Journal of Rescue and Relief (امداد و نجات)

Journal of Rescue and Relief (امداد و نجات)

Journal of Rescue and Relief, Volume 13, Issue 1, Serial 48 (2021) (مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)



Qualitative Explanation of Cultural and Environmental Factors Reducing Organizational Silence in Social Service Organizations(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
INTRODUCTION: The efficiency and development of any organization largely depend on the proper use of human resources. In today's organizations, to reduce organizational silence, employees express their ideas and share their views to increase organizational efficiency. This study was conducted to qualitatively explain the cultural and environmental factors that reduce organizational silence in government organizations. METHODS: This applied study was conducted based on a descriptive-analytical approach and implemented through the field research method. The samples (n=18) were selected among senior managers of government organizations using purposive sampling and the sample size required amount was based on theoretical saturation criterion. The required data were collected through holding interviews and they were analyzed using the grounded theory method. FINDINGS: The results showed that the four selective codes of "progress", "appropriate cultural background", "lack of proper attribution" and "increasing culture in the field of teamwork" could explain the concept of organizational silence. CONCLUSION: According to the results, the roots of the formation of this destructive and inhibitory organizational phenomenon are lied in the context of social, cultural, and political interactions, identified under the influence of "environmental and cultural factors", and started via social learning. These environmental and cultural factors can be programmed and corrected to guide and control organizational silence and direct the constructive voice of the organization.

Designing an Entrepreneurial Supply Chain Model during Disasters in Iran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
INTRODUCTION: Relief organizations, especially the Red Crescent, lack any specific entrepreneurial strategy and program for production, identification, and distribution of relief supplies. These organizations mainly focus on the preparation and distribution of supplies in times of crisis. In this regard, the present study aimed to design an entrepreneurial supply chain model with an emphasis on technology in 2020 in Iran. METHODS: The present study was conducted based on a qualitative and quantitative design. In the first phase, some indicators were obtained by observing the current situation and interviewing 30 experts. Following that, the final model was achieved by considering all indicators and categorizing the topics. In the Delphi process, experts' interviews and theoretical consensus suggested some hypotheses. In other words, in the second phase, structural equation modeling was used to finalize the model. In the next stage, the final questionnaire was provided to 186 Red Crescent employees. FINDINGS: After the analysis and extraction of the criteria from the interviews, components of the model were retrieved, and two questionnaires were designed. The first questionnaire was about supply chain management encompassing four main components of customer integrity, supplier integrity, internal integrity, and innovative orientation. The second questionnaire was related to technology, including seven components: personal characteristics, attitudinal factors, educational factors, technical factors, economic factors, environmental factors, as well as human and managerial factors. Considering the KMO value (˃0.7) and the significant value of the Bartlett Sphericity test, it can be concluded that the data are suitable for factor analysis. The model fit values all exceeded 0.9, indicating that the model has a “good fit. The path coefficients were significant for seven relationships at the level of 0.05. CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the obtained results, the supply chain in disasters requires experts' comprehensive approach and innovative perspectives. The tendency of countries to take innovative measures in disasters requires macro-policies at the national and regional levels. Therefore, all dimensions and aspects of the entrepreneurial supply chain in disasters must be considered in order to attain the final goal which is effective and efficient disaster management.

Thresholds of Environmental Physical Resilience of Tehran Metropolis(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸
INTRODUCTION: The structure of the urban platform of Tehran and its physical characteristics depends on the inherent conditions and environmental thresholds in relation to changes. This study aimed to determine the natural landscapes of Tehran by two phenomena of earthquake and flood that posed the highest risk in different periods of this city. Therefore, the natural perspective of Tehran is divided into three perspectives of north, central, and south regarding the inherent features and evolutionary process. METHODS: The relationship between the perspective of Tehran based on the form and geomorphological processes and the evaluation of earthquake and flood hazards have been observed in four stages, which included data collection, data processing, calculation of indicators, and analysis of findings. The studied area was divided into three northern, central, and south urban landscapes to determine the resistance thresholds of the city according to the characteristics of topography, physiography, geology, the results of field studies and satellite images, aerial photographs, as well as paleogeomorphological research in Tehran. FINDINGS: According to the zoning map of Tehran based on the earthquake phenomenon in three perspectives of north, center, and south, the highest distribution of non-resistance is observed in the northern and southern areas of the city. Northeast, southwest, and semi-western regions have the highest urban resilience to earthquakes. Moreover, regarding the zoning of Tehran based on the flood phenomenon in the three perspectives of north, center, and south, the highest distribution of non-resilience has been observed in the northern regions of the city. Northeast, southwest, and west of Tehran have the highest urban flood resilience. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present study, in order to increase resilience against the risks of earthquakes and floods, the city of Tehran should be studied not in just one perspective but in different perspectives.

