رحمان صحراگرد

رحمان صحراگرد

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۲۸ مورد.
۱.

Processing Instruction Revisited in the Iranian EFL Context and the Moderating Role of Grammatical Sensitivity

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
The present study was primarily aimed at investigating how Processing instruction would affect the Iranian EFL learners’ grammatical knowledge and how the effectiveness of this method would be modulated by the learners’ individual differences in grammatical sensitivity. To this end, three senior intact high school classes were selected and randomly assigned to two experimental and one control group. Each of the experimental groups was treated with one operationalization of Processing instruction, namely, full PI (n=24), and Structured input (n=24) while the control group (n=20) received traditional output-based instruction (TI) on the English passive structure over three weekly sessions. The results illustrated that Processing instruction was more effective than TI since it improved learners’ both interpretation and production while TI only could improve learners’ production. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the positive impact of Processing instruction was not affected by the learners’ differences in grammatical sensitivity. All in all, this suggests that as long as a grammatical structure is affected by an underlying processing problem, Processing instruction is possibly a more effective pedagogical option compared to traditional output-based instruction. Furthermore, Processing instruction seems to work for all learners irrespective of their differences in terms of grammatical sensitivity.
۲.

The Potential Combined Effects of Task Complexity and Planning Types on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Production Performance

تعداد بازدید : ۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶
This study examined the combined effects of two task complexity levels (i.e., high- and low-complex) and two planning conditions including pre-task planning and on-line planning on Iranian intermediate language learners’ speech production regarding complexity, accuracy, and fluency. To this end, 90 intermediate EFL learners from a language institute in Shiraz were randomly assigned into two control and four experimental groups. At first, the language learners in all groups participated in the speaking pretest. Presented with a series of picture description tasks, the participants were asked to narrate a story. During 10 treatment sessions of picture description task performance, the experimental and control groups attempted different planning time conditions including pre-task planning, online planning, and no-planning along with task complexity levels. Finally, following the last session, the posttest was administered to all participants. The narrations analysis, as well as the results of Mixed between-within groups ANOVAs and a series of one-way ANOVAs, manifested that language learners in the pre-task high complexity group outperformed all other groups in terms of complexity. Moreover, the online low complexity group and online high complexity group outperformed the pre-task planning low complexity, no-planning low complexity, and no-planning high complexity groups regarding accuracy. With regard to fluency, the pre-task planning low complexity group significantly outperformed the no-planning low complexity, no-planning high complexity, and online high complexity groups. It was also concluded that pre-task planning affected language learners’ speech fluency. The implications of the results are also addressed.
۳.

The Most Common Challenges Facing Iranian English Majors in the Translation Process from English into Persian

تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۵۶
The main priority for university translation educators is to improve the quality and outcomes of translation courses. To achieve such a goal, the instructors are required to integrate learners' needs, identified with the help of a needs survey, into syllabus content. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to identify the Iranian English majors' difficulties in translating English texts since once a problem is identified, exploring the best pedagogical solutions would follow. The aim was accomplished through qualitative descriptive research conducted at Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch tracing the errors committed by the English majors in their exam papers in academic years 2016-2019. Following the model proposed by Miremadi (2008), the syntactic and lexical problems were identified in the exam papers collected during six semesters. Moreover, three more categories were added to the list as the data analysis moved forward: culture problems, stylistic problems, and miscellaneous errors with detailed subdivisions. What appeared to be worthy of attention in the results was the students' weakness in text and sentence segmentation to find the function of the components to approach textual meaning, resulting from the students' poor English language proficiency. The results also revealed the students' poor topical knowledge as well as the lack of knowledge of translation techniques and strategies.
۴.

On the Development of a Tentative Model of a Flipped Classroom Instruction and Its Effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ General IELTS Writing

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۷
Flipped learning is an instructional approach that underlines the efficient use of classroom time by shifting the conventional activities of learners and educators in and out of the class. In flipped learning, students' roles as passive listeners change to active participants in classroom activities. The present study was designed to build a model of flipped classroom instruction (FCI) for the general IELTS writing. Additionally, this research intended to examine if there is a meaningful difference between the students’ general IELTS writing scores in the flipped class and those in the conventional class. An FCI model was carefully developed based on the thematic analysis of the previous flipped classroom studies about writing. Then it was operationally explained for a general IELTS writing class. The participants of the study consisted of 100 male and female Iranian EFL learners. Fifty learners were randomly selected to experience FCI and the other fifty learners received conventional classroom instruction. The findings revealed that the learners in the flipped classes, on average, acquired higher scores than the learners in conventional classes.   
۵.

تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی داستان «ماهی سیاه کوچولو» صمد بهرنگی

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۱
«صمد بهرنگی»، منتقد نظام تعلیم و تربیت و ادبیات کودکان پیش از خود است و با بهره¬گیری از قابلیت¬های ادبیات کودکان سعی دارد تا از آن برای نیل به اهداف ایدئولوژیک خود استفاده کند. این پژوهش تلاش می¬کند تا نشان دهد که چگونه ادبیات داستانی کودکان متأثر از گفتمان¬های موجود و ساختار اجتماعی مولد این گفتمان¬ها، برداشتی متفاوت از تعلیم و تربیت ارائه می¬کند و چگونه گفتمان¬ها در بازتاب مفاهیم تعلیم و تربیت نقش دارند. در این پژوهش سعی بر این است تا با رویکرد «نورمن فرکلاف»، داستان «ماهی سیاه کوچولو» صمد بهرنگی بررسی، تحلیل و تبیین گردد. هدف ما این است که با تحلیل دقیق داستان «ماهی سیاه کوچولو» بهرنگی نشان دهیم که متن، معرف چه گفتمان یا گفتمان¬هایی است و این متن، چه رابطه¬¬ای میان تعلیم و تربیت و ابعاد اجتماعی و سیاسی برقرار می سازد. بافت موقعیتی، فرض وجود دیدگاه ایدئولوژیک بهرنگی را تقویت می¬کند. از دیدگاه تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، نتیجه این پژوهش این است که بهرنگی در این داستان، چهار گفتمان رایج معاصر خود یعنی استبداد، ملی، مذهبی و چپ مارکسیست را توصیف و نقد کرده است. گفتمان چهارم، گفتمان غالب و تعلق گفتمانی بهرنگی است. بهرنگی در این اثر سعی دارد تا با انتخاب واژگان خاص، شخصیت¬ها، مکان¬ها و هم¬آیی و جنبه¬های استعاری، گفتمان خود را بر سایر گفتمان¬ها برتری بخشد. مضامین تعلیم و تربیت در این داستان اغلب متأثر از گفتمان چپ و دیگر گفتمان¬های تقابل گر رایج و در رویارویی با گفتمان نظام سلطه (گفتمان استبداد) شکل گرفته است.
۶.

Accounting for the Discrepancies in the New Iranian EFL National Curriculum from the Professional and Practical Standpoints

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴
Abstract The present investigation is an endeavor to scrutinize the Iranian EFL professors’ and teachers’ viewpoints towards the status quo as well as the constituents of the current Iranian EFL national curriculum. Two questionnaires based on teachers and experts’ focus groups and study’s objectives were designed. The participants of the study included 306 Iranian EFL teachers and 13 Iranian EFL professors. The teachers’ questionnaire was analyzed through SPSS version 21 and the professors’ questionnaire was analyzed through coding. The findings revealed that both teachers and professors do not have positive attitudes towards the new curriculum. In spite of the educational reform in Iran and writing the new curriculum and the new textbooks, time allotment, load of skills in each English book, and untrained teachers hinder the new curriculum to reach its target, i.e. communication with the world. Therefore, to fulfill the objectives of the new curriculum, Educational Department of Iran should remove the difficulties.
۷.

Iranian Adult Speakers' Perceptions toward Linguistic Taboos and Euphemisms in Iranian Society: A Sociolinguistic View

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۰
In recent years, the line of research on the socio-pragmatic aspects of language and language use has been increasing very rigorously. In this regard, taboos as well as euphemisms, due to their significant role in impacting on the interactions among interlocutors, have been the subject of research in various societies and cultures from a vast variety of aspects. That being so, the present study was an attempt to explore the perceptions of Iranian adult speakers of linguistic taboos and euphemisms in Iranian society. To achieve this aim, a convenient sample of 48 Iranian adult speakers, 24 males and 24 females, from Shiraz, Iran was recruited to participate in the study. The researcher interviewed them one by one and audio recorded their answers for further analysis and to determine their perceptions of linguistic taboos and euphemisms in Iranian society. The findings indicated that: a. Most of the participants believed that sex is the most offensive topic in Iranian society; b. All of the participants believed that people should use euphemisms in their speech and should take after of their speech especially in formal situations; c. Most of the Iranian adult speakers believed that the most important factor which leads to the use of taboo words is anger; and d. Most of the participants, both male and female, said they do not discuss taboo topics in mixed-sex groups.
۸.

