Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology

Iranian journal of educational sociology, Vol 1, Number 5 (2017) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Comparison of effectiveness between smart and non-smart school regarding advancing and developing creativity amongst female 3rd grade high-school students of Tehran's District 8(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۱
Abstract Purpose: Smart schools are schools equipped with electronic devices and advanced technology where innovative and new way of learning is taught by processing data and communication within the context of suitable curriculum. Methodology: The basis of current research has been designed to compare the effectiveness of developing creativity between two groups of female high schoolers attending smart schools versus female students attending non-smart schools. Furthermore, all the female subjects were attending 3rd grade which is equivalent of 11th grade students worldwide. The method utilized in this research is the comparison evaluation type. The statistical society of research subjects included female high schoolers of Tehran’s District 8 which encompasses of 10 public schools, 6 non-public or private schools, and one smart high school, with the total population of 1020 in which 300 students were selected by classified random method as the sample group of research. The mentioned random groups were selected from all above-mentioned schools accordingly to their populations. Initially, in order to assess the level of creativity, part A of the Torrance test was given to all subjects at the beginning of the school –year. Part B of the same test was given at the conclusion of the school-year. Finding: The yielding outcome of both tests were analyzed with T test, variance method, and Schaffer's follow-up test final and total assessment and evaluation of all the results a conclusion was reached indicating that the type of smart or non-smart schools had no effect in developing and advancing creativity. Discussion: However, the dual comparison between private and public schools demonstrated a real and factual significant differences with respect to developing creativity. This fact implies that private high schools are more equipped and suited to develop creativity.

Presenting a model to provide the succession for the managers of Education and training organization.(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۶
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the present study is presenting a model to provide the succession for the managers of Education & Training organization. The research method in terms of the purpose was practical/ fundamental one, in terms of collecting the data, it was descriptive- surveying and in terms of data type, it was mixed (qualitative & quantitative) exploratory one. Methodology: The population of the study in qualitative part includes academic experts and Tehran Education & Training top managers. Among them, the sample was selected according to purposive sampling and 10 person’s saturation method. The second group of the study population includes all heads and deputies (2400) of the Education Department in the provincial centers of the country. The sample size of 331 was selected by multilevel cluster sampling method. Data collection was done by library, semi-structured interviews (qualitative part) and research made questionnaire with 84 questions (quantitative part) was used. Interviews with experts indicate that the interview was valid and for measuring the reliability, theoretical coding based on fundamental data theory was used. For measuring the questionnaires’ validity, the face, content and construct validity were measured and for measuring the questionnaires’ reliability, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient and retest were used. According to the study research questions, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Verifiable and exploratory factor analysis and one sample t-test) were used in quantitative part using SPSS and Lisrel soft wares. Findings: The results of the study indicated that the models input that was the factors influenced on succession included, individual, organizational and procedural. The model output, that is the effective factors included, job satisfaction (job nature, development opportunities and organizational climate). Conclusion: According to mentioned components, the presented model had good fit. Also the results showed that the situation of succession, job satisfaction, coaching tasks and talent management was undesirable, but the situation of the leadership roles and human capital was desirable.

The effect of self-determination skills training of on Primary school student’s depression.(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۲
Abstract Purpose The purpose of present study was the effect of the training of self – determination skills on depression of primary school students. Methodology: In this study the training of self – determination skills and depression were considered as the in dependent and dependent variables, respectively. The present study was a field test method with pretest – posttest and follow-up with control group. The tool of this study was children’s depression inventory (CD1). The sample consisted of 30 sixth grade primary school girl student with depression (15 in experimental group and 15 in control group) who were enrolled in the 1394 – 95 academic year, who were choose using purposive sampling method and divided into two groups. Experimental and control both groups were taker pretest before the training of self – determination skills, the experimental group were provided self – determination skills and not provided to control group. Immediately after the end of the training course, both groups were taken pretests of depression inventory. Both groups were taken follow-up test about two months after the training course. Findings: The results of covariance analysis suggested that the training of self – determination skills meaningfully reduces the student’s oppression. 13at in the control group who did not receive training there was not any changes in the student’s depression. Conclusion: The result of covariance analysis shows that the training of self – determination skills during the time effects the student’s depression.