Designing a Model of Organizational Citizenship Behavior from a Social Perspective in the Iranian Red Crescent Society(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۶
INTRODUCTION: A good organizational citizen is a thought and idea that includes various behaviors of employees such as accepting and assuming additional duties and responsibilities, following organizational rules and procedures, maintaining and developing a positive attitude, being patient, and tolerating dissatisfaction and problems in the workplace. The increase in the level of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the organization makes the organization an attractive environment for work. In other words, the desired level of OCBs affects the improvement of the performance of employees and, in general, the organization. The Iranian Red Crescent Society is one of the human-centered organizations, and observing the indicators of citizenship behavior is one of the effective factors in the success of its performance. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the OCB from a social perspective in the Iranian Red Crescent Society. METHODS: The present applied study was conducted based on an exploratory qualitative approach. The statistical population of this study consisted of all managers and employees of the Iranian Red Crescent Society. The required data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews, which reached saturation after holding 14 interviews. To analyze the data, content analysis, meta-synthesis, and fuzzy Delphi methods using grounded theory were applied. The MAXQDA software (version 10) was used in the theory analysis process. FINDINGS: In this study, the results were classified into 78 concepts, 14 sub-criteria, and 2 main criteria, including the dimensions of citizenship behavior and the consequences of citizenship behavior. The most important dimensions of OCB consisted of the categories of helpful behaviors, individual creativity, organizational obedience, organizational loyalty, chivalry, civic virtue, and personal growth. CONCLUSION: The results of data analysis showed that the categories of increasing performance productivity and effectiveness, promoting positive relationships among employees, boosting efficiency in resource allocation, reducing maintenance costs, creating the necessary flexibility for innovation, improving customer service, using rare resources effectively were the most important consequences of observing OCB from a social perspective in the IRCS.

Investigation of Traffic Accident Hotspots in Yazd City using GIS(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۳۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳
INTRODUCTION: The importance of safety and prevention of traffic accidents have highlighted the necessity of research and investigation in this field. The present study aimed to identify and eliminate the risk factors underlying the occurrence of inner-city traffic accidents. In so doing, scientific and effective solutions can be provided at the lowest cost to implement the slogan of "prevention is better than cure". METHODS: In this study, the accident rate-severity index method was used to identify traffic accident hotspots. The spatial units in which this index (I) was more than twice the average of the total spatial units were identified as Hot Zones FINDINGS: In the present study, the study area (6,600 meters) was divided into 66 100-meter spatial units. Using the accident rate-severity method, 6 (600 m) and 19 (1900 m) spatial units were identified as Hot Zone (9.1%) and Yellow Zone (28.8%), respectively. Finally, 41 Cold Zone spatial units (62.1%) were identified (4,100 m). CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the obtained results, the following measures can be effective in the reduction of road accidents: retrospection of traffic signs in terms of number, size, location, height, installation of speed bumps in the Hot Zone and Yellow Zone spatial units, timely pruning of trees along the road-construction of underpasses and overpasses in some important points of the route (accident hotspots and Yellow Zone). Furthermore, the development of a comprehensive and long-term educational program to improve traffic safety culture in kindergartens and schools can be effective in reducing road accidents.

