جستارهای زبانی (پژوهش های زبان و ادبیات تطبیقی)

جستارهای زبانی (پژوهش های زبان و ادبیات تطبیقی)

جستارهای زبانی دوره یازدهم آذر و دی 1399 شماره 5 (پیاپی 59)

مقالات

۱.

Economic, Social, Cultural, Emotional, and Sensory Capitals in Academic Achievement

تعداد بازدید : ۷۲ تعداد دانلود : ۷۸
Capitals’ contribution to educational achievement and their role in one’s success or failure within classrooms are paramount, which is why they have been often discussed in the realm of the sociology of education. Adding the newly-developed concept of sensory capital as a complement to the existing capitals, the present study seeks to statistically find the potential relationships these capitals may have with each other and their possible influences on educational achievement. To accomplish this, first, a questionnaire was designed and validated to quantify the amount of sensory capital. Then, along with emotional, social, cultural, and economic capital questionnaires, it was given to 410 participants whose language scores were used as an indicator of educational achievement. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was run, the results of which indicated positive relationships among all types of capital and a significant role in language achievement score, with economic capital having the highest and social capital having the lowest contribution. Therefore, capitals can be concluded to both have a significant relationship with each other and a determining role in educational achievement that should be taken into account when it comes to dealing with educational success in academic environments.
۲.

Pre-Service ESL Teachers’ Self-Reported Knowledge of English Language Learners’ (ELLs) Reading Assessments

تعداد بازدید : ۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۰
Educators in reading are cognizant of the importance of proper assessment practices in order to screen for the risk of reading disabilities, guide proper instruction, and evaluate growth. While teacher preparation programs are striving to equip future teachers with the best reading assessment practices, little is known about the actual knowledge and attitudes that these students have toward assessing English language learners (ELLs). In order to determine the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of pre-service teachers (PTs), a survey constructed by the researchers was administered to 105 PTs. The PTs were enrolled in an ELLs reading assessment course at a public university in Texas. Based on the descriptive statistical analyses, there was a general lack of confidence in ability and/or preparedness to assess the reading abilities of ELLs. On a more positive note, the majority of respondents indicated a positive attitude towards ELLs overall. In addition, an exploratory factor analysis using cross-tabulations was conducted to determine what factors contributed to PTs feeling prepared to assess ELLs reading. This study has implications for teacher educators to recognize the importance of teachers’ having knowledge of ELLs reading assessment practices as this knowledge could enhance teachers’ self-efficacy and confidence in reading assessment of ELLs. It is suggested that teacher educaton programs include a course dedicated to reading assessment to enhance teachers’ content knowledge of basic language constructs and also their pedagogical knowledge of ELLs literacy acquisition and assessment
۳.

Young Finnish Adults Perspectives on Using English in Different Social Situations: Exploring the Influence of Affective Factors through Photo-Elicitation Interviews

تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۹۵
Research on the influence of affective factors in language learning has grown in recent years largely due to the recognition of the role they play in second language (L2) acquisition (Henter, 2014). This study investigates two affective factors, confidence and anxiety, and how they impact young Finnish adults when using English in different formal and informal communicative situations. A multiple case study design is employed to gather different experiences and perceptions of young Finns’ willingness to use English in different situational contexts. To explore confidence and anxiety in specific speaking scenarios, the study used photo-elicitation interviews, in which a set of photographs was used as a stimulus with regular interview questions (Harper, 2002). Findings show that young Finnish adults attribute the lack of authentic oral communication in their comprehensive English education as being partially responsible for their apprehension in speaking English, and that fear of judgment, particularly in more formal scenarios, often induces a sense of anxiety. Confidence in using English was sensed through the perception that their English was equal to or better than those around them and was also ameliorated by the familiarity and casualness of the situation. The photo-elicitation method proved fruitful for evoking more detailed and personal experiences and helped participants visualize the scenarios, providing more lucid and candid responses. The study affirms a need for more research on Finnish adults’ affective factors in their use of English and advocates for the wider application of photo-elicitation in Applied Linguistics research.
۴.