Expert and Novice Iranian EFL Teachers’ Professional Knowledge at Iranian Language Institutes and Universities

تعداد بازدید : ۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
This study sought to compare Iranian EFL novice and expert teachers regarding their professional knowledge at Iranian language institutes and universities. To achieve the aim of study, a questionnaire was developed based on the literature, the theoretical framework and the results of a qualitative study carried out by Yazdanpanah and Sahragard (2017). This questionnaire was administered to the whole sample of the study who was 200 Iranian EFL teachers from different genders and educational contexts. The participants were selected conveniently as going through random sampling was not possible. Based on the results of the exploratory factor analysis, six factors emerged under the main category of professional knowledge for Iranian EFL teachers. The findings of this study revealed that: (a) Iranian EFL expert teachers have higher levels of professional knowledge than Iranian EFL novice teachers (b) expert teachers have higher levels of knowledge about language and knowledge of language skills and components than novice teachers (c) expert and novice participants of this study are more or less similar in the modification they make in their teaching presentation, and d) there was not a significant difference between Iranian EFL expert teachers and Iranian EFL novice teachers due to knowledge of language teaching, knowledge of teaching methods and knowledge of language learning.
۹.

Is There a Place for Post-method Pedagogy in the Educational Context of Iran: Voices of EFL Teachers

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۴
In an attempt to liberate teachers from deficiencies of the conventional methods, Kumaravadivelu (1994) proposed the concept of “post method condition” to overcome the challenges caused by the very nature of methods. The literature regarding post-method pedagogy has indicated that most of the studies focus on its theoretical aspect, while the practical realization has been largely untouched. To this end, the present study was an endeavor to unveil the perspective of Iranian EFL teachers concerning the applicability of this pedagogy. 21 male and female in-service EFL teachers from different cities in Iran (Shiraz, Marvdasht, Bushehr, Tehran, and Gonbad-e-Kavus) participated in this qualitative research where data came from semi-structured interviews as the primary source of data collection. The interview data were transcribed and coded using Straus and Corbin’s (1998) constant comparative method, including three codification processes of open, axial and selective codings. The finding indicated that absence of required autonomy among teachers, teacher’s job security, students’ passivity, absence of critical thinking skills among students, dominance of transmission model of teacher education, inefficiency of the textbooks, teacher’s focus on coverage and grade pressure, and demanding nature of post-method pedagogy as the main pedagogical barriers which prevent language teachers from applying this pedagogy in their teaching practices.
۱۰.

Making sense of EFL teacher agency: Insights from an Iran case study

کلید واژه ها: Iran teacher education Teacher Agency English as a Foreign Language

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۵۶
This investigation set out to look into the issue of teachers’ exercise of agency in the Iranian EFL context. More specifically, as part of a larger study, it reports on the ways two Iranian Ministry of Education teachers make sense of and operate in the country’s educational setting under the demands of a centralist system of education. Priestley, Biesta, & Robinson’s (2013) framework of teacher agency formed the conceptual backbone of the present study as well as guiding the data collection/analysis of the study. Qualitative data, from semi-structured interviews as well as follow-up data collection procedures, were gleaned from the participants over the course of an academic year and were subjected to analytical interpretation in the light of the said framework. The researchers came up with findings which, in the main, gave more weight to the well-roundedness of Priestly, Biesta, & Robinson’s model of teacher agency. The results also pointed to the highly situated nature of teacher responsiveness and action, thereby undermining the still prevalent views of the essentialist and idealized character of (teacher) agency. The results of the study are liable to be of use, among others, to case-based teacher education programs.
۱۱.