Climate change effects Management with the approach of the uncertainty of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models in Hamadan Province, Iran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
INTRODUCTION: Since Iran is located in the semi-arid belt, it has faced such issues as drought, dust crisis, and intensified migration. The assessment of the effects of climate change includes identifying some key aspects of uncertainties used to estimate its impacts, such as uncertainties in the context of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs): in regional-scale climatology, in statistical or dynamic downscaling methods, and parametric and structural uncertainties in different models. One of the most important sources of uncertainty in climate change is the use of different AOGCMs that produce different outputs for climate variables. METHODS: In this study, to investigate the uncertainty of AOGCM models, the downscaled data of the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections dataset obtained from 21 AOGCMs with medium Representative Concentration Pathway4.5 scenario were downloaded from the NASA site for 81 cells in Hamadan Province, Iran. After the validation of the models, they were evaluated against the criteria of the coefficient of determination and model efficiency coefficient in comparison with the data of the Hamedan synoptic station in the statistical period of 1976-2005. To reduce the uncertainty of AOGCMs, the ensemble performance (EP) of models was used in Climate Data Operators software. FINDINGS: It was revealed that MRI-CGCM3, MPI-ESM-LR, BNU-ESM, ACCESS1-0, MIROC-ESM, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, and MPI-ESM-MR models had better performance than similar models. It was also found that IPSL-CM5A-LR, CNRM-CM5, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, CESM1-BGC, and GFDL-ESM2M had the lowest correlation between observational and simulation data of mean monthly precipitation. CONCLUSION: According to the results, this method could provide a good estimate in the base period (1976-2005), compared to the data of the Hamedan synoptic station, and was more accurate compared to the single implementation method of each AOGCM model. The results of EP of models in the future period (2020-2049) showed that precipitation will not change considerably in the future and will increase by 0.23 mm. In addition, the average, maximum, and minimum annual temperatures will increase by 1.54°C, 1.7°C, and 1.40°C, respectively.

Spatial Analysis of Pre-Hospital Emergency Bases in Disasters in Tehran Province, Iran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۱ تعداد دانلود : ۸
INTRODUCTION: Tehran is always exposed to various dangers due to its high population density. A geographic information system (GIS) can be very useful for reducing the financial and human burden caused by accidents, disasters, and diseases. METHODS: This field study was performed using a practical and descriptive research method. The pre-hospital emergency bases in the east of Tehran province and all the emergency bases covered by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in disasters were evaluated as a case study. The population of these cities amounted to 1,149,485 people and included cities in the east of Tehran province, Iran, including Damavand, Firoozkooh, Pakdasht, Pishva, Qarchak, and Varamin. FINDINGS: Rational maps were created and analyzed in the areas where emergency bases were located using ArcGIS software, as well as analysis of regions, distances, point density, and a combination of these factors. Regarding the standards and indicators, it was determined that the Disaster and Emergency Medical Management Center needs to have130 emergency medical technicians, 23 ambulances, and one ambulance bus to equip the exiting emergency bases according to the standard pre-hospital regulations. Other requirements in this regard include the replacement of worn-out ambulances with new ones, construction of two emergency bases in Qarchak, Tehran, Iran, and three emergency bases in Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran, as well as the transfer of bases in the proximity of faults and flood-prone areas to safe places. CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results, a comprehensive pre-hospital database was designed for the use of managers and officials in the occurrence of accidents, which might be used as a pilot work that can be expanded to other areas of Tehran, Iran, and other provinces in managing disasters and accidents.

Role of Reducing the Vulnerability of Urban Texture in the Capacity of Relief and Rescue Operation after a Possible Earthquake in the District 5 of Isfahan, Iran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
INTRODUCTION: Despite the progress of urbanization, earthquake as one of the most important natural hazards threatens most cities in the world. Accordingly, managing and reducing the vulnerability of cities to this disaster, as well as the planned relief and rescue operation, are of particular importance. The city of Isfahan, Iran, is one of the areas which requires proper attention and planning due to its high population density and vulnerability. In this regard, this study was conducted to identify the physical texture vulnerability of the District 5 of Isfahan to earthquakes and its impact during rescue and relief operations. METHODS: To conduct the research, the indices of access to green space, building density, population density, distance from the fault, distance from relief centers, access to roads and arteries, and width of roads were selected due to their frequency in studies conducted on the vulnerability of cities and scores given by specialists. Finally, the critical areas of the region were determined by weighting each of the indices using the analytic hierarchy process method in Expert Choice software (version 11) and examining the vulnerability of the region in the Geographic Information System. FINDINGS: It was revealed that 68% of the area had a suitable density of green space, and 73% and 88% of the region had low building and population densities, respectively. Moreover, 76% of the area had good access to relief centers and the whole area had proper passages. Finally, it was found that no faults passed through this area, and the impact of adjacent faults caused this area to be in a moderate situation in terms of vulnerability. CONCLUSION: The critical areas were determined by overlaying each of the vulnerability layers of the city and applying their degree of importance. The results showed that 6% and 18% of the areas were in critical and highly vulnerable conditions, respectively. Therefore, rescue and relief operations would be performed with an acceptable capacity after such disasters as earthquakes.


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