Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology

iranian journal of educational sociology, Vol 5, Number 3 (2022) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Providing a Suitable Model to Promoting Teachers' Motivation for the Education Process

کلید واژه ها: Promoting Motivation teachers Promoting Teachers' Motivation Education

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 938 تعداد دانلود : 90
Purpose: Considering the role of teachers' motivation in improving the teaching, educating and learning processes, the present study was conducted with the aim of providing a suitable model to promoting teachers' motivation for the education process. Methodology: The present study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was mixed (qualitative and quantitative). The research population in the qualitative part was the academic experts of Tehran city in 2020 year, which number of 15 people of them were selected as a sample according to the principle of theoretical saturation and by purposive sampling method. The research population in the quantitative part was the high school teachers of Tehran city in 2020 year, which number of 316 people of them were selected as a sample according to the Cochran's formula and by simple random sampling method. The research tool in the qualitative part was semi-structured interview and in the quantitative part was researcher-made questionnaire, which the validity and reliability of them were confirmed. The data in the qualitative part were analyzed by coding method based on grounded theory in MAXQDA software and data in the quantitative part were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in SPSS and LISREL software. Findings: The results of the qualitative part showed that the central category included promoting teachers' motivation for the education process, causal factors included work environment, cultural and social context, teaching level, individual characteristics and demographic factors, intervention factors included psychological-attitudinal factors, individual-motivational factors, facility-welfare factors, managerial and structural factors and negation of work, contextual factors included financial rewards, school physical facilities and job enrichment and job development, strategies included planning to improve quality and academic level, behavior, attitude and policy educational of managers, teacher empowerment and encouragement active teacher and outcomes included trustworthy, academic competence, good social relations and understanding of circumstances and duties. Also, the results of the quantitative part showed that the factor load of all components was appropriate and work environment, cultural and social context, teaching level, individual characteristics and demographic factors on causal factors, psychological-attitudinal factors, individual-motivational factors, facility-welfare factors, managerial and structural factors and negation of work on intervention factors, financial rewards, school physical facilities and job enrichment and job development on contextual factors, planning to improve quality and academic level, behavior, attitude and policy educational of managers, teacher empowerment and encouragement active teacher and on strategies and trustworthy, academic competence, good social relations and understanding of circumstances and duties on outcomes had a significant effect on outcomes (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, to promoting teachers' motivation for the education process can be action through the identified components in the present study.
۲.

Identification of the Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Entrepreneurship in the Study of Kurdistan Province Handicrafts

کلید واژه ها: Rural entrepreneurship Handicrafts Kurdistan province

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تعداد بازدید : 551 تعداد دانلود : 983
Purpose: Entrepreneurship is considered as the driving force of economic and social growth of societies. Methodology: The present qualitative study is based on grounded theory, while recognizing the dimensions of the rural business space in Kurdistan Province, has identified the factors affecting rural entrepreneurship in this region. Also, in this study, in order to increase the efficiency of policies and plans of rural entrepreneurship development institutions, a conceptual model of extractive factors has been proposed. For this purpose, a group of fifteen rural entrepreneurs, local experts and officials and extra-local experts were selected and studied using non-probability sampling methods, such as theoretical, purposive and snowball sampling. The data were collected using three tools of interview, field observations and review of archival documents and analyzed using open, axial and selective coding. Findings: The study results classified the factors affecting the development of rural entrepreneurship in Kurdistan Province into the following categories: individual, social, cultural, infrastructure, natural and ecological, legal, educational, political and economic institutional factors. Conclusion: In addition, interactive mechanism is reflected according to the structural model of grounded theory with six theoretical components.
۳.

Providing a Home Business Model with a Focus on Entrepreneurial Knowledge (Grounded Theory Approach)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 653 تعداد دانلود : 493
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to achieve a comprehensive model of home businesses and conceptualize it in the form of knowledge theory. Methodology: From the point of view of the objective, the current research is a part of applied research and from the point of view that none of the variables in this study are subject to modification or manipulation; it was a non-experimental (descriptive) research. Finding the required information with 15 key informants), an exploratory interview was conducted, the sampling process was purposeful and strategic and will continue until the process of analysis and discovery reaches theoretical saturation. Data analysis was done based on open, axial and selective coding using Atlas t.i software. Findings: A total of 207 initial conceptual propositions were obtained from the interviews in the open coding stage. Unfavorable economic status of the family, low education and inability to be employed in government bodies, coercion of the father during childhood, the need to supervise and care for children, the need to be with the family more, and low and insufficient initial capital to start working in the market, including The causal factors have been the entry of people into home business; The most important theoretical finding of this research is related to the fact that home business owners are more inclined towards businesses that are related to their previous knowledge. Conclusion: The findings show that in the phenomenon of home business and the success of the owners of these businesses, 4 components are effective as described, causal factors, underlying conditions, action strategies and outputs, which are actually research innovation. It is especially evident in causal factors
۴.