A Comparison of Expert and Novice Iranian EFL Teachers’ Procedural Knowledge in Iranian Language Institutes and Universities

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۴
This study sought to compare Iranian EFL novice and expert teachers regarding their procedural knowledge in Iranian language institutes and universities. A questionnaire was developed based on the literature, the theoretical framework, and the results of a qualitative study. This questionnaire was administered to the whole sample of the study who was 200 Iranian EFL teachers from different genders and educational contexts. The participants were selected conveniently as going through random sampling was not possible. Based on the results of the exploratory factor analysis, seven factors emerged under the main category of procedural knowledge for these teachers. The findings revealed that: (a) Iranian EFL expert teachers have higher levels of procedural knowledge than Iranian EFL novice teachers (b) expert teachers have higher levels of classroom management knowledge, topic management knowledge and students involved in learning knowledge than novice teachers (c) expert teachers have the knowledge to make rapport (good emotional relationship) with their students more easily and effectively than novice teachers (d) there is not a significant difference between Iranian EFL expert teachers and Iranian EFL novice teachers due to knowledge of talk management, knowledge of strategies while teaching and knowledge of teachers’ learning strategies for learners in the classroom.
۱۲.

A Putative Model of Transformative Teaching Self

تعداد بازدید : ۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
Reconciliating the logics of Post-method Era, Critical Pedagogy, and Sociocultural Theory in its conceptual framework, this study postulated Iranian EFL teachers’ socio-pedagogical identity as comprising conformity, criticality, and conformity-criticality mediation in order to explore and model the different aspects of Iranian EFL teachers’ “transformative teaching self,” probably contributing to their pedagogical ZPD and sociocultural identity development. To this end, Systematic Reflexive Constructivist Grounded Theory was utilized as the methodology of this 63-participant study managing both the data collection procedures, i.e. interview, focus group, observation, field notes, and document analysis, and the data analysis procedures, i.e. tabulation, open coding, initial memoing, axial coding, intermediate memoing, selective coding, advanced memoing, and theoretical sampling. The findings of the study were put into a putative model, delineating Iranian EFL teachers’ transformative teaching self at its core, which can constantly stimulate the teachers’ three interactive triplex identity types, i.e. conformative, critical, and mediational identities. Finally, this study entailed some implications such as updating teachers’ knowledge of mediational identity, professional retraining about mediation, encouraging teachers to achieve an understanding of their transformative teaching self, and preparing them to be efficient transformative teaching learners and practitioners of the model in this study.
۱۳.

بررسی تأثیر دوزبانگی و جنسیت بر هوش زبانی و هوش ریاضی- منطقی با مقایسة دانش آموزان دوزبانه و یک زبانه

کلید واژه ها: رشد شناختی دوزبانگی هوش زبانی یک زبانگی هوش ریاضی - منطقی

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی زبان شناسی میان رشته ای ها روان شناسی زبان
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی زبان شناسی علوم مرتبط آموزش زبان دوم
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۶۶۶
بررسی تأثیر دوزبانگی و جنسیت بر هوش زبانی و هوش ریاضی- منطقی با مقایسة دانش آموزان دوزبانه و یک زبانه پژوهش حاضر در ابتدا شرح مختصری را پیرامون نظریه پردازی دو طرز نگرش در مورد ماهیت هوش، ارائه می نماید. سپس با نگاهی تاریخی و مستند به رابطة دوزبانگی و رشد شناختی، مبانی نظری تحقیق را شرح می دهد. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، بررسی تأثیر دوزبانگی و جنسیت بر هوش زبانی و هوش ریاضی- منطقی با مقایسة دانش آموزان دوزبانه و یک زبانه است. از میان 67031 نفر دانش آموز مشغول به تحصیل مقطع پیش دانشگاهی در سال تحصیلی 91-92 در دو استان، در مجموع 205 نفر در خوزستان و 243 نفر در فارس گزینش شده و در این تحقیق شرکت کردند. به منظور آزمودن این دو مؤلفة هوشی از پرسش نامة «هوش چندگانه» (Armstrong, 1992) استفاده شده است. پس از واکاوی آماری داده ها، نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که دانش آموزان دوزبانه در بخش های هوش زبانی و هوش ریاضی- منطقی، در مقایسه با دانش آموزان یک زبانه برتری دارند. علاوه بر این، با در نظر گرفتن متغیر جنس، تفاوت معناداری بین نمرات خودارزیابی در هوش منطقی- ریاضی به نفع پسران وجود دارد. درحالی که دختران در هوش زبانی به طور معناداری از پسران برتری دارند. نتایج چنین مطالعاتی که حاکی از تفاوت دانش آموزان در مؤلفه های هوشی است، می تواند به تدوین گران کتاب های درسی و معلمان آگاهی دهد تا بستر لازم را برای پایه ریزی فعالیت های متنوع آموزشی مبتنی بر سبک های یادگیری و قابلیت های هوشی فراگیران فراهم کنند.
۱۴.