Presenting a Model in the Field of Risk Management Training in the Insurance Industry(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۱ تعداد دانلود : ۶۷
Abstract Purpose: This research conducted with the aim of presenting a model about risk management training in the insurance industry. Research method was practical in terms of objective; in terms of data collection method, it was descriptive-correlational; and considering the data type was quantitative. Methodology: The statistical population, consisted of all men and women working in the insurance industry (51882 individuals), from whom 384 individuals were selected as sample size, using a Stratified Random Sampling method and Morgan table. In order to collect data, made researcher questionnaire from available literature was used. Validity was approved by content validity according to academic experts and insurance industry viewpoint; and in order to calculate reliability, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was used. Finding: Findings approved of the validity and reliability of the data collection tools. Analysis of data was conducted using SPSS and Lisrel software in two sections: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (structural equations). Discussion: Findings showed that presented model consist of factors like principles of educational management, familiarity with risk management system, environmental factors, organizational resources, learning organization, social capital, and organizational culture had appropriate fitting.

Analyzing Objectives and Content of Religion and Life Curriculum in High School Relying Emphasis on Belief Education Components and present optimization strategies(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۸ تعداد دانلود : ۵۴
Abstract Purpose: This paper aimed at analyzing the objectives and content of religion and life curriculum in the high school relying emphasis on belief education components and present optimization strategies. Methodology: This study had been carried out in a composite method, quantitative and qualitative and content and survey techniques used. The statistical population was composed of experts and scholars in the field of religious education. Also, religion and life curriculum of the high School in 2016-2017 was another part of the research population. The sample size was 66 persons according to the Morgan sampling table, which were selected to saturation stage purposefully. The data collection tools were: survey questionnaire, interview, data lists, validity of the questionnaire referring to experts and its reliability of 0.893. The statistical methods used in the research were: exploitation of descriptive statistics, factor analysis test, and Shannon entropy statistical technique. It should be noted that, SPSS software was performed all stages of data processing and data analysis. Findings: Findings of the research indicated that the components of belief education were identified and validated in fifteen cases which were categorized under the three headings of cognition, acceptance and affection. The emphases on the components of belief education according to the educational objectives of religion and life curriculum in terms of Shannon's entropy technique were as follows: cognition, 0/378, acceptance, 0.209; affection 0.412. The importance of this emphasis was: cognition, 0.267; acceptance, 0.249; affection and interest 0.483. Conclusion: Given the consistency of curriculum objectives and contents, it was observed, there was no consistency between the objectives and the content of the curriculum in each of the three components of belief education according to Shannon entropy technique.

An Appropriate Model for Talent Management Based On Emotional, Organizational and Cultural Intelligences(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱
Abstract Purpose: The aim of this paper was to provide a talent management model based on emotional, organizational and cultural intelligence in Islamic Azad Universities, Fars province. Methodology: The research used descriptive and survey methods and the statistical population included all faculty members of Islamic Azad University, Fars Province in educational year in 2016-2017. The sample size included 332 subjects who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection tools were talent management questionnaire (2007), Albrecht organizational intelligence questionnaire (2003), Goleman emotional intelligence questionnaire (2000) and Ang and Earley cultural intelligence (2004). Findings: Data were analyzed using the SPSS and Amos software. Pearson correlation results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and its components with talent management. There is also a significant positive relationship between organizational intelligence and its components with talent management, as well as there is a significant positive relationship between cultural intelligence and its components with talent management. Structural equation modeling results showed that emotional intelligence variable (0.24%) explained the highest cultural intelligence variance. Conclusion: Therefore, the results of the study suggest that by increasing emotional, organizational and cultural intelligence among the faculty members of Azad University, talent management will be also improved

Investigating the Relationship between the Role of the Quality of the Educational Environment, the Quality of Educational Services and Social Interactions and Achieving Educational Goals by Considering the Role of Financing(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۷
Abstract Purpose: In the current research, the relationship between financing and the three factors of the quality of educational services, the quality of the educational environment and social interactions was examined. On the other hand, the relationship between the three mentioned factors and achievement of educational goals was also investigated. Methodology: the method was descriptive - correlational and variables were quantitative. Research was carried out at Universities and the sample was 214 teacher students and professors. The structural equation modeling approach was used for analysis. Findings: The results of this study indicate that financing have a direct relationship with the quality of the educational environment, the quality of educational services and social interactions. Based on the obtained factor obtained in analyzing the results, the most important method of stable financing was known financing. As a result, this study indicates that commercializing of researches and earning revenue from them was one of the most important financing solutions. Conclusion: Achieving educational objectives is one of the most important goals of educational institutions. This is important at the various educational levels; however, it is vital to achieve the educational goals in the universities that educate future’s professionals, teachers and teachers. The level of achievement of educational goals is also known as educational performance. This function is influenced by various factors such as the quality of the educational environment, the quality of educational effort, and social interactions. Achieving these dimensions requires development programs that undoubtedly require strong financing from various sources.