Relationships between Computer Literacy and Analytical Literacy with Creativity in Students: The Role of Gender Moderator

کلید واژه ها: Computer Literacy Analytical Literacy Creativity Gender

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تعداد بازدید : 390 تعداد دانلود : 766
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between analytical literacy and computer literacy with creativity and with the role of moderating gender in high school students in secondary period in Guilan province. Methodology: The method of descriptive research of correlational type and the statistical society included the high school students in secondary period of Guilan province in the first semester of the academic year 2020-2021. The statistical sample consisted of 384 people (191 females and 193 males) who were randomly selected by paper and electronic methods. The tools for measuring variables included Abedi creativity test, researcher-made questionnaire of computer literacy and analytical literacy. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis, multivariate regression and Z test. Findings: The results showed that the effect of computer literacy and analytical literacy on students' creativity is positive and significant. The effect of computer literacy by gender on creativity was also significant. Conclusion: The effect of computer literacy on analytical literacy has been positive and significant, too. The results can be used to predict creativity in male and female students.
۵.

Designing a STEAM-based Educational Learning Package of Social Sciences Textbooks Based on the Thinking Design Model and Evaluating its Effectiveness on Problem-Solving Ability, Creativity, and Attitudes of Primary School Students

کلید واژه ها: attitude Creativity Social Sciences Problem - Solving Ability STEAM

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تعداد بازدید : 177 تعداد دانلود : 803
Purpose: STEAM is the term given to a growing field of research and practice that integrates arts and social sciences into traditional sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop a STEAM-based educational learning package of social sciences textbooks and investigate its effect on the attitude, problem-solving ability, and creativity of sixth-grade primary school students of Bushehr in Iran. The design thinking model was used to design the training package. Methodology: The present study was quantitative applied research. The research design is quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test with the experimental and control group (unequal control group). The statistical population of this study included all students studying in the sixth grades of public primary schools in Busher in the academic year 2020-2021. Due to the nature of the research which is quasi-experimental and also with respect to the subject drop, 44 participants were considered as the statistical sample (22 students in each group) and they were selected by "accessible" purposeful sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The STEAM training package was designed in 13 sessions and each training session took a 35-minute duration in the form of 14 projects, and its implementation lasted for 2 months. In order to design each social science lesson project, a focus group meeting was held with the members. Data were collected based on three questionnaires: Hepner and Kruskal's problem-solving skills test, Shaffer's creative attitude survey, and Aiken's scientific attitude test. The face validity of the educational package was confirmed using experts' opinions. In order to check the hypotheses of this research, covariance analysis was used. Findings: The presuppositions of the statistical test of covariance analysis, including the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test for the normality of the research variables and Levin's test for the homogeneity of the variances of the educational variables were confirmed. After that, the effects of the implementation of the steam-based educational package were investigated, and the results of the covariance analysis showed that the implementation of the educational package had an effect of (0.94) on creativity and problem-solving (0.90), and attitude (0.97) on students. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the creativity, attitude, and problem-solving skills variables of students have a normal distribution (p> 0.05). The results of the Levin test indicate that these assumptions are confirmed (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the STEAM-based training package increases problem-solving ability, creativity, and a positive attitude towards the course of social sciences.
۶.

