Journal of Rescue and Relief (امداد و نجات)

Journal of Rescue and Relief (امداد و نجات)

Journal of Rescue and Relief, Volume 14, Issue 1, Serial 52 (2-2022) (مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

مقالات

۱.

Assessment and Optimization of a Spatial Model of Access to Family Physician Centers in Shiraz Using Geographic Information System(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۹۱
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess and optimize the spatial model of access to family physician centers in Shiraz using the Geographic Information System (GIS Software). METHODS: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was performed in four stages in all family physician centers and clinics in Shiraz. In the first stage, a review study was performed to determine site selection criteria, and in the second stage, the criteria were prioritized and weighted using the method of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the third stage, the data were recorded in GIS Software, and finally, in the last stage, the spatial data were assigned to databases. FINDINGS: Based on the results, the field of geography with a weight of 0.549 was the most important area, and the criterion of population age structure with a weight of 0.451 assumed the most critical importance in the selection of appropriate sites for the establishment of family physician centers. According to Moran’s index (MI = 0.055), family physicians are randomly distributed in Shiraz, and about 20% of the population do not have standard access to family physician centers. CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the results of the current study, people living in the suburbs of Shiraz had far less access to family physician centers, as compared to those residing in central parts. Moreover, the spatial distribution of family physicians in Shiraz does not follow a specific pattern. It is necessary to plan and take effective measures to establish new centers or redistribute existing centers in accordance with the priorities obtained from the results of this study in an attempt to increase healthcare access in suburban areas using GIS and other related techniques.
۲.

Analysis of Temperature Change Properties in Tehran Using Satellite Data(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۸۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۳
INTRODUCTION: The dearth of data and accurate climate information has made it difficult to study the relationship between human health and climate change. To study the surface heat island in the urban areas, land surface temperature must be calculated, and since no space sensor is capable of frequent thermal imaging at the required spatial resolution for urban studies, this study aimed to propose a method for urban temperature changing characteristics, and provide the results to the city managers and officials in health domains. METHODS: SADFAT temporal and spatial integration model was used to prepare the data. Following that, changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of surface temperature data in Tehran were studied using exploratory methods of spatial data analysis, and the results were evaluated by classical statistical methods (normalization process, classification, and comparison of temperature classes of images). The heat island ratio index was employed to investigate the temporal changes in the intensity of the heat island. FINDINGS: Temporal changes in the ratio of heat island in Tehran during 2017 showed that from the Julian days 1 to 81 (January 12 to April 2), as well as 153 to 281 (June 12 to October 16), the value of the intensity of the heat island in Tehran was higher than the average (about 0.067) due to changes in vegetation, climate, and air pollution, for 210 days in a year. CONCLUSION: The diagram of periodic and irregular fluctuations of thermal islands showed that it was not logical to compare the spatial pattern of thermal islands without considering the time of location. These daily and weekly fluctuations in the intensity of the heat island, as well as the human exposure to it, cause a wide range of diseases, such as hypothermia, heatstroke, as well as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, which consequently lead to death.
۳.

GIS-based Landslide Susceptibility Zoning Using Multi-Criteria Decision-making Method: A Case Study in Binalood Mountains, Iran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۷
INTRODUCTION: Landslides are one of the recurrent natural problems that are widespread throughout the world, especially in mountainous areas, and cause a significant injury to and loss of human life and damage to properties and infrastructures. This study aimed to assess landslide susceptibility using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in Binalood Mountains, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. METHODS: Since the Binalood Mountains range has a high potential for landslides occurrence, the present study went through to map landslide susceptibility. To accomplish this, the AHP method was used, and then, receiver operating characteristic/area under the curves (AUCs) were prepared to evaluate the performance of the susceptibility map. Multiple data, such as lithology, distance to faults, land use, distance to roads, altitude, slope, aspect, stream power index, topographic wetness index, rainfall, distance from rivers, slope length index, and topographic location index, were considered for delineating the