Investigating the challenges of teaching and learning Arabic in the high schools of Zabol County1(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۶۹
Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the teaching and learning processes of the Arabic course in the high schools of Zabol County. Methodology: Descriptive-correlational method was applied as the research method and the statistical population was comprised of two groups – students and teachers of Arabic course. It had a practical aim and relies on the general hypothesis stating that the Arabic course taught at the high schools of Zabol does not attain the acceptable level. Using separate questionnaires, the data regarding the level of acceptability of teaching and learning as perceived by students, teachers and textbooks were collected. The data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, one-sample t-test and independent t-test, Spearman’s rank correlation and analysis of variance. Findings: The results indicated that the level of acceptability was lower than average regarding two factors: students and textbooks; furthermore, it was slightly higher than average regarding teachers. To enhance the level of acceptability it is recommended to create an Arabic atmosphere using posters, brochures and images and using the visual capabilities like watching movies and cartoons related to the lesson. Conclusion: In addition, produce Arabic software and video games and teaching Arabic using various games and reducing uninteresting pictures is suggested.

Identifying the barriers and challenges for the implementation of the Shahab plan in elementary schools(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱
Purpose: The project of identifying and leading gifted students (Shahab) was implemented between 2014 and 2015 Education Year by the National Elites Foundation in cooperation with Education Ministry in some regions of all provinces of Iran. Methodology: The project’s main goal was to identify, distinguish and guide the gifted students in elementary and junior education and paving the way to support them in higher education. The project will include all regions in all provinces in the coming years. In our research, teachers of fourth grade elementary schools attempted to evaluate and qualify students by using a pre-defined check list. It tried to understand the challenges and impediments of implementing Shahab project in Shahryar, a suburb of Tehran. Using descriptive and survey methods, it investigated the viewpoints of more than 175 teachers (85 males and 90 female) in fourth grade elementary schools. The interviews were elected randomly and the questionnaire included 40 closed questions in 8 fields and recognized the main obstacles of implementing Shahab project. Taking into consideration descriptive statistical indices, the author has used the Chi-square test one-variable and two variables tests in analyzing gathered information. Findings: The findings demonstrated that the male and female teachers have different ideas regarding challenges and obstacles of the Shahab project. Males believed that the main challenges are check list and method of identifying overqualified students on the one hand and the attitudes of parents on the other. This is while the females expressed that education- related issues and execution factors are the main problems. Conclusion: Putting aside the gender factor, it is argued that teachers see the check list and method of identifying gifted students as the main challenges in implementing Shahab project in Shahryar city.

The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Education Development and Awareness of Electronic Services(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۸۵
Purpose: Citizenship education system in any country is influenced by a set of cultural, social, economic and infrastructural factors, each of which, in turn, plays a vital role in shaping and using electronic services. It is also one of the most comprehensive topics in e-government projects for educating the citizenry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of higher education institutions in education development and awareness of electronic services in citizens of Gorgan, Iran. Materials and method: For this purpose, the research method was descriptive-survey of the applied type. Questionnaires have been used to collect data. Findings: The results of this study indicated that the significance was reached to 99% among the factors influencing the increase of citizens' awareness and education in using electronic services among citizens of Gorgan, Iran in all indicators. Discussion: Also, using the VIKOR model, it was found that Golestan universities of agriculture and natural resources had the most impact among other higher education institutions to educate citizens about the use of electronic services. Finally, practical proposals have been made to increase the relationship between higher education institutions and citizens in the use of e-services.

Analysis of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence by Preventing Student's delinquency (Case study: Primary Schools in District 5 of Tehran)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۰
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analysis the relationship between emotional intelligence by preventing delinquency on primary school students in district 5 of Tehran and also it was the reason for addressing preventive methods in the field of student's criminal law. Methodology: Failure of criminal justice system responses, and increasing statistics and increasing crime rates of crime among students; This quantitative and field research has been randomly from 50 primary schools students in district 5 of Tehran in which the Brad berry-Greaves' Emotional Intelligence Test was used to collect information and two methods of T-test and correlation were used to analyze the findings of the research; Coefficient of correlation (0/75) and significant level (Sig: /000) indicate a significant relationship between the two variables at the level of 0/01 and 0/05. Findings: Based on the findings, emotional intelligence has a significant effect on learning and its lasting effects on academic and job success, and students with less emotional intelligence were more likely to school dropout, escape from school, have more adaptive and behavioral problems and were aggressive. Discussion: Therefore, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and prevention of students' delinquency and emotional intelligence will have a positive effect on the future educational achievement of children.