Developing a Pattern for Employee Valuation in the Banking System Based on Human Resource Accounting Approach

کلید واژه ها: Human Resource Accounting Human Resource Valuation The Banking system Human Resource evaluation

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 949 تعداد دانلود : 665
Purpose: Today, with the transition from the industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy, the economic value of the human resource in the organization is more evident than ever. Human resource accounting is a relatively new approach to calculating the value of human resources as a part of the organization's capital and assets. This study aimed to identify the components of human resources valuation and design the employee valuation pattern in the country's banking network based on the human resources accounting approach. Methodology: The study was conducted using a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) in three consecutive phases. In the first phase, the components affecting the human resources valuation process were extracted through the content analysis of related studies. After extracting the general components, initial interview questions were formulated using them. In the second phase, additional components and indicators were identified through semi-structured interviews with elites and informants in human resource accounting. In the third phase, using quantitative methods, the validation and ranking of the components were done. Finally, the valuation pattern of the country's banking network employees was formed. Findings: The final pattern included a total of 36 components in four categories: individual and personality characteristics (11 components), professional qualifications (9 components), social capabilities (7 components), and organizational costs (9 components). Conclusion: The proposed pattern in this study can provide the possibility of a multi-faceted valuation of the banking network employees in Iran due to the coverage of a wide range of components affecting the valuation.
۷.

Formulating the Academic Buoyancy Model Based on Life Expectancy with the Mediating Role of Happiness in Students

کلید واژه ها: Academic Buoyancy happiness Life Expectancy

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تعداد بازدید : 305 تعداد دانلود : 174
Purpose: Academic buoyancy is one of the effective variables in the academic field and learning environment of students. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design the academic buoyancy model based on life expectancy with the mediation of happiness in female high school students in Hamedan city. Methodology: The methodology of this research was correlational and SEM. The statistical population included all female students of the second secondary school in Hamedan city, and the statistical sample was selected based on the number of items used in the questionnaires as 370 people with the multi-stage cluster sampling method. Academic buoyancy (Hosseinchari and Dehghanizadeh, 2013), life expectancy (Hallajian, 2019), and Oxford happiness (Argyl et al., 1989) scales were used to collect data. For data analysis, a structural equation test was used in the PLS-3 software environment. Findings: The results showed that life expectancy has a direct and positive effect on academic buoyancy (β = 0.36, p <0.01) and happiness (β = 0.46, p < 0.01). Happiness also has a direct and significant effect on academic buoyancy (β = 0.34, p<0.01). Also, happiness has a significant mediating role in the relationship between life expectancy and academic buoyancy (β = 0.16, p<0.01). Conclusion: since life expectancy creates a more positive atmosphere, it can be effective in increasing the feeling of happiness, and happiness creates buoyancy in the academic environment, followed by an increase in academic buoyancy.
۸.

Analyzing Dimensions and Quality of Teaching-Learning Interactions by Elementary Teachers during the Covid-19 Pandemic

کلید واژه ها: Elementary Teachers’ Interactions Online Teaching and Learning Covid - 19 Pandemic

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 515 تعداد دانلود : 310
Purpose: the aim of the present study was to investigate the dimensions and quality of teaching-learning interactions by elementary teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methodology: this was a qualitative study carried out using a phenomenological approach. The study population included all elementary school teachers in Abhar City (Iran). From this population, 12 individuals were selected as participants in the study using purposive sampling (chain sampling) who were engaged in online teaching from the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. Data collection instrument included semi-structured or in-depth interviews performed in the Google meet interactive platform. The interviews continued until reaching data saturation. Data analysis was also carried out using thematic analysis and theme network formation. Validity was also assessed using peer review and member checking and reliability was assessed by text coding of three interviews by anonymous people outside the research. Findings: the results reflect the dimensions and quality of teaching/learning interactions by elementary teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic in the form of 226 basic themes, 21 organizing themes and 4 global themes. Conclusion: the results showed that elementary teachers had relatively acceptable interactions with themselves, students and parents during this process. However, there were no acceptable interactions between teachers and their colleagues.
۹.