The Effect of Direct Versus Indirect Focused Written Corrective Feedback on Developing EFL Learners’ Written and Oral Skills

تعداد بازدید : ۸۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۴
There has been an increasing attention to written corrective feedback (WCF) and its potential effectiveness in recent years. This paper examines the roles of direct versus indirect WCF in fostering learners’ written and oral accuracy across language proficiency. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to conduct the study. Seventy-six pre-intermediate and upper-intermediate EFL learners were randomly assigned into six groups (four experimental and two control groups). In the experimental group, a series of pictures were used as prompts for writing tasks in the treatment sessions, and pre-, immediate, and delayed posttests were used to measure written and oral accuracy. According to the results, WCF, regardless of the type, was facilitative in developing learners’ both written and oral accuracy, which was a manifestation of implicit knowledge. The results also revealed that the proficiency level played a key role in determining which type of CF was more beneficial. While the pre-intermediate learners benefited more from direct CF, the upper-intermediate group improved more as a result of indirect CF treatment. This study calls for more informed decisions by L2 teachers in the correction of written errors considering that it improved L2 learners’ oral accuracy
۵.

Students’ Perceptions of the English Literature Component in Malaysian Secondary Schools

تعداد بازدید : ۵۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۵
Students’ understanding of literature is often neglected, while curriculums are usually determined by educationists whose expectations might not suit the students’ ability. To achieve a positive learning outcome in the literature classroom, the students’ perceptions and interests must be accorded much consideration. Therefore, this study aims to determine students’ perceptions of the importance of the English literature component in selected secondary schools in Terengganu, Malaysia. The study employed a descriptive survey method in which a structured questionnaire was used as a data-gathering instrument. The data were gathered from a sample of 403 students across four different public secondary schools in Terengganu: SMK Kompleks Seberang Takir, SM Sains Sultan Mahmud, SMKA Dato Haji Abbas, and SMK Kompleks Gong Badak. The study found that the students have positive perceptions of the English literature component to a large extent. The students also believe that English literature enables them to develop their cultural awareness, critical thinking skills, as well as improve their English grammar and vocabulary. The moral-philosophical approach is the most preferred approach amongst the students, followed by the information-based approach and the language-based approach. It is envisaged that the findings of this study could be especially useful in the process of curriculum development, particularly in the Malaysian context. Besides, this study could raise teachers’ awareness of their students’ level of understanding of the English literature component
۶.

Exploring Patterns of Evaluation in the Rhetorical Construction of Economics Blurbs: A Lexico-grammatical Analysis

تعداد بازدید : ۸۰ تعداد دانلود : ۸۵
This study examined blurbs in the discipline of economics to investigate how evaluative lexico-grammatical resources are employed in the logogenetic constructions of these blurbs. The study was informed by the appraisal framework proposed by Martin and White (2005), which describes the language of our attitudes, viewpoints, and personal judgments toward people, objects, and things. All three categories of the appraisal framework, including attitude, engagement, and graduation, were thoroughly explored. Findings demonstrated that economics blurbs are densely packed with appreciation. Graduation was also found to be realized both as intensification and quantification. The study showed that blurbs can be dialogically or monologically constructed based on the presence or absence of external voices as well as engagement resources and locutions. Meanwhile, lexico-grammatical realizations were found not to be restricted to one type of grammatical structures. Various forms including adjectival qualities, nominalized qualities, and processes are employed for encoding evaluative resources. The findings of the study provide those interested in this genre insights into the practical details of blurbs’ advertising discourse and keep them informed of the curricular rules and regularities dominating promotional discourse
۷.

Critical Thinking in Language Planning for Local Languages Maintenance: Evidence from Banjarese, Indonesia

تعداد بازدید : ۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۷۸
The fact that many indigenous languages in Indonesia have been dying out as a result of the ineffective way of language planning. This study aims to construct critical thinking indicators and to describe the strategies used for enhancing critical thinking in language planning (LP) concerning local language maintenance, particularly Banjarese language. The qualitative method was employed in which all data were elaborated in a descriptive manner by employing an interview and documentation to collect the data. The former was performed by interviewing the two older native Banjarese persons: The one is a researcher focusing on native languages as well as on Banjarese maintenance; and the other is the main official person in charge of history and tradition maintenance of the Education and Culture Service of South Kalimantan. The latter was done by taking articles concerning Banjarese maintenance and its teaching, and policy documents issued by the government. The data were analyzed through content analysis. The result shows that there is no curriculum design to maintain Banjarese at schools. The local government’s support in maintaining Banjarese does neither run well nor seems to be serious. The existence of local government regulation No. 7/2009 about the local language maintenance does not continue to practical procedures on how local language should be designed and taught at schools. Therefore, the issues of Banjarese should be the main indicator to map needs analysis in local language maintenance and strategies for language planning dealing with the classroom as the way of teaching Banjarese
۸.