Participatory Approach from both Teachers and EFL Learners’ perspective

تعداد بازدید : ۳۸ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰
Purpose: In participatory approach to second language teaching and learning, students actively engage in their own learning process and collaborate with others (Cobb, 1994; Greeno, 1998) to achieve their goals. Also, collaborative learning has been shown to encourage the growth of student interdependence (Bruffee, 1999), responsibility (Totten, Sills, Digby, & Russ, 1991), interpersonal skills (Rymes, 1997), and cognitive and critical thinking skills (Johnson & Johnson, 1986). Methodology: Adopting a sociocultural perspective, the present study has attempted to explore the attitude of teachers and learners toward the effectiveness of the method. In so doing, 60 Iranian EFL learners from two intact classes participated in the study, in which the learners from the two classes were randomly assigned to one control group and one experimental group. For fourteen sessions, the researcher in the control group class followed her regular teaching practice through the conventional book-based method of conducting an English class. In the experimental group class, however, the researcher adopted the participatory approach tasks and activities, in which she applied various participatory approach-based techniques, activities, role play, and problem solving activities, group work and collaborative tasks in the classroom instruction. Findings: Results of the comparison of the effects of the experimental participatory group and the control conventional group revealed that although the students in both groups improved their scores on the IELTS posttest, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental group’s overall performance and that of the control group. Conclusion: Results of the interview with the students and teachers also revealed that both the students and the teachers had positive attitudes towards implementing the participatory approach and they were willing to use at least some of the tasks and activities in their future courses.
۱۵.

On Implementation of Participatory Approach: Yes or NO?

تعداد بازدید : ۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۸
The structure of socio-culture encouraged the following study to investigate the ways participation in collaborative learning tasks can have an effect on the overall English proficiency of EFL students’ academic achievement. The learners’ engagement in learning and collaboration with others for achieving their goals often happen in participatory approach to second language teaching and learning (Cobb, 1994; Greeno, 1998). In a same way, collaborative learning plays a good role in increasing learners’ interdependence (Bruffee, 1999), responsibility (Totten, Sills, Digby, & Russ, 1991), interpersonal skills (Rymes, 1997), and cognitive and critical thinking skills (Johnson & Johnson, 1986). Therefore, both the control and study group were randomly selected from 60 Iranian EFL learners of two intact classes. The first group which was the control group was exposed to regular teaching process through the conventional book-based method. While, in experimental group activities such as role play, problem solving, group work and collaborative tasks in the classroom instruction were mostly used. Accordingly, scores on the IELTS posttest in both groups improved but, the statistics of their overall performance showed that there is no significant difference. However, separate skills on the IELTS exam needed some analyses the result of which contended that the scores of experimental group on the speaking skill was significantly higher. Clearly, the scores on the vocabulary and grammar posttest in experimental group were significantly higher. In conclusion, higher mean scores indicate that EFL learners’ vocabulary and grammar learning will be facilitated through both participatory approach and collaborative activities. In fact, the more interactions among learners in classroom activities are used, improvement of speaking skills can be encouraged. As the results of the students’ and teachers’ interview revealed, both students and teachers’ attitudes towards participatory approach were positive and were also highly inclined to receive such tasks and activities in future
۱۶.

