مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Social capital "
تاکنون اکثر گفتمانهای تاریخی درباره موفقیت و پیشرفت بر مبنای این موضوع بوده است که سازمانها چه کاری میتوانند برای پیشرفت کارکنانشان انجام دهند. اما با توجه به تغییر و تحولات عصر حاضر، ادبیات پیشرفت شغلی نیز تغییر نموده و اینکه افراد برای موفقیت شغلی خود چه کاری میتوانند انجام دهند، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در این راستا سالهاست که موضوع سرمایه انسانی به عنوان عاملی مهم و تاثیر گذار برای موفقیت و پیشرفت شغلی و اخیرا نیز سرمایه اجتماعی و عاطفی نیز به عنوان عوامل دیگر در این زمینه شناسایی شده است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی روابط متقابل بین سرمایه انسانی، اجتماعی و عاطفی و اثرات آنها بر موفقیت شغلی انجام شده است. روش تحقیق مورد استفاده پیمایشی- همبستگی و بطور مشخص مبتنی بر مدل معادلات ساختاری میباشد. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که دو بعد سرمایه انسانی و اجتماعی بر طبق مدل تحلیل مسیر ارائه شده بر موفقیت شغلی مدیران تاثیر میگذارد. در پایان پیشنهاداتی برای مدیران سازمان ارائه گردید.
مقاله حاضر با تامل بر رابطه «ادراک کارکنان از میزان رعایت عدالت سازمانی» و «سرمایه اجتماعی آنان در سازمان»، عوامل تاثیر گذار بر این رابطه را مورد بررسی قرار می¬دهد. در این پژوهش، برای تحلیل سرمایه اجتماعی مراتب قابلیت اعتماد، مشارکت و رهبری مدنی، بخشش و روحیه داوطلبی، توانایی برقراری روابط اجتماعی غیر رسمی، و تنوع در معاشرتها و دوستیها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته، عدالت سازمانی نیز در سه بعد عدالت توزیعی، عدالت رویه ای و عدالت مراوده ای مد نظر قرار گرفت.بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، میان این متغیرها رابطه مثبت و معنی¬داری وجود داشته به طوری¬که شکل¬گیری سرمایه اجتماعی به شدت تحت تاثیر ادراک عدالت در سازمان قرار دارد.
حوزه های تخصصی:
Attempts to find out social aspects of the body، have formed the main trend of research and debate for sociologists in recent decades. Body is a phenomenon that can be socially built so its construction and functions are matters of social and cultural beliefs. In this study، the relationship between social capital and body management has been investigated through survey method. For data collection، in this descriptiveanalytic study، questionnaires have been used. The sample contains 235 Tabriz University students which have been selected using stratified sampling. The findings show that there is positive and significant relationship (in the %99 confidence level) between body management and social capital. And there is also a significant relationship (in the confidence level of 99%) among body management and social norms، trust in groups and institutions and interpersonal relationships and trust. Regression analysis results show that of the independent variables، interpersonal trust، gender and age have been able to explain 17.2 percent of the variance of body management (dependent variable).
تأثیر آموزه های اعتقادی و اخلاقی اسلام بر سرمایه اجتماعی مسلمانان جهان (با تأکید بر شاخص اعتماد تعمیم یافته)
ادیان الهی با ترویج فضیلت های اخلاقی تأثیر زیادی در شکل گیری هنجارهای اجتماعی و تقویت سرمایه اجتماعی دارند. هدف این پژوهش، نشان دادن تأثیر آموزه های اعتقادی، مناسکی و اخلاقی اسلام بر سرمایه اجتماعی مسلمانان در 40 کشور جهان با استفاده از شاخص اعتماد تعمیم یافته و روش رگرسیونی حداقل مربعات معمولی می باشد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که شاخص های اعتقادی و اخلاقی اسلام تأثیر مثبت و معناداری بر سرمایه اجتماعی مسلمانان دارد، اما شاخص های ظاهری (مناسکی) اسلام تأثیر منفی و معناداری بر سرمایه اجتماعی آنها داشته است. در این پژوهش، تأثیر مثبت و معنادار فعالیت های داوطلبانه اجتماعی و تحصیلات دانشگاهی بر سرمایه اجتماعی مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. توصیه سیاستی این مطالعه، برنامه ریزی برای گسترش آموزه های اعتقادی و اخلاقی اسلام در بین مسلمانان در کنار مناسک و اعمال مذهبی، و زمینه سازی برای گسترش فعالیت های داوطلبانه اجتماعی به عنوان دو راهکار پیشنهادی برای افزایش سرمایه اجتماعی مسلمانان می باشد.