Presenting the Competency model of High School Principals in Guilan Province (Mixed Approach)

کلید واژه ها: Competence of Managers Schools Flourishing of Talents Teaching and Learning Process

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 121 تعداد دانلود : 270
Purpose: The school principals’ competence plays an important role in improving the education system. As a result, this study aimed to investigate and present the competency model of high school principals. Methodology: The current research was applied in terms of purpose and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) in terms of implementation. In the qualitative part, the research population was the educational management experts of Guilan province in the academic year of 2021-22, and according to the principle of theoretical saturation, 15 of them were selected as a sample using targeted and snowball sampling methods. In the quantitative part, the research population was the principals of the second year high school in Guilan province in the academic year 2021-22, and according to the table of Krejcie and Morgan, 127 of them were selected as a sample by stratified random sampling method. The research instrument was a semi-structured interview in the qualitative part and a researcher-made questionnaire in the quantitative part, whose psychometric indicators were checked and confirmed. The data of the qualitative part were analyzed by open, axial and selective coding method in Maxqda software, and the data of the quantitative part were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis method in Amos software. Findings: The results of the qualitative section showed that 137 indicators, 17 components and 5 dimensions were identified for the competence of high school principals; so as to include the dimensions of belief (with the components of cognition, belief, value and behavior), rational (with the components of discretion power, future studies and effective decision-making), personal (with the components of creating a positive environment, needs assessment, mental health and the flourishing of talents), managerial (with the components of human/general skills, perceptual/maturity skills and specialized/leadership skills) and educational (with the components of teaching and learning process, educational supervision and guidance, and educational evaluation). Also, the results of the quantitative section showed that the factor load and the average variance extracted of the dimensions and components were higher than 0.50 and their content validity and reliability ratio with Cronbach’s alpha method was higher than 0.80. In addition, the Competency model of high school principals had a good fit and each of the dimensions had a significant effect on the corresponding components and each of the components had a significant effect on the corresponding indicators (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the competency model of high school principals, planning to improve and promote the competence of school principals through the identified dimensions, components and indicators seems necessary.
۱۰.

Designing a National Identity Curriculum Model for the Second Elementary Grade

کلید واژه ها: National identity Curriculum Model Second Elementary Grade

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 140 تعداد دانلود : 946
Purpose: The current research was conducted with the aim of designing the national identity curriculum model for the second elementary school. Methodology: According to the nature and scope of the research, various qualitative methods were used to achieve the research objectives, which include: a) grounded theory, to design the national identity curriculum model in the elementary school; b) Thematic analysis method to determine the characteristics of elements of national identity in primary school textbooks to achieve the curriculum model of national identity. In part A, the community was studied by experts in the field of national identity, including experts in social sciences and educational sciences and upper education documents. The method of gathering information from experts was through semi-structured interviews with 36 teachers and experts. Also, the interviews were conducted based on the grounded theory in three stages of open, central, and selective coding, and the obtained concepts were classified into categories and subcategories. Findings: National identity curriculum model was presented in two dimensions of why and the necessity of national identity curriculum and how national identity curriculum in the form of a conceptual model, including the necessity and need (needs assessment), goals (general goal and partial goals), content (principles of content organization, content selection), teaching methods, learning, teacher's role, and evaluation methods. Conclusion: Among the features of this model, we can refer to being native, attention to individual, social, ethnic and national characteristics, being scientific, simplicity, originality, educational outlook and active approach in teaching and learning.
۱۱.

Presenting a Model for Women Cultural Development through Structural Equations Modeling

کلید واژه ها: Cultural Development Women's Status Structural Equations Modeling

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تعداد بازدید : 668 تعداد دانلود : 113
Women have always been of cultural relevance as one of the most important elements of the society. The central role of women in cultural development has caused significant increase in the attention to these areas in recent years. The main aim of this research has been to interpret the women's status in cultural development and improvement. For this purpose, first based on theoretical principles and the literature available in this regard, the initial conceptual model was prepared. Then, based on the opinions of the statistical population of the research, as experts specialized in culture, interpretation of the indices of this model has been done. The sampling method in this research has been cluster, with the sample size determined as 384 using Morgan table. In this research, for measuring the research indices, questionnaire has been used. The reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed through Cronbach alpha coefficient, and its validity via construct validity method. The results of this research led to identification of the major indicators and components affecting the women's status in cultural development and improvement.
۱۲.