Integrating Community Service Learning into University Curriculum: Perspectives from EFL Teachers and Students

تعداد بازدید : ۷۷ تعداد دانلود : ۴۲
Community service learning (CSL) has been regarded as a pedagogical tool which provides students with opportunities to participate in a service activity to meet social needs and simultaneously gain benefits for themselves. There has been a tendency in the world to include CSL in higher education training programs. This study aims to investigate Vietnamese EFL teachers’ and students’ perceptions of CSL and their practices of a CSL-integrated course at a university of foreign languages in central Vietnam. The study involved 61 teachers and 201 students and employed quantitative and qualitative approaches. The findings revealed that both teachers and students showed strong support for CSL, and that the teachers, especially more experienced teachers, had more positive beliefs than the students about the five categories surveyed: perceptions of CSL, role of the school, benefits for teachers, benefits for students, and feasibility of CSL integration. Also, the participants believed that CSL was to be a tool to help students develop professionally, personally, and academically.
۹.

Integrating Culture into Teaching EFL in General Education: A Context of Vietnam

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۹
This action research study aims to test the feasibility of applying an intercultural language learning and teaching model (IcLLT) to teaching EFL in general education in Vietnam through teachers’ and students’ responses to two trial lessons. The IcLLT model of “construction”, “connection”, “interaction”, “reflection”, and “extension” is developed to foster students’ intercultural competence by invoking their engagement in social interaction and critical cultural reflection. As shown in observations and students’ evaluation sheets, the intercultural language activities in IcLLT lessons could engage the students in activating prior knowledge, comparing culture, talking about cultural issues, and participating in intercultural communication. However, they were not able to reflect on their intercultural perspectives in oral interaction as much as in their writing. In parallel, the teacher agreed that the activities requiring students’ reflection were most challenging and the other three steps of “construction”, “connection”, “interaction” could be conducted in relevance to three-stage Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) skill lessons of Pre-While-Post. The IcLLT is applicable to teach integrated skill CLT lessons with culture-specific input if intercultural objectives are added and relevant intercultural language activities with more focus on students’ intercultural interactions and critical reflection are conducted. Hence, IcLLT could be recommended as a supplementary approach to integrating culture into EFL teaching to build students’ intercultural communicative competence, which is considered a critical part of the new educational reform in general education in Vietnam
۱۰.

Quand la narrativité est soumise à une transformation spirale: Etude sémiotique d’un conte Persan

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۹
Cet article envisage de montrer, à partir d’un conte persan intitulé le "Chamelier et le serpent", que la narrativité ne peut pas se définir toujours comme un parcours linéaire soumis à une logique du manque et de réparation du manque. L’étude du conte en question montrera bien que l’univers du sens n’est pas dans tous les cas un univers d’ordre de programmation. Dans le cas qui nous intéresse, il s’agit d’un monde où nous avons affaire à une narrativité spirale, étant donné que tout s’organise autour d’un axe principal : l’homme et l’animal sont des ennemis éternels. Tout circule donc autour d’une question d’ordre ontologique. Le manque du début refait surface vers la fin et constitue le dénouement desastreux. Tout se passe comme si la fin retrouve le début. Cet essai aura pour résultat de préciser que le sens, au lieu d’être le résultat d’une linéarité organisée, peut s’obtenir sur la base d’une transformation spirale du sens à partir d’un retour au problème collectif et original : l’homme et lchr('39')animal sont des ennemis éternels. Ce qui donne lieu à un sens circulaire
۱۱.