Analysis of Production Relations and Linkages of Agricultural Producers Using Social Network Analysis Method (Case Study: Pistachio Producers in Damghan County)
حوزه های تخصصی:
Purpose: In this research, we aimed to identify the pattern of cooperative relations among the Pistachio producers in Damankuh rural district in Damghan. The social capital among the producers was also evaluated. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, the cooperative relations and the social capital among the Pistachio producers in Mehmandoost, Zarrinabad and Hoseinabad Doolab, which are located in Damankooh in Damghan, were studied by applying social network analysis method. Thus, 66 people from Mehmandoost, 70 producers from Zarrinabad, and 74 farmers from Hosseinabad Dulab were studied. The relations which were studied included cooperation in exchanging farming tools, irrigation of Pistachio orchards, marketing and pest control. For analyzing these relations, we used network- level indicators of social network analysis including density, centralization, reciprocity, transitivity and Geodesic distance. These indicators were analyzed in the UCINET software. Finding: Results showed that the network macro-level indicators including density, centralization, reciprocity, transitivity and geodesic distance in studied villages were very low. This has caused problems for producers to cooperate with each other and threatens the stability of producers’ network and indicates cooperation among pistachio producers requires tremendous investment of both time and cost. Research limitations/implications: Problems like accessing farmers, distributing questionnaires among them and the long time needed in order to interview them were among the challenges faced in this research. Practical implications¬: In order to increase cooperation among the producers and social capital in their network it is suggested that farmers be instructed and informed by holding cooperative workshops, handling their problems in irrigation and pest control, running local cooperatives for supporting the farmers in the crop prices and paying attention to their demands. Originality/value: Given the importance of the studied area in the production of Pistachio, paying attention to cooperation and social capital among producers, can be a big step in using the fertility (potentiality) of this region to develop and improve the Pistachio production.
The Relationship between High School Students' Social Capital and Their Foreign Language Achievement: A Gender and Regional Variations Perspective
This study aimed to compare the underlying measures of male and female high- school students’ social capital in terms of regional variations and gender and investigate the relationship between those measures and the students' foreign language (FL) achievement. To this end, a number of 904 third-grader high school students (278 male and 626 female) from two educational districts (privileged district (PD) and less-privileged district (LD)) participated in the study. They filled out the Student Social Capital Questionnaire and took an English language achievement test. The results showed that the students in the PD outperformed their counterparts in the LD. Furthermore, group statistics and t-test results suggested variations among the groups of students in terms of such factors as mothers’ involvement, institutional trust, intergenerational closure, and parents’ educational aspiration. Pearson product-moment correlation indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between male and female students' participation in social networks and religious activities on the one hand, and their foreign language achievement on the other hand. However, there was a significant positive correlation between intergenerational closure and parents’ educational aspiration and female students' English scores on the S-test. The findings have implications for families and school members to provide students with hopeful and positive aspirations and intimate family environments and learning environments, which can enhance their FL achievement.