On the Development of a Model of Discipline-specific Reading Strategies in the Context of Iranian EFL Learners

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰
Reading strategies are seen as supportive means to help learners process and comprehend English texts effectively. The present research probed to posit a discipline-specific model of reading strategies for Iranian TEFL postgraduate students. The motive behind developing a local model of reading strategy is twofold: first, a variety of postgraduate students admitted for M.A and Ph.D. programs, either may not have received their first degrees in TEFL or they are TEFL graduates who lag behind disciplinary-knowledge in terms of reading. Consequently, Twenty- eight postgraduate students majoring in English Language Teaching from Shiraz University, Isfahan University, Yazd University and Islamic Azad university of Bandar-Abbas wherein M.A and Ph.D. programs in TEFL are offered were asked to brainstorm their ideas as to how they approach technical materials in English. Conducting a 3-session semi-structured interview with 22 participants and focus-group interviews with six participants, the researchers then transcribed and codified the data according to Corbin and Strauss (2014) systematic steps of open, axial and selective coding for grounded theory. The findings revealed a six factor model encompassing 32 categories. The factors include: a) previewing the content, b) recognition of the salient and pronounced features, C) emphasis and clarification upon the significant features, d) consulting auxiliary sources, e) ruminating and reflecting upon the text, and f) reviewing the gist of materials. As a matter of fact, the proposed model can help postgraduate students move away from teacher authority and develop reading autonomy.
۱۷.

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: مقایسه نشانگرهای درگیرکننده انگلیسی در مقالات رشته های علوم انسانی و علوم محض (English Engagement Markers: A Comparison of Humanities and Science Journal Articles)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۵
نشانگرهای درگیر کننده از عناصر مهم زبان هستند که خواننده را درگیر تعامل با متن می کنند. علی رغم اهمیت آنها کار تخصصی زیادی جهت مقایسه آنها در متون علوم انسانی و علوم محض صورت نگرفته است. مطالعه حاضر تحلیلی کمی و کیفی از مقالات چهار رشته در علوم انسانی (روانشناسی، جامعه شناسی، اقتصاد، و حقوق) و چهار رشته در علوم محض (ریاضیات، زمین شناسی، فیزیک، و زیست شناسی) از نشانگر های درگیر کننده در زبان انگلیسی ارایه می دهد. از هررشته 16 مقاله به طور تصادفی انتخاب شدند. درهمه ی قسمت های مقالات نشانگرهای درگیر کننده جستجو و مشخص شدند. سپس آماری از آنها تهیه شد و مقایسه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که میزان استفاده از نشانگرها در علوم انسانی بطور معنا داری از علوم محض بیشتر است. همچنین مشخص شد که از سال 1990 تا 2000 استفاده از این نشانگرها در مقالات هر دوعلم افزایش یافته است.
۱۸.

Investigating the Predominant Levels of Learning Objectives in General English Books (بررسی اهداف یادگیری در کتب زبان عمومی تالیف شده توسط نویسندگان انگلیسی زبان و فارسی زبان با کمک چارچوب اصلاح شده ی بلوم)

کلید واژه ها: چارچوب اصلاح شده ی بلوم کتب زبان عمومی نویسندگان انگلیسی زبان و فارسی زبان

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۰۳
این تحقیق در نظر دارد مجموعه ا ی کتاب های زبان عمومی تالیف شده توسط نویسندگان انگلیسی زبان (4کتاب) و فارسی زبان (5 کتاب) را از حیث اهداف یادگیری در چارچوب اصلاح شده ی بلوم (2011) ارزیابی کند که دریابد کدام سطوح از چارچوب اصلاح شده ی بلوم در این کتابها بارزتر هستند . بدین منظور محتوای کتابها براساس طرح کدگذاری شده که توسط رزمجو و کاظم بور (2012) طراحی شده، کدگذاری شد. پایایی طرح کدگذاری شده نیز مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. سپس اطلاعات موجود مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت و فراوانی و درصد وقوع اهداف یادگیری متفاوت مورد محاسبه واقع شد. طبق یافته های این تحقیق, برجسته ترین سطوح یادگیری در کتابهای تالیف شده توسط نویسندگان انگلیسی زبان و فارسی زبان، سطوح پایینی مهارتهای اندیشیدن یا همان سه سطح پایینی در چارچوب اصلاح شده ی بلوم می باشند. با این وجود، سطوح بالایی مهارتهای اندیشیدن یا همان سه سطح بالایی در چارچوب اصلاح شده ی بلوم در کتاب های تالیف شده توسط نویسندگان انگلیسی زبان بیشتر دیده میشود . به طور کلی از تحقیق حاضر برمی آید که کتاب های تالیف شده توسط نویسندگان فارسی زبان نمی تواند زبان آموزان را به تفکر انتقادی وادارد. در پایان پیشنهاداتی چند به معلمان و همچنین طراحان کتاب ارایه شده است.
۱۹.