On Implementation of Participatory Approach: Yes or NO?(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۴ تعداد دانلود : ۹۶
The structure of socio-culture encouraged the following study to investigate the ways participation in collaborative learning tasks can have an effect on the overall English proficiency of EFL students’ academic achievement. The learners’ engagement in learning and collaboration with others for achieving their goals often happen in participatory approach to second language teaching and learning (Cobb, 1994; Greeno, 1998). In a same way, collaborative learning plays a good role in increasing learners’ interdependence (Bruffee, 1999), responsibility (Totten, Sills, Digby, & Russ, 1991), interpersonal skills (Rymes, 1997), and cognitive and critical thinking skills (Johnson & Johnson, 1986). Therefore, both the control and study group were randomly selected from 60 Iranian EFL learners of two intact classes. The first group which was the control group was exposed to regular teaching process through the conventional book-based method. While, in experimental group activities such as role play, problem solving, group work and collaborative tasks in the classroom instruction were mostly used. Accordingly, scores on the IELTS posttest in both groups improved but, the statistics of their overall performance showed that there is no significant difference. However, separate skills on the IELTS exam needed some analyses the result of which contended that the scores of experimental group on the speaking skill was significantly higher. Clearly, the scores on the vocabulary and grammar posttest in experimental group were significantly higher. In conclusion, higher mean scores indicate that EFL learners’ vocabulary and grammar learning will be facilitated through both participatory approach and collaborative activities. In fact, the more interactions among learners in classroom activities are used, improvement of speaking skills can be encouraged. As the results of the students’ and teachers’ interview revealed, both students and teachers’ attitudes towards participatory approach were positive and were also highly inclined to receive such tasks and activities in future

Identification and Comparison of Intra-Organizational and Social Components of Corporate University for the Islamic Azad Universities in the West of Gilan Province: Qualitative Analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۷۶
Purpose: This research was done with the aim of identifying and comparing the intra-organizational and social (external) components of the corporate university for the Islamic Azad universities in the west of Guilan province. Methodology: This study was done with a qualitative method. The statistical population consisted of heads, deputies, faculty members and professors (20 ones). The research sample was selected using targeted method. The research data were collected through semi-structured interviews and continued until the information saturation. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out using qualitative content analysis method based on open coding, axial coding and selective coding. Findings: According to the findings, internal factors included six factors: measurement of knowledge systems, strategy of organization, learning, development, and collaboration, and effective social factors included three factors: communication, technology, and society which were more important than the other organizational university factors. Conclusion: The results showed that timely assessment of the corporate university was one of the most important internal factors and the relationship between university and industry and the coherence of education with business needs were the most effective social factors of the corporate university for the Islamic Azad universities in the west of Guilan province.

Limitation of Death Penalty for Drug Offenses in Iran’s Penal Policy from the Perspective of Criminal Sociology(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۳
The legislator has adopted a policy of repression and aggravation of punishment in drug offenses. Undoubtedly, the legislator has adopted such measures due to the obscenity and severity of these crimes, as well as their danger to society. However, it seems that this penal policy is not useful for many reasons and does not move the legislator toward its goal (prevention of crime, recidivism, and reform of the offenders); It is probably due to the fact that imposing heavy punishments is reasonable and correct regardless of the causes and factors of the crime, as well as the circumstances in which the person committed the crime. The thing that prevents offenders and people from committing or repeating offenses is the speed and precision of executing the punishment, not the heavy ones. Hence, with regard to the shortcomings of this policy and the weakness of the deterrent theory against social, economic, cultural, and political crime factors at some periods of time, and in particular recently, the legislator has tried to moderate its penal policy. In 2017, an article was added to the Counter-Drug Law to undergo a fundamental change, including the significant reduction in cases of execution and life imprisonment. The moderation of penal policy against drug and psychotropic crimes plays a major role in the elimination of death sentences from the Iranian criminal justice system and promotes human rights status of Iran in the international community. This moderation is originated from the post-revolutionary criminal sociological study as well as internal and external criticisms of strict penal policy; internal criticism was from jurisprudential, legal, human rights, criminology, and criminal sociology circles.

Smart Talent Management and Its Relationship with Meritocracy in Educational Systems(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۴
Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between smart talent management and meritocracy in order to provide the expressive characteristics of the selection, appointment and maintenance of managers. Methodology: The research method is descriptive survey and the required information has been collected using a researcher-made questionnaire that its validity has been determined from the available resources and through expert opinion and its reliability has been determined by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (.882). The statistical population of the present study includes the associate professor faculty members and higher rankings and staffs having MA and higher degrees, i.e. a total of 1,200 people. Sampling method is stratified random sampling through which 291 people are selected as the statistical sample. Findings: Findings of exploratory factor analysis show that strategy, attraction, evaluation and discovery of talents are the main components of talent management, and organizational learning, knowledge expansion and sharing are the main components of knowledge management. Among the 13 dimensions of talent management, the development of talent with a standard coefficient (.90) and preservation of talent with a standard coefficient (.88) are the most effective ones, respectively. Discussion: Among the 13 dimensions of knowledge management, expansion and sharing with a standard coefficient (.95) and organizational learning with a standard coefficient (.88) are the most effective ones, respectively. Also, confirmatory factor analysis confirms the relationship between smart talent and meritocracy with a standard coefficient (1.06), and test statistics has evaluated the severity (correlation coefficient) of this relationship (.299).