The Effect of Social Capital Aspects on Entrepreneurial Behavior of the Members of Rural Women Cooperatives in Mazandaran Province
Purpose - Women play a significant and growing role in business development and their entrepreneurship has attracted so much attention throughout the world. Since women entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior are influenced by several factors, the present study aims to explore the impact of social capital and its components on entrepreneurial behavior of rural women who were members of cooperatives across Mazandaran province, Iran. Design/methodology/approach - The statistical population was composed of 1396 members of 11 rural women cooperatives out of which 320 individuals were taken as the research sample using proportionately allocated stratified technique based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table. Data were collected with a self-designed questionnaire composed of two sections for social capital in five aspects and entrepreneurial behavior in six aspects. The validity of the research instrument was checked by a panel of experts and its reliability was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha to be 0.921 for social capital section and 0.905 for entrepreneurial behavior section. Data were analyzed in descriptive and inferential sections using SPSS and LISREL software packages. Findings - The social participation aspect of social capital and the resource supply aspect of entrepreneurial behavior were ranked the first. The qualitative assessment of social capital and entrepreneurial behavior showed that they were at a satisfactory level among the members of rural women cooperatives. According to the path coefficient calculated in the structural equations (0.9), social capital plays a significant role in entrepreneurial behavior among the members of rural women cooperatives. Also, the results of structural equations revealed that intra-group social participation was the most important aspect of social capital in terms of the influence on the entrepreneurial behavior of rural women. Research limitations/implications - The dispersion of rural women cooperatives across the province and difficult access to their members to fill the questionnaire were the main constraints of the study. Practical implications - Entrepreneurial behavior can be strengthened and developed by improving social capital through communication of cooperatives with other agencies and institutions involved in rural affairs such as other successful cooperatives, regular meetings to clarify the activities of cooperatives, and the enhancement of women’s awareness of opportunity recognition and decision-making through holding training workshops and courses of practical entrepreneurship. Originality/value - The results can be used by relevant organizations to develop and accomplish pre-determined goals for rural women cooperatives through strengthening the issue of entrepreneurship.
A Local-Spatial Analysis of the Impact of Livelihood Capitals on the Formation of Social Capital in Rural Settlements (Case Study: Bojnourd County)
Purpose - The study of social capital in the context of location/space is a new approach that is dominated by the science of geography, and is seen as a way of distinguishing it from other sciences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of livelihood capitals on social capital in rural areas of Bojnourd County. Design/methodology/approach - This study was a fundamental research, conducted in a descriptive-analytical method. Documentary methods and field works have been employed to collect the data. The population consisted of 22 villages with more than 20 households in Bojnourd County, selected from various population classes and distances from Bojnourd. Using Cochran formula and random sampling method, 298 households were selected from a total of 4849 households in the rural areas of the study area. Partial least squares technique and Smart PLS software were used to test the conceptual model of the research and the impact of livelihood capitals on social capital. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to evaluate the model efficiency at Bojnourd County level. Findings - According to the results, the coefficients of T among the main variables of the study were above 2.58, which means the relationship is significant and direct. Thus, local-spatial factors have a significant and positive effect on social capital. Based on total coefficients, human capital with the coefficient of 0.348 and physical capital with the coefficient of 0.136 respectively had the most and the least effect on social capital. The results of spatial analysis using GWR showed that the impact coefficient of livelihood capitals on social capital was highest in the villages of Atrabad Olia and Gharajeh, and in total about 45% of villages in the study area had an impact coefficient of 0.90 to 0.91. Research limitations/implications - As the study of livelihood capitals and analysis of their relationship with social capital is a fundamental challenge in achieving sustainable rural development that is missing in current studies, it is recommended that future studies pay more attention to social capital and the impact of livelihood capitals on its creation and rural development. Practical implications - Rural areas suffer from the lack of social capital, which is one of the most important types of development capital required to achieve sustainable rural development. Thus, enhancing the social capital and informing the villagers about the value and importance of local-spatial factors and the material and non-material capitals available in rural areas should be on the agenda of rural development researchers and planners.