Design and Validation of Media Literacy Education Model in Secondary School

کلید واژه ها: Education media literacy Media Literacy Education secondary education

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 63 تعداد دانلود : 982
Purpose: Media literacy plays an important role in teaching and learning curriculum. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to design and validate the media literacy education model in secondary school. Methodology: This was an applied study in terms of purpose and qualitative in terms of implementation method. The study population for designing the media literacy education model was the specialized council of the thinking and media literacy book department of the country (n=18 people) who were selected by census sampling method. Also, the study population for the validation of the media literacy education model was professors and researchers in the field of communication, Education Department experts and experienced teachers in the field of media literacy, 20 of whom were selected as a sample using the purposeful sampling method. The data collection tool was in-depth interviews in the model design section and calculation the agreement rate in the model validation section. Data analysis was carried out by coding method in MAXQDA ver.10. Findings: The results showed that the model of media literacy education in secondary school consisted of 40 components in 7 categories of media message creation techniques, media unknowns, audience studies, media and lifestyle, media consumption regime, harm of media literacy education and opportunity of media literacy. Also, the model of media literacy education in secondary school had an acceptable validity after calculating content validity ratio (CVR) (0.88) and content validity index (CVI) (0.91) based on the opinion of professors and researchers in the field of communication, Education Department experts and experienced teachers in the field of media literacy. Conclusion: Based on the results of the current research, it seems necessary to plan for the inclusion of media literacy education in secondary school curriculum through the identified components and categories.
۱۳.

Presenting an Integrated Curriculum Model for Revitalizing Primary Schools

کلید واژه ها: Education media literacy Media Literacy Education secondary education

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 716 تعداد دانلود : 850
Purpose: School revitalization plays an important role in students' academic performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to present an integrated curriculum model in order to revitalize elementary schools. Methodology: The present study was applied in terms of purpose and descriptive survey in terms of methodology. The research population included the professors, experts of the Education Department of Tehran province, and the sample size was determined 289 people using the Cochran formula. Participants were selected using stratified random sampling method according to their job position. The data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire of an integrated curriculum aimed at revitalizing elementary schools, whose content validity was confirmed by the opinion of experts and its reliability was obtained 0.83using Cronbach's alpha method. Data analysis was carried out using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling methods in SPSS and AMOS software. Findings: The results showed that the integrated curriculum model for revitalizing elementary schools consisted of 68 design items, i.e. goal (8 items) content (9 items), content organization (5 items), characteristics of learning activities (5 items), learning activity strategy (5 items), and evaluation (8 items), of which only the factor loading of 40 items was higher than 0.40. Also, the integrated curriculum model for revitalizing elementary schools had a good fit and the integrated curriculum for revitalizing elementary schools had a significant effect on all six components of goal, content, content organization, characteristics of learning activities, strategies of learning activities and evaluation (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of this research, an effective step can be taken to revitalize elementary schools through the items of each of the six components of the integrated curriculum, including the goal, content, content organization, characteristics of learning activities, strategies of learning activities and evaluation.
۱۴.

Design of a Model for Performance Management based on Components of Talent Management

کلید واژه ها: Performance management talent management Talent Sourcing Performance Development

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 816 تعداد دانلود : 938
Purpose: Given the importance of performance management in improving organizational performance, the present study was conducted to design a model for performance management based on components of talent management. Methodology: This study was applied in terms of objective and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) in terms of research method. The population of qualitative study included literature on performance management based on the components of talent management during 2001-2021 and the population of quantitative study included managers and employees of the airports and air navigation of East Azerbaijan Province in 2021 (n=240). The sample size of qualitative study was n=30, and n=144 in quantitative study, who were selected as according to the table of Karjesi and Morgan by simple random sampling method. The tool of qualitative study was note-taking of the researches; and a 90-item researcher-made questionnaire in quantitative study, whose validity and reliability were appropriate. The qualitative study data were analyzed by coding method and MAXQDA; and quantitative study data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation modeling using SPSS and LISREL. Findings: The results of qualitative study showed that for performance management based on components of talent management, 158 indicators and 71 components were identified in 6 categories, including talent sourcing, talent retention, talent development, creativity and innovation, performance development and professional competencies. Also, the results of quantitative study showed that the factor load of all 6 categories and 90 items was higher than 0.50 and the reliability of all categories was calculated higher than 0.90 by Cronbach's alpha. In addition, the performance management model based on components of talent management had a good fit and this model had a direct significant effect on all six categories (P<0.001). Conclusion: The performance management model based on the talent management components designed in the present study had a good validity. Therefore, to improve performance management, it is possible to provide the basis for improving the components of talent management.
۱۵.

