by repeated measures of covariance and Bonferrini test. Findings showed that considering the fact that the level of significance is smaller than α, also considering that the effect of pre-test was covariate by covariance test, it can be concluded that in the context of the variables of dependency, loneliness and Attributional styles, Treatment based on admission and commitment has been significantly effective. Also, considering all the three variables, we can conclude that the experimental intervention has led to changes in the experimental group. So the treatment affected the decrease in dependency and loneliness and the change in the Attributional style.

Participatory Approach from both Teachers and EFL Learners’ perspective(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Participatory approach EFL Learners EFL Teachers perspective

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تعداد بازدید : 581 تعداد دانلود : 727
Purpose: In participatory approach to second language teaching and learning, students actively engage in their own learning process and collaborate with others (Cobb, 1994; Greeno, 1998) to achieve their goals. Also, collaborative learning has been shown to encourage the growth of student interdependence (Bruffee, 1999), responsibility (Totten, Sills, Digby, & Russ, 1991), interpersonal skills (Rymes, 1997), and cognitive and critical thinking skills (Johnson & Johnson, 1986). Methodology: Adopting a sociocultural perspective, the present study has attempted to explore the attitude of teachers and learners toward the effectiveness of the method. In so doing, 60 Iranian EFL learners from two intact classes participated in the study, in which the learners from the two classes were randomly assigned to one control group and one experimental group. For fourteen sessions, the researcher in the control group class followed her regular teaching practice through the conventional book-based method of conducting an English class. In the experimental group class, however, the researcher adopted the participatory approach tasks and activities, in which she applied various participatory approach-based techniques, activities, role play, and problem solving activities, group work and collaborative tasks in the classroom instruction. Findings: Results of the comparison of the effects of the experimental participatory group and the control conventional group revealed that although the students in both groups improved their scores on the IELTS posttest, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental group’s overall performance and that of the control group. Conclusion: Results of the interview with the students and teachers also revealed that both the students and the teachers had positive attitudes towards implementing the participatory approach and they were willing to use at least some of the tasks and activities in their future courses.

Criminal Sociology of Prison Population with Emphasis on Iran's Penal policy Evaluation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Prison Criminal Sociology Penal policy Increase of Prison Population

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تعداد بازدید : 770 تعداد دانلود : 465
Today, the overcrowding of prison populations has caused serious problems in all societies so that in many ways undermined the correctional and educational achievements. In many countries of the world, the overcrowding population of prisoners has brought nothing except huge costs, an impediment to the public order of the prison, conflict, riot, strike, etc. It has made the authorities to take steps to reduce the prison population. The prison sentence for any form of criminal behavior that is determined arbitrarily neither based on scientific logic nor on the basis of the personality characteristics of individuals and entities of society, on the one hand, causes the increase of the prison population and represents an ugly face of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the world and, on the other hand, causes the family of prisoners to be wandered and overwhelmed by the effects and consequences of this punishment. It is impossible to deny the prison functions because it has punitive and corrective functions so that multiple objectives can be achieved by its implementation. Therefore, it cannot be ignored totally. Imprisonment is still considered as a solution, and if it turns to be a problem in some cases, it is due to other factors and conditions that need to be addressed and improved. If imprisonment is used logically, then it will be effective and will certainly not be problematic. In particular, it should be emphasized that non-criminal solutions and imprisonment alternatives will be effective when it is used in place. Accordingly, the penal policy in post-revolutionary penal law has contributed to the increased prison population by imposing ineffective and prison-based laws in the general section, and also by increasing the criminalization and determination imprisonment as the dominant type of punishment in the section of general laws defining punishment with increasing crime However, following the problems and corruptions as well as the need for resolving this challenge, the legislature took steps to change its legislative penal policy through the Islamic Penal Code of 2013 in accordance with the inspirations and solutions of international organizations. It resulted in the reduction of imprisonment and consideration of prison as the last punishment.

Nature and Legal-Social Implications of Documentary Credits(A Comparative Study)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Legal-Social comparative study Nature-Social

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تعداد بازدید : 369 تعداد دانلود : 739
The increasing expansion of international trade, especially after World War II, on the one hand, and the interest of countries with free economic system to liberalize their commercial rules, on the other hand, have made law scholars to find ways to adapt with these changes. The result of this effort is called "International Trade Law." The necessity of economic and commercial cooperation between governments and the necessity of the cooperation of traders at the international arena as well as the uniformity of the laws and regulations governing documentary credits led the International Chamber of Commerce to for the first time introduce and approve this commercial customs and practice as a legal entity in 1933; these regulations were published under the title of Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCPDC) and were made available to traders. These regulations have been adapted to the changing commercial customs in line with the rapid changes in the world economy. The regulations are revised every ten years, and its latest revisions were published in 1993 under the title of the Publication 500. This paper will review the Iranian, US, and international law approaches bank documentary credits in order to explain the nature and legal implications of these international trade mechanisms in the light of the studies conducted, and, ultimately, make a comparison between the three legal sources mentioned.

A Study of the Legal and Social Causes Requirements of International Oil Companies to Enter into Joint Operating Agreements (JOAs)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Joint operating agreement- parties- operating committee- operator

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تعداد بازدید : 836 تعداد دانلود : 911
In recent years, technologies have been developed which have made it possible to commercially develop vast quantities of petroleum and natural gas resources that were previously known to exist but which could not be commercially developed using conventional techniques. When the co-owners of petroleum and natural gas rights decide to use a joint venture structure, they typically enter in to a joint operating agreement (joa) to govern operations relating to the jointly owned petroleum and natural gas rights. A JOA is the constitution which the tenants in common that co-own the joint land right must adhere to for the duration of their co-ownership. Where it is held by several persons, the concession typically that those persons will be jointly and severally liable to the government for the proper performance of the terms of the concession. This means that government could, if it so wished, look to enforce the terms of the concession against any one the parties which are together the concession holders. The JOA reallocates the position of joint and several liabilities between the parties through provision that the party’s liability inter se will be apportioned according to several predetermined share. The JOA typically relates to a single concession and applies in respect of petroleum operations in the area which is identified within that concession.

Judicial Citation of Electronic Evidence in E-commerce Cases and its Social Effects(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Electronic Evidence Electronic Commerce Judicial Citation Evidence (Law)

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تعداد بازدید : 675 تعداد دانلود : 557
Purpose: With the expansion of technology and its impact on the various aspects of human life, particularly in the field of commerce and exchanges, and with the expansion of competition in the field of international trade, the study of various aspects of electronic commerce as one of the most important effects of this type of business, is inevitable. The present research seeks to answer the main question: "what is the judicial citation of electronic evidence in electronic commerce cases, and what legal and social effects will it have?". Methodology: The present study is a descriptive-analytic (qualitative) one and uses inferential methodology using the researcher's ability to understand the legal scans related to the judicial citation of electronic evidence in electronic commerce cases and also to rely on evidence and facts are used. Findings: Using electronic communications as a means of conducting various types of interaction, such as deals, poses an important topic for e-commerce that due to the features of cyberspace, the clarification of the legal system in electronic commerce cases has a particular importance to the other issues of IT rights in the line with judicial justice. Conclusion: If the process of discovery and access to electronic evidence is carried out in accordance with the legal principles, it can be the basis for issuing the sentence and the rules governing the evidence (law) are also the same for the electronic commerce cases.


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