رفاه اجتماعی

رفاه اجتماعی

رفاه اجتماعی سال یازدهم پاییز 1390 شماره 42 (مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

مقالات

۱.

جمعیت و توسعه پایدار در ایران(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: ایران توسعه پایدار جمعیت متناسب پرجمعیتی مطلق پرجمعیتی نسبی رشد جمعیت

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴
introduction population growth and sustainable development has significant relationship. The population event and its consequences led the researches of social fields, and environmentalists to react in various ways. The population restrictionist, stationarist and optimulist, have approached the question differently. The present article’ emphasis is on the well proportioned population approach. The idea is that a well proportioned population renders a balance among population, resources and the processes of development, which not only affords for the material and spiritual needs of the members of society. but also guarantees the welfare and happiness of the future generations through optimum exploitation of environment and stable development process.Litlerarure review In some regions with relative or absolute overpopulation, the natural resources have to be used up for consumer expenditures of the increasing population instead of basic and infrastructural investment. In the recent five decades, Iran’s population with an average growth rate of 2.45% has been multiplied 3.7 times. Population growth diverts the areas of investment from job creation, production and economic growth and finally the economic development, to consumer expenditures. The expenses of educational, hygienic, and other services, and the most important - the payment of 90 billion dollars subsidies- is an example of this. Moreover, unemployment, poverty, educational and hygienic problems, the destruction and pollution of environment, and decrease in water resources per person are the consequences of population growth in Iran.conclusion Therefore, it is proposed to regard the policy of controlling the population growth to 0.5% increase at the top of the agenda. Fortunately, the comments of the Shiite and the Sunni religious authorities on the legitimacy of birth control prove that this policy is not contradictory to the religious beliefs, as the quality of population is preferred to its quantity.
۲.

توانمندی و توسعه پایدار در برنامه سوم و چهارم توسعه ایران با رویکرد آمارتیاسن(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: آزاد یهای اساسی برنامه توسعه توانمندی توسعه پایدار شاخص پایداری سن کیفیت زندگی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
Introdaetion: the aim of this research is to analyze the situation of the sustainable development in the third and forth development plan of iran considering Sen’s concept of capability and quality of life, identifying the gap with optimal level. it also determines some factors on sustainable development in the current situation of the country. Method: the research has two phase and methods. The first one includes narrative review and content analysis of iran’s development plans. The second one is hypothesis analysis on the basis of sen’s sustainability index and the analysis of the results. Findings: sustainable development is determined with three focal points human, socio-economic and environmental development, considering the benefits of all generations and in Sen’s approach the concept of capability and freedom. Considering this approach in the third and forth plans, some indicators of sustainability like environment preservation and equal opportunity for promotion of human security and empowerment were included in paper but not the on the level of policy making. conclusion: The situation of sustainable development in the third development plan has been unsatisfactory and the grade of sustainability index is negative, but its trend has been gradually improving in such way that in the last year of the plan we notice positive grade. It exceeded to the forth plan, so we have maximum grade in the year2006. it again fell in the years 2007-80. The other important result is that in the current situation of our country, socioeconomic factor is the most important Factor sustainable development andassociated must be strengthened. In addition, after receiring an acceptable level. Development. cultural and social factors should get importance in policy making. It needs policy makers to take sustainability approach in development procedure.
۳.

رابطه تأمین اجتماعی با توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی در ایران(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: تأمین اجتماعی توسعه اقتصادی اجتماعی تولید ناخالص داخلی توزیع درآمد

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱
۴.

سطح بندی شاخصهای توسعه سلامت استانهای ایران(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: تحلیل عاملی توسعه خدمات بهداشتی و درمانی سلامت

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸
Introduction: An important aspect of society’s development is health development and in the other words the quantity and the quality of people’s access to the health services. Considering that any planning to deliver services to poor regions needs the analysis of the current situation, this research classifies health development index in the country. Method: Using multivariate statistical method of factor analysis in SPSS software, we classified iran’s provinces from the32 health development index view point. Findings: using Factor analysis, five factors were extracted and named: expert human resources, rural health services, medicinal facilities, governmental health services and private sector services. These factors explain 61% of the changes of development level. Conclusion: Resuit showed obvious diffrentiation among provinces considering health services. Tehran is the most developed and Ilam is the most deprived provinces in iran.
۵.

وضعیت سرمایه اجتماعی در تعاونی های تولید روستایی شهرستان کوهدشت عوامل مرتبط با آن(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: اعضاء تعاونی استان لرستان تعاونی های تولید روستایی سرمایه اجتماعی شهرستان کوهدشت

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷
Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the rate of social capital in rural production cooperatives and analysis of its related factors. Method: The statistical population of the study consists of 2820 members of 18 rural production corporations of Koohdasht County in Lorestan province which from 93 people were selected using Cochran formula. In order to increase the accuracy of the data, 100 members were selected by two-stage random sampling technique and were interviewed. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was confrmed as Cronbach alpha coefficients were above 0.70. The questionnaire was validated through getting the comments and opinions of some faculty members and cooperative experts. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS (version 11.5). the Findings: There are significant differences between two with high and low social capital in the gender, marital situation, literacy level, income level, whole of land under ownership, membership precedence in corporation, cooperative principals , participation knowledge of production in productive activities, participation in decision-making meetings and participation in performed training periods. Conclusion: according to results of stepwise Discriminate Analysis, 5 variables of matrimony situation, whole of land under ownership, membership precedence in cooperative, knowledge of cooperative principals, and participation in productive activities, discriminated two groups with high and low social capital in the best way.
۶.

بررسی همبستگی سرمایه اجتماعی و رفاه تولیدکنندگان روستایی و عشایری در استان فارس(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
Intordaetion: The differences in various geographical areas can no longer be explained by the differences in traditional inputs. There is growing evidence that social capital stands for the ability of producers to get benefit, by virtue of membership in social networks or other social structures in economic outcome (Portes, 1998 and Okunmadewa, et al. 2005 cited in Yusuf, 2008). Thus there is a need to complement human capital and physical infrastructure with social capital. In this study we analyzed correlation between social capital- based on the amount of membership in local organizations and participation in the management of these organizations indicators- and welfare of rural and nomadic producers in the Fars province. Method: A summarized model of household welfare regarding household and regional characteristics applied to estimate the role of social capital. In this model social capital beside physical and human capital were put in the per capita expenditure of households as an input. To gather data using stratified random sampling method-based on rangelands area, amount of production and the number of livestock related to rangelands- Abadeh, Darab, Shiraz, Firouzabad, Lar and Mamasani towns in Fars province were selected. In the next step using the random sampling method in different common rangeland units of the selected towns, 432 stakeholders were selected to fill the questionnaire. Findings: The results showed that the correlation between social capital and per capita expenditure was 3 times more than the correlation between human capital and per capita expenditure. Conclusion: Thus social capital plays a more important role in households' welfare compare to human capital. Also, in comparison of physical and human capital we notice that the effect of physical capital was more than human capital on households’ welfare.
۷.

سرمایه اجتماعی و سلامت روانی، مکانیسم ها و مدلهای علی و تعاملی(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
Introduction: Different approaches had identified different explanations about the causes mental diseases incidence. The biological and psychological approaches believe that it is a physiological stressful conditions or childhood experiences. Whereas, the sociological schools believe that the main factor of these diseases are unequal social structures, social roles, absence of social supporting sources and social capital. Litlerature review The studies show that increasing the level of mistrust leads to decrease the level of social commitment, social cooperation and increase in the social pathologies. Social capital declines the effect of negative events in life (such as losing job or family problems) and will make the long – run problems (such as long – run mental and physical diseases) tolerable. this research reviews sociological approaches to the social capital and health, to detect the mechanism in which social capital affect mental health to the theoretical (causative and interactive)related to the topic. The findings based on the literature reviews show that social capital, social and supportive networks lead to feel well, decrease anxiety (stress), increase the strengthen of defensive system of the body and finally improve the mental health. conclusion This study attempt to detect the mechanism in which mental health is affected by social capital regarding interactive models and theoretical models (causative – linear) includes the models in the macro, median and micro levels. Finally theoretical models of Nan Lin and James Colman were chose as the final models which could study these two variables in the median level.
۸.

رابطه سرمایه اجتماعی با سلامت اجتماعی در ایران(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: تعیین کنند ه های اجتماعی سلامت سرمایه اجتماعی سلامت اجتماعی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
intorduction: Social capital is a well - known social determinant of health. This study intends to determine the relation between social capital and social health indicators and show how social capital influences social health. Method: one of the specific type of correlation study is ecologic or aggregate study in which research unit is group not individual, we used this kind of study. Social health indicators and social capital data were gathered from formal institution and national survey of measuring social capital in Iran in 2007. To analyze data, SPSS 15 was used. Finding: The results show that there are significant relationships between social capital and poverty, population growth rate, violence, literacy rate, unemployment and insurance coverage as social health indicators and there are positive correlation between social capital and poverty, population growth rate and unemployment. Altogether, the correlation between social capital and total social health (calculated by principal component analysis) in Iran is significant (r = -0.54, p value = 0.001). based on 0.30 coefficient of determination, 30 percent of variance in social health can be explained by social capital. Conclusion: Positive correlation between social capital and poverty, population growth rate and unemployment can be explained by this view that, on the one hand, predominant type of social capital in developing provinces of Iran is old social capital with intra group relationships, restricted and specific trust. On the other hand, old (traditional) social capital in developed provinces of Iran was eroded and new (modern) social capital didn’t form, therefore we can see distorted and unequal development in this province such as Tehran and Esfahan. Thus in order to social health promotion and improvement we need to pay attention to various kind of social capital, especially new social capital in health policy and planning.
۹.

رابطه سرمایه اجتماعی و سلامت روان زنان و مردان(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: سلامت روان سرمایه اجتماعی زنان مردان

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۲ تعداد دانلود : ۳۵
Intorduction: Mental health is the main part of social welfare and the social capital is an important variable for wellbeing and social health. Results of some studies show that, in Iran, women have higher level of psychological disorder and lower social capital than men. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between social capital and mental health in women and men. Method: to analyze the relation, we implement a survey on a sample of 300 persons working for ministry of education. Was selected The instrument applied in this research was Goldberg mental health inventory. Three indicators including social confidence, social support and social participation applied to measure social capital. Finding:There was a significant relationship between social capital and mental health. Also there were significant differences between women and men. The finding of multiple regression showed that social participation, social support, personal trust, generalized trust, gender and age, explained %40 of mental health’s variance. conclusion: Our findings determine gender-specific limitation of social capital as a resource for mental health. a Finding which needs more attention infuture studies.
۱۰.

رابطه سرمایه اجتماعی با ارزشهای معطوف به توسعه زنان(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: ارزش اجتماعی توسعه سرمایه اجتماعی جهانی گرایی عام گرایی علمگرایی و عقلانیت

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵
Intorduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the relation between social capital and those values which sociologists prescribe for the development of societies. Considering the fact that values have their roots in social macro structure, and regarding the appearance of women public sphere, the main research question is that, do woman's modern values differ across diverse social capital. Therefore, this research has striven to explain the effect of women's social capital on their values orientation. Method: The research is a survey questionnaires were given to 504, 15-45 women in Shiraz. For this purpose 342 students were chosen from different field of study by random sampling. The questioner has face construct validity and reliability credits. Cronbach's Alpha is applied to assess reliability. To improvement of construct validity Factor analysis is applied. Findings: Social capital has a significant relation with globalism, universalism, rationality and desire to gain knowledge. Conclusion: social capital that always had been missed in development procedure has a significant relation with development related values. In other words it has a determining effect on improvement of women’s cognition about development related values.
۱۱.

رابطه توزیع درآمد(شاخص منتخب ضریب جینی) و اقتصاد سلامت(شاخص منتخب مرگ و میر و علل مرگ) در ایران(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: اقتصاد سلامت نابرابری درآمد میانگین درآمد شاخص توزیع درآمد داد ه های تلفیقی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷
Introduction: Distribution policy may absolutely or relatively effect on economy condition especially economy of the poor and disadvantaged social classes. On the other hand, since the importance and necessity of health as an undeniable right of life is evident for everybody, it can be confirmed that health is an ability which brings values for human life in other word, health is a wealth. Method: The present research studies the counter effects of these two important socioeconomic subjects, i.e. income- health inequality by defining two indices of health (Selected Death Rate & Reasons of Death) and income distribution index (Gini Coefficient). After explanation of model, the concerned four equations have been estimated using panel data of the years 1982-2006. E views 6 Software has been used for estimation of model coefficients. Moreover, model estimation is fixed based on POOL System and Effects Method. Health- Income equations have been estimated with two criteria of Gini Coefficient and Income Mean. Findings: The results show that while health depends on both factors of income mean and income inequity, but according to the investigations, income inequity effects more on society health. Conclusion: In societies with lower income inequity we see more health for the citizens. By interprovincial studies conducted on different income groups, it concluded that in provincial groups with high and low income, income inequity effects on society health and in comparison with income mean, income inequity effects more on society health.
۱۲.

وضعیت فقر در استان کرمان: 1385-1368(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: خط فقر خط فقر مطلق شاخص FGT

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰
Introduction: due to importance of poverty reduction in reducing social problems, sustainable development of a country and increase of social welfare level or to detect qualified persons using welfare programs, to study the poverty phenomenon has to be studied This can help policy makers in poverty elimination. Method: we used the statistical data on household budgets for measuring poverty indices (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke).this study conducted for both urban and rural areas of Kerman province and their comparison with corresponding Indices in National level. Findings: in general, the trend of poverty measures in both urban and rural areas has been declining. Using independent T test we found that incidence and intensity of poverty in rural areas has been higher than the corresponding figures for the urban areas. all of three measures in urban areas of province was higher than the same measures in urban areas of Iran.Hypothesis of increasing poverty measures in rural areas of province than rural areas of Iran were confirmed only about two variables (e.g. P0, P1). Conclusion: although the general trend of poverty in both urban and rural areas of Kerman province has been declining , but in some years this trend has high fluctuation that show poverty reduction policies has not been applied in strategic and sustainable program and has not been with strict identification of the poor. Increased severity of poverty in rural areas of Kerman needs more attention by policy makers to identify the poor and allocate helps to them, in the end of study regarding to socio-economic properties of Kerman province, we propose recommendations for poverty reduction in province.
۱۳.

تحلیل رفاهی سیاست های یارانه ها در اقتصاد ایران(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: آثار اجتماعی-اقتصادی ایران توزیع درآمد سیاست تغییر یارانه ها هدفمندی یارانه

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۵
مقدمه : یکی از جنجال برانگیزترین سیاست های اقتصادی در سال های پس از جنگ دوم جهانی و به ویژه از دهه 1970 میلادی به بعد پرداخت یارانه و تبعات آن بوده است. شعار حذف یا به اصطلاح هدفمندسازی یارانه ها که در دولت نهم مطرح شد، پس از یک وقفه نسبتاً طولانی در دولت دهم مجدداً مطرح شد و پس از تصویب در مجلس هشتم هم اکنون در حال اجراست. این مقاله با توجه به اهمیت موضوع به بررسی هدفمندی یارانه ها و آثار و تبعات اقتصادی و اجتماعی آن پرداخته است. اصلاح یارانه ها، در بلندمدت و با فرض آماده بودن زیرساخت های لازم، حذف یارانه ها ضروری است، اما با توجه به مدیریت اقتصادی فعلی اعمال سیاست مربوطه با دشوارهایی همراه بوده است. دولت اخیر (1390-1384)، ادعا می کند که از اواخر آذر(اوایل دی ماه) 1389، سیاست مربوطه را به اجرا گذاشته و ادامه می دهد و بحث از موفقیت سیاست مربوطه می کند. این پژوهش ضمن دفاع از سیاست عمومی اصلاح یارانه، با توجه به ضعف های اصل برنامه، فقدان زیرساخت ها و ابزارهای اطلاع رسانی اجرای برنامه را موفقیت آمیز نمی داند. روش: در این تحقیق ضمن به کارگیری مطالعات کتابخانه ای، از روش اقتصادسنجی و الگوی خود رگرسیون برداری بر اساس داده های سری زمانی 1391-1353 استفاده می شود. یافته ها: 1- ضریب جینی در ایران در دوره مورد مطالعه حول 55/0 - 35/0 بوده که نشان می دهد توزیع درآمد در ایران ناعادلانه است. 2- در شرایط تورم رکودی، تداوم بحران اقتصادی، نبود زیرساخت های لازم، نداشتن مدل اقتصادی و موارد مشابه، هدفمندی یارانه ها وضعیت توزیع درآمد را نه تنها بهبود نخواهد داد بلکه حتی باعث می شود که طبقات محروم جامعه را تحت فشار قرار دهد و منجر به بدتر شدن وضعیت رفاهی آن ها شود. بحث: با فرض عدم آمادگی زیرساخت ها، سیاست هدفمندی یارانه ها در بلندمدت باعث کاهش نابرابری می شود، اما این برنامه باوجود مدیریت اقتصادی دوره اخیر (1391-1384) باعث افزایش نابرابری می شود.
۱۴.

نگرش دانشجویان و اساتید دانشگاه شهید بهشتی نسبت به مجازات اعدام(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: استاد دانشجو مجازات اعدام نگرش

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸
مقدمه: یکی از موضوعات مهمی که در دهه های اخیر در بسیاری از کشورهای صنعتی بحث انگیز بوده و دولتمردان را وادار به تجدید نظر دراین زمینه کرده است، قانون مجازات اعدام است. کشورهای اروپایی با ملغی کردن این قانون، هیچ مجرم و قاتلی را دیگر اعدام نمی کنند و اعمال آن را نقض حقوق بشر می دانند ولی هنوز هم کشورها و دولت هایی هستند که به دلایل سیاسی، مذهبی و غیره هنوز این مجازات را در قوانین خود حفظ کرده اند. دو رویکرد کلی نسبت به این مجازات وجود دارد: عده ای معتقدند که مجازات اعدام عاملی بازدارنده از جرم و جنایت است و گروه دیگر چنین مجازاتی را در کاهش ارتکاب جرم بی تأثیر می دانند. هدف این تحقیق آگاهی از نگرش افراد تحصیل کرده و روشنفکر دانشگاهی در خصوص اعمال مجازات اعدام و نوع جرایم مستوجب آن است. روش: برای این منظور 342 دانشجو و 43 استاد دانشگاه شهید بهشتی از گروه های تحصیلی مختلف با روش نمونه گیری در دسترس و متناسب با حجم انتخاب و با استفاده از پرسش نامه محقق ساخته 38 سئوالی (مورد تأیید3 تن از اساتید ذی ربط و با اعتبار و روایی مورد قبول و آلفای کرونباخ 82/0) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. یافته ها: نتایج در دو گروه اساتید و دانشجویان نشان داد که هر دو گروه با حذف کلی مجازات اعدام مخالفند و بیش تر نمونه های مطالعه با این مجازات موافقند (دانشجویان 6/69% و اساتید 8/48%)، همچنین تفاوت این نگرش در دو گروه معنی دار است(آلفا= 05/0). نتایج در خصوص ارتباط بین جنس و نگرش دانشجویان نشان داد که دختران بیش تر از پسران خواهان مجازات اعدام بوده و این تفاوت از نظر آماری معنی دار است(آلفا= 01/0). اما ارتباط بین جنس و نگرش در گروه اساتید معنی دار نبود. بحث: از نتایج این مطالعه چنین استنباط می شود که معمولاً گروه های آسیب پذیر بیش تر خواهان حذف افرادی هستند که حقوق اجتماعی را نادیده گرفته و با ظلم و تعدی به حقوق افراد ضعیف تجاوز می کنند. یافته های این تحقیق با نتایج مطالعه توماس کیل و ویتو جنرو (1998) و مارلا ساندیز و ادموند مک گارل (1995) هماهنگ بود.

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