Pathology of Shahab National Plan in Primary Schools of Shahryar, Iran

کلید واژه ها: Shahab National Plan Exceptional Talent Pathology Fuzzy Delphi Method

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 505 تعداد دانلود : 328
Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the pathology of Shahab national plan in primary schools of Shahryar, Tehran, Iran. Methodology: This research was conducted with a mixed exploratory method, that is, firstly, using semi-structured interviews and a qualitative method of the fuzzy Delphi type, the harms of Shahab National Plan were identified and prioritized, then the current situation of the harms was investigated using a quantitative descriptive-survey method. The statistical population of the qualitative part of the research was specialists and experts working in the Ministry of Education as well as university professors. The sampling method in this section was a targeted method, according to the principle of theoretical saturation, 15 of them were selected as a sample. The statistical population of the quantitative part of the research was made up of all the fifth grade teachers of the elementary school of Shahryar city, whose number was 441 in the academic year of 2018-2019. To determine the sample size in this section, the Cochran formula table was used and 230 people were selected as a sample, whose selection method was cluster random. The research tools were semi-structured interview, fuzzy Delphi questionnaire and researcher-made questionnaire. Reliability and validity in the qualitative part were obtained according to the audit strategies of the research. In the quantitative part, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through Cronbach’s alpha test, and it was used to confirm the formal and content validity of the questionnaire from the experts’ point of view. To analyze the results in the qualitative part, content analysis of interviews and fuzzy Delphi were used, and in the quantitative part, one sample t-test was used in SPSS. Findings: Based on the qualitative findings, the harms of Shahab plan were identified and prioritized in three areas: behavioral (including 14 harms), structural (including 19 harms) and contextual (including 25 harms). According to the analysis of quantitative data, the current state of harms was examined from the teachers’ point of view. Conclusion: The results of one sample t-test showed that most of the harms are at a level higher than the assumed average of the community and a few are at an average level or lower than the average.
۱۶.

A Comparative Study of the News Coverage of Hijab Removal in the News Media

کلید واژه ها: News Hijab Removal News Media

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 500 تعداد دانلود : 592
Purpose: News media play an important role in attitudes towards various issues, including wearing hijab and its removal. As a result, this paper aimed to compare the news coverage of hijab removal in the news media. Methodology: This study was applied in terms of purpose and quantitative in terms of execution method. The research population was the hijab removal news in the news media of Entekhab (reformist), Fars (fundamentalist), Khabar Online (moderate), BBC Persian Television (affiliated with the United Kingdom) and Voice of America (affiliated with the United states of America) during 2017 and 2018, which were selected through the total population sampling method. The research tool was to observe and record the news of the hijab removal in Persian news media or the Persian section of foreign news media, and the face validity of the information was confirmed by the opinion of experts and its reliability was obtained 0.89 by the inter-coder agreement method. Finally, the data were analyzed with non-parametric chi-square test in SPSS-20. Findings: Results showed that there was a significant difference between Entekhab, Fars, Khabar Online, BBC Persian Television and Voice of America in terms of amount of news, news style, news value, news source, news bias and news type (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the five mentioned media in terms of the headline type (P>0.05). In other words, in terms of the amount of news about the hijab removal, Fars, Khabar Online, BBC Persian Television, Entekhab and Voice of America reported the most news. In terms of news style, Entekhab, Fars, Khabar Online and Voice of America used mostly news style and BBC Persian Television used mostly report style. Also, in terms of news value, Entekhab, BBC Persian Television and Voice of America used encountering value, Fars used the proximity value and Khabar Online used mostly two values of encountering and reputation. In terms of the news source, Entekhab and Fars used the media reporter’s source more, Khabar Online used the domestic news agencies more, BBC and Voice of America used the unknown source frequently. In addition, in terms of the news bias, Entekhab, Fars and Khabar Online used the bias of condemning the event, the BBC used the neutral bias and the Voice of America used the bias of sympathy and support for the event more frequently. In terms of the type of news, Entekhab, Fars and Voice of America mostly used the event-oriented type, and the Khabar Online and BBC Persian Television mostly used the process-oriented type. On the other hand, in terms of the type of headlines, Entekhab, Fars, Khabar Online, BBC Persian Television and Voice of America used more inferential headlines and there was no significant difference among them. Conclusion: The results showed that BBC Persian Television and Voice of America had a more positive view on the phenomenon of hijab removal and mostly reported the news from unknown news sources. The results indicated that the aforementioned news media are harmful to families in terms of the phenomenon of hijab removal.
۱۷.