Identification and Prioritization of Effective Organizational Structure Components (Case Study of Regional Electric Companies of Iran)
منبع: Journal of System Management, Volume ۶, Issue ۱, spring ۲۰۲۰ 163 - 176
The present research identifies and prioritizes the effective organizational structure components using content (theme) analysis and Delphi technique and hierarchical analysis (Case Study of Regional Electric Companies of Iran). The present study is applied based on purpose and is exploratory-survey based on the nature and method of data collection. The statistical population of this study includes 36 experts selected from Iranian regional electricity companies. They were identified through targeted sampling. To analyze the research data, statistical software MAXQDA2012, SPSS and EXPERT CHOICE were used. Using these statistical software, in order to test research questions, Kendall test have been investigated. In the qualitative phase, we analyzed and interpreted (coding) of concepts expressed by the experts of the regional electricity companies of Iran, including open, axial and selective coding. The Delphi method was then used to localize and screen the indices obtained. In the content (theme) analysis phase, 20 factors were identified and after gathering the experts 'responses in Delphi periods, the members' concordance was assessed through SPSS software and by calculating the Kendall's coefficient of concordance for the questionnaires, and the investigation and concordance among the experts was obtained 81.9%. The results showed that 15 components were agreed upon by the experts. In the final step, the components were prioritized using the hierarchical analysis approach. The results of the hierarchical analysis showed that among the criteria, the complexity criterion was of the highest importance. The next priorities from the experts' point of view are the inhibitor or developer factors and the technology criterion.
In recent decades, the theory of Sustainable Development has been introduced to several strands of science. This theory and its special view to communities (Sustainable Community Development) as the cell of urban life, demonstrates the solution to urban problems by highlighting the meaning of city neighborhoods. In the local scale, it is essential to use a collaborative process of development, which is based on the active participation of local people as social capital. In this way, the perception of local residents of a collaborative process is what makes this process successful or otherwise. This article identifies the perception of local residents towards the collaborative process and its positive and negative aspects. This is done using the “Deep Interview” and “Focus Group Discussion” techniques, deployed within the Jolfa Mahalla community, as a sample urban neighborhood in Tehran, with a rich historical background and strong social networks. This paper aims to argue that the lack of participatory culture between people and local residents can lead to the breakdown of relationship and communication between them, but more importantly, the absence of local urban spaces in neighborhoods further augments this problem. Thus, making suitable local spaces encourages people to participate in local development projects.
Multidimensional Description of Social Capital in Different Contexts: With Regard to Indian and Iranian Female Students
The core concept of this article i.e. social capital consists of three main components: scope of social relations , level of social trust, and rate of reciprocity. The research is accomplished through 600 cases of Indian and Iranian female secondary school students and their parents, in two cities of Chandigarh in India and Tehran in Iran. Findings of the research show that the scope of social relations in India is higher than Iran, while the true level which was measured in the social network in Iran was far higher than India. Even the third aspect i.e. the reciprocity is also higher in Iran than India. Therefore, the social capital measured among the Iranian cases is higher than the Indian students and their families. Likewise, the level of trust estimated among Indian people is higher than the true level of trust present in the social network whereas; an exact opposite situation could be seen in Iran. In other words, the different aspects of social capital do not necessarily have a high co-variation among themselves.
Efficiency of Asset-Based Community Development Approach in Revitalization of Deteriorated Neighborhoods (The Case of Tehran, Emamzadeh Hassan Mohalla)
One of the essential problems of urban planning and management in Iran is the failure of implementation and execution of urban development plans. The studies show that lack or poor level of citizen participation is one of the influential reasons to that. So, it is evident that there is a need for “bottom-up” and “community based” sustainable solutions for urban problems. Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD), as an alternative to the commonly need-based approach, is based on identifying and mobilizing assets and capacities (although not being very much) in communities and emphasizes on participation in order to accelerate development. This paper would review the application of ABCD approach and evaluation its efficiency in a residential deteriorated neighborhood of Tehran (Emamzadeh Hassan Mohalla), with specific spatial characteristics and religious background, which is now housing the low class of blue collar workers and losing its population due to deterioration of social condition and physical quality. The results, based on survey, random sampling and statistical analysis, show that social and physical capitals (as the main community assets) have increasing effect on organized participation tendency (as the main goal of ABCD). Subsequent analysis showed that social capital is a direct factor to increase organized participation tendency and consequently neighborhood development, and physical capital, as an indirect factor, serves to increase social capital. Therefore by applying this approach for development, people-based strategies (to enhance participation) and place-based strategies (to enhance social capital), should simultaneously be considered.