Analyse des problèmes dans la préparation/rédaction d’un mémoire de master : Le cas des problèmes des étudiants iraniens en didactique du FLE

تعداد بازدید : ۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۷۳
La réalisation d’un mémoire est considérée comme la tâche finale des étudiants en master, à la fin de leur cursus afin de mériter un diplôme universitaire. Or, cette activité cause divers types de difficultés notamment aux étudiants allophones. Cette étude a pour but d’analyser les problèmes auxquels se trouvent confrontés les étudiants iraniens en master de didactique du FLE lors de la préparation et de la rédaction de cet écrit académique. Pour atteindre l’objectif assigné, 3 dispositifs de recueil de données ont été combinés : les commentaires de 4 professeurs sur 7 textes de mémoire, un entretien semi-directif effectué auprès de 12 étudiants et un questionnaire rempli par 33 étudiants. 3 dispositifs d’analyse de données ont alors été exploités : une grille d’évaluation basée sur les compétences nécessaires à la rédaction d’un mémoire, une grille d’analyse des entretiens ainsi que le logiciel SPSS. Les résultats de notre étude montrent que selon les étudiants, les problèmes engendrés lors de la préparation du mémoire sont significativement plus élevés par rapport à ceux causés lors de la rédaction du mémoire. Par ailleurs, les problèmes d’ordre linguistique pour rédiger un texte académique sont récurrents. A cette complication se greffent les difficultés d’ordre scientifique/méthodologique (pratiques de citations, choix et mise en place des méthodes de recherche ainsi que des dispositifs d’analyse des données). D’autre part, les obstacles sur le plan spatio-temporel peuvent être considérés comme un malaise auquel se heurtent les étudiants iraniens lors de la réalisation de l’étude de terrain. Le manque d’accès à des ressources diversifiées pour élaborer le cadre théorique ainsi que la non-maîtrise des logiciels de traitement de texte comptent également parmi les problèmes des étudiants.
۱۲.

L’alternance codique langue maternelle/langue étrangère (FLE): stéréotypes et réalités d’un besoin pédagogique dans le contexte iranien

تعداد بازدید : ۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۵۱
Dans la présente recherche, notre objectif est de savoir comment l’emploi de la langue maternelle en cours de FLE, peut simplifier et influencer l’apprentissage du français chez les apprenants iraniens, dans les universités et dans les instituts de langue. Selon les observations qui ont été faites dans les instituts de langues étrangères, l’utilisation de la langue maternelle dans l’enseignement du français, est considérée comme sévèrement nuisible et à bannir, tandis que les professeurs d’universités se montrent en général plus tolérants. La nouveauté de cette étude consiste à étudier les besoins pédagogiques des apprenants iraniens du FLE, en ce qui concerne l’emploi de la langue maternelle en classe de langue. À cet égard, nous avons élaboré un questionnaire contenant quinze questions, en tenant compte des éléments différents comme le sexe, la situation maritale, l’âge et le niveau d’études des apprenants, qui a été soumis à 61 étudiants en français. Après avoir analysé les réponses, à partir du test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov et du test T, l’importance de la langue maternelle en classe de FLE, a été validée, autrement dit, l’emploi de la langue maternelle en classe de FLE, a été reconnu comme un élément accélérateur et simplifiant pour les apprenants iraniens..
۱۳.

COVID-19 Mot, discours, situation, comportement

تعداد بازدید : ۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۸۵
The Covid-19 pandemic has been with us, for almost a year now. It has affected our lives in multiple ways and challenged our achievements as well. Daily life has changed in aspects we never would have imagined. We had to change our habits and behaviors quickly in order to assure the health of our family, our neighbors and the rest of the world. While facing this “unprecedented” situation, there are terms that appear to describe the health crisis and its consequences. This planetary pandemic has also changed human behavior. In this article, we will see how the word Covid-19, a real agent of change in our existence, initiated changes in language and our behavior. Indeed, within the generative process of meaning as envisioned by semiotics, Covid-19 is an actant that crosses the different stages of process, from denomination to discourse. The discursive effervescence of Covid-19 is narrative. It appears as the prototype of the anti-subject. Perfect and absolute embodiment of evil. A single narrative program motivates it: propagation. We also see that Covid-19 is no longer just the anti-subject of this story. It truly becomes the Anti-Sender, leading in the shadows an army of villains, capable of reinventing themselves at one’s leisure. This is a spectacular example of actantial cumulation.

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