Designing the Curriculum Model of Media Literacy in the Second Grade of Elementary School and Its Validation

کلید واژه ها: Curriculum Model media literacy Second Grade Validation

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 101 تعداد دانلود : 680
Teaching media literacy to students pursues several goals, including creating creative, critical, and scrutinizing thinking about the media content and performance, as well as recognizing the visual forms of communication using it, along with other reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills. This research aimed to design a curriculum model for media literacy in the second grade of elementary school and to validate it. The research method was qualitative-quantitative and it was applied in terms of purpose. In the qualitative part, the media literacy curriculum model was identified using the synthesis research method based on the analogical model and the Klein model. Then, in order to validate the mentioned components, the obtained information was provided to experts in the field of curriculum planning and media and information management. The scope of the research was in the range of 2006 to 2021 for domestic documents and in the range of 2005 to 2021 for foreign documents. The statistical population in line with the model validation was experts in curriculum planning and media and information management. In order to validate the entire research, the statistical sample consisted of two groups of 10 experts in the field of curriculum planning and media and information management, who were selected based on the minimum number required to evaluate content validity. The data collection method in the validation stage was researcher-made questionnaires. Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was used to measure the content validity. Results showed that the goals of the media literacy curriculum in the second grade of elementary school include two kind of goals: general goals (achieving Iranian-Islamic media culture) and partial goals (empowering students and teachers). The content of the media literacy curriculum in the second grade of elementary school included functional consumption education, critical consumption education, functional production-consumption education, and critical production-consumption education. The learning-teaching strategies used were presented in two sections: teacher’s activities (teaching method) and students’ activities, and the evaluation element was defined in three levels: students, teachers, and curriculum and educational content. Also, the results showed that the grouping in the media literacy program in the second grade of elementary school should be based on the individual and socioemotional characteristics of the students. The required resources and facilities were continuous improvement of the media literacy curriculum for the second grade of elementary school, compilation of the media literacy textbook for the second grade of elementary school, provision of educational facilities and media training assistance for second grade of elementary school students, and development of research in the field of media education. In choosing the time and place in the media literacy program, time and place flexibility in the presentation of teaching content was emphasized. Based on the results of this research, the suggested model of the media literacy curriculum of the second grade of elementary school can be used and implemented in the education system.
۱۸.

Policy-Making Model in the Private School System

کلید واژه ها: Politics Policy - Making System Private Private Schools

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 759 تعداد دانلود : 489
Purpose: This paper mainly aimed to provide a model for policy-making in the private school system. Methodology: Based on the literature review, 17 influential factors were identified with the mixed method of survey and theme analysis. In the qualitative part, the semantic pattern was discovered and analyzed with the RQDA qualitative analysis software, and in the quantitative part, the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) method was used to determine relationships. Statistical population in the qualitative part were 20 people (policy-making experts, professors and senior managers) were selected and participated in a semi-structured and quantitative interview. A number of 1140 schools were selected from Northern, Central and Southern Khorasan using a simple random sampling method with proof of validity and reliability. Findings: The results of factors affecting policy-making based on fuzzy numerical average are: Investment 0.72, government aid 0.87, managers 0.74, teachers 0.73, executive agents 0.75, educational equipment 0.81, government-approved laws 0.89, banking system 0.88, tax and insurance 0.73, municipal, housing and urban organizations 0.33, community members 0.65, experts 0.8, Farhangian University training 0.8, coordination council 0.81, specialized founders 0.78, special schools 0.78, supervisory council 0.88, which because municipal organizations, housing and urban development 0.33, and community members 0.65 were lower than the average, they were rejected and the rest were accepted. Strategies in the first level (managers, executives and teachers) are the most effective and the sixth level (government laws) is the most effective. Conclusion: Based on the results, the other 15 factors that have a great impact on policy-making should be considered.
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Comparison the Effectiveness of Bybee's Teaching Method as Face-To-Face and Non-Face-To-Face on the Academic Achievement of Male Students of the First Secondary School in the Conditions of the Covid-19 Pandemic(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Bybee's Teaching Method Face-to-face Training Non-Face-to-Face Training academic achievement students Covid-19 pandemic

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 105 تعداد دانلود : 251
Purpose: The covid-19 pandemic caused many and extensive changes and transformations in educational teaching. Considering the importance of students' academic achievement, the aim of this study was to comparison the effectiveness of Bybee's teaching method as face-to-face and non-face-to-face on the academic achievement of mail students of the first secondary school in the conditions of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methodology: This study was a semi-experimental with a pretest and posttest design with a control group. The research population was male students of the first secondary school in Zahedan city in the academic years 2019-2020. The sample size was 45 people (15 people for each group) who were selected by cluster sampling method and each of the clusters randomly by lottery replaced in three groups (two experimental groups and one control group). Each of the experimental groups was trained with Bybee's teaching method as face-to-face and non-face-to-face and during this time the control group was trained with the traditional method. The data were collected with Pham and Taylor's academic achievement questionnaire (1999), which whose validity was confirmed by the opinion of experts and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha method 0.92 and analyzed by methods of univariate analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post hoc test in SPSS software. Findings: The findings indicated that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of academic achievement. In the other words, Bybee's teaching method as a both face-to-face and non-face-to-face in compared to the control group caused a significant increase in the academic achievement of mail students of the first secondary school (P<0.001), but between the experimental groups means Bybee's teaching method as face-to-face and non-face-to-face there was no significant difference in increasing academic achievement (P>0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of this study mean effectiveness of both Bybee's teaching method as face-to-face and non-face-to-face on students' academic achievement and the lack of significant differences between them, to improve academic achievement can be used both Bybee's teaching method as face-to-face and non-face-to-face along with other effective teaching methods.
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The Effect of Women's Presence in Company Management, Their Experience and Educational Skills on Earnings Quality(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Female Managers Earning quality board Training Skills experience

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 297 تعداد دانلود : 435
Purpose: Women studies have always been of interest to researchers. The issue of women's presence in business and management is one of the most important issues in the field of women's studies. This study sets to investigate the effect of characteristics of female managers who were either member of board or CEO on earning quality. Methodology: To this end, we collected necessary data such as financial statements from 102 Tehran Stock Exchange listed companies. The data belongs to period stretching from 20 Feb 2015 to 20 Feb 2020. To test our hypotheses, multivariate regression with panel data and also EViews software were utilized. The results show that the presence of female managers has a positive as well as meaningful effect on earning quality. Findings: Furthermore, the results of our second and third hypothesis indicate that the training skills of female managers and their experience in the board have a positive and significant relationship with the quality of companies’ earnings. Conclusion: According to the results of the research, it is recommended that women be used more in managerial positions and the existing misconceptions that have prevented skilled and experienced women from appearing should be discarded.
۲۱.

Entrepreneurial Education in Islamic Azad University in Order to Provide a Model(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Education and training of entrepreneurs Educational Strategies Islamic Azad Universities

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 629 تعداد دانلود : 114
Purpose: Considering the growing trend of education and training of entrepreneurs in the world and in our country, nurturing entrepreneurs and entering into business and creating their employment is one of the basic concerns and curiosities of the administrators in universities. Methodology: Therefore, the general purpose of the research, is the design of the model of education and training of entrepreneurs in Azad Islamic universities of Mazandaran province. The nature of the current research is exploratory and qualitative data is used in it. The statistical population of the research is experts and educational managers of Islamic Azad Universities. This group was selected to conduct the qualitative part of the research and participated in the interview process. In this field, the researcher used the snowball method to reach theoretical saturation, which reached theoretical saturation after in-depth interviews with 10 elites and experts. The data was collected using in-depth and semi-structured interviews and data analysis was done with the qualitative method of Foundation Data Theory. Findings: Based on the results, it was found that the factors affecting the education and training of entrepreneurs have three dimensions (contextual factors, causal factors and environmental factors) and consist of fifteen components. And it was shown that the consequences of education and training of entrepreneurs have 4 dimensions of improving entrepreneurial attitude, increasing well-being, continuous continuity and developing entrepreneurship with 14 components. And the strategies also have 2 dimensions, educational strategies and educational strategies. Its indicators are presented separately. Conclusion: The model of education and training of entrepreneurs to managers of Islamic Azad Universities can be used as a practical and comprehensive package in which many important details related to general concepts are seen, for all managers of Islamic Azad Universities and executive bodies in general. it is suggested.

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