Analysis of the Impact of Human Resources Management, Intellectual Capital, Organizational Entrepreneurship on Organizational Performance(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۲ تعداد دانلود : ۷۹
Purpose: Purpose of this study is Analysis of the Impact of Human Resources Management, Intellectual Capital, Organizational Entrepreneurship on Organizational Performance. The statistical population of this study is employees of a government university of Kermanshah Province. This study is descriptive-survey type of correlation research. Materials and method: For data collection, the Standard questionnaires was used. in this field. To review the validity of the questionnaires was used content validity and on the other side of convergent validity, this illustrates the fact that the validity of the questionnaires is suitable. Reliability of the questionnaires was calculated with The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the questionnaires was examined (0.86, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.70) respectively. Findings: The results of testing hypotheses by SMART-PLS software and using the t-test statistics and path coefficients (=), showed that a Human resource management has strong, strong, moderate, and significant impact on intellectual capital, organizational entrepreneurship and organizational performance, respectively. The results indicate that intellectual capital has moderate, weak, and significant impact on organizational entrepreneurship and organizational performance, respectively. Finally, organizational entrepreneurship has a strong and significant impact on organizational performance, Discussion: University studied must pay attention to human resource management and intellectual capital and organizational entrepreneurship to achieve good organizational performance.

Legal and social responsibility of maritime carriers in accordance with international law and conventions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۵۵
Purpose: The present paper aims to find the exact responsibility of maritime carriers under the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act. In this regard, the delicacy of the US legislature has always been considered by other legal systems. Also, the attitude of the Rotterdam Rules towards new issues, such as the entry of electronic shipping documents and the hybrid carriage into the industry, has created new dimensions in relation to the responsibility of carriers, which justifies such study. Methodology: The research methodology will be analytical-descriptive. In this method, the existing references on the subject are investigated to comparatively identify and describe the rights and duties of the maritime carrier. Then, based on rational-legal rules, the subject is analyzed to show the ambiguities and the real status of the subject. Findings: in considerations done, there are many important conventions like HARTER act, Hague on 1924, Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936, the HAMBURG regulations on 1978 and ROTTERDAM on 2009, that have mentioned the marine transportation responsibility and these laws and regulations, behave with the factor of damages, based on the case and based on the responsibility and fault assumption related to the transportation responsible. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, has been trying to compensate The Hague convention deficiencies meanwhile referring some cases to the sub-regulations and using some ways and approaches and the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, has set some limitations for the responsibilities that sometimes the carriers put them for themselves and for example, each carrier, cannot decrease its responsibility to less than 50 American dollars, that is confirmed for each parcel in the law. Conclusion: the ROTTERDAM regulations, has started considering the dispensation of marine transportation responsible and meantime, has canceled the duty and fault dispensation in navigation and ship handling. And the ROTTERDAM convention, has opened new horizons in marine transportation by using door-to-door way to carry goods and prevail electronic documents and also, setting the volumetric contracts.

Analysis of the legal and commercial challenges of electronic trading companies(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۵
Introduction: This paper examines legal dimensions and issues of electronic business companies and on the basis of that, this main question is proposed “what are the significant and main legal challenges in the arena of electronic business? Methodology: This paper is descriptive-analytical (qualitative) and applies deduction methodology using understanding power of researcher in appreciating legal scans related to electronic business based on available facts, evidence and cues. Findings: Research findings indicated that the main and significant challenges facing electronic business companies are jurisdiction interference, agreement validities, supporting consumer rights, information confidentiality and copyright. Conclusion: Electronic Business Company is an electronic company based on electronic business that its identity is related to the concept of electronic business, as with removal of electronic component, this becomes meaningless and its activities stops. In this way, the emergence of electronic business companies is related to the concept of electronic business and development of electronic business is along with spreading its definition. Electronic component of electronic business companies also indicates modern information and communication technology that only includes internet, intranet, and command codes of mobile phone and doesn’t include other telephone communications like fixed and mobile phone, fax, telegram, etc.


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