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: انسان نمایی در فراگیری بهینه زبان بوسیله فناوری: آیا تاثیر معلم مجازی در آموزش اصطلاحات زبان دوم در محیط های چند رسانه ای برحسب انسان نما بودن معلم متفاوت است؟ (On Anthropomorphism in Technology-Enhanced Language Learning: Does Modality Matter in Agent-Based Multimedia Instruction on L2 Idioms?)

کلید واژه ها: بار شناختی اثر افزونگی اثر مدالیته انسان نمایی آموزگار مجازی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۹۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۳
تحقیق حاضر هدفی دو سویه را دنبال کرده است: از یک سو، تصدیق فرضیه مدعی آموزش اصطلاحات زبان انگلیسی بوسیله معلم مجازی و از سوی دیگر، این فرضیه نیز که انسان نمایی، همچنین، می تواند با استفاده از معلم مجازی در امر آموزش تاثیرگذار باشد. جهت آزمایش فرضیات، شرکت کنندگان بوسیله معلم واقعی، یک معلم مجازی انسان نما و یا یک معلم مجازی غیر انسان نما به فراگیری 128 اصطلاح زبان انگلیسی مبادرت ورزیدند. بررسی عملکرد فراگیران بوسیله آزمون های سنجش دانش اصطلاحات زبان نشان داد که آموزش بوسیله معلم مجازی به مراتب بازدهی بیشتری نسبت به آموزش معلم واقعی داشته است. در عین حال، مشخص شد که علی رغم تاثیر بسزایی که معلم مجازی انسان نما در ایجاد انگیزه لازم در فراگیران جهت یادگیری اصطلاحات زبان انگلیسی داشته است، اثر آن بر فراگیری و به خاطر سپاری اصطلاحات در میان آنان چندان قابل ملاحظه نبوده است.
۲۰.

بررسی روایی آزمون دکتری آموزش زبان انگلیسی بر اساس روایی استدلالی و نظریه کنش گرا

کلید واژه ها: روایی زبان انگلیسی نظریه عمل آزمون متمرکز دکتری رویکرد روایی استدلال - محور

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۷
در مطالعه حاضر تلاش شده است تا روایی آزمون دکتری آموزش زبان انگلیسی در چارچوبی نوین بررسی شود. این آزمون از طریق دو رویکرد استدلال- محور یعنی مدل استدلال- محور کین (1992) و مدل کنشگرای بنت (2010) بررسی شد. بدین منظور، برای رد یا اثبات فرضیه های پیشنهاد شده در مدل تلفیقی سعی شد تا مستندات تجربی و نظری لازم ارائه شوند. این مطالعه همچنین اثرات پیش بینی نشده آزمون را از طریق بررسی روایی مورد مطالعه قرار داده است. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات لازم در این مطالعه از سه نوع داده استفاده شد : (1) داده های مربوط به عملکرد تمامی شرکت کنندگان (999 نفر) آزمون دکتری رشته آموزش زبان سال 1393 (2) پرسشنامه هایی که توسط 103 دانشجوی دکتری و 20 استاد دانشگاه جواب داده شد و (3) مصاحبه تلفنی با 20 استاد دانشگاه و همچنین مصاحبه گروهی با 35 دانشجوی دکتری رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی. نتایج حاکی از رد فرضیه های ارائه شده برای روایی آزمون مذکور بود. بدین معنی که به طور کلی آزمون از روایی خیلی ضعیفی برخوردار است. برای نمونه، تحلیل نمره های آزمون دکتری و بررسی برداشت دانشجویان از روایی آزمون نشان داد که نه تنها محتوای آزمون اشکال دارد بلکه تصمیم هایی که در مورد نتایج این آزمون گرفته شده نیز مناسب نبوده که این امر نهایتاً منجر به وجود آمدن نتایج غیرمطلوبی برای سهامداران شده است. یافته های این رساله همچنین پیشنهاداتی برای بهبود محتوا و نیز خط مشی کنونی آزمون در ایران ارائه می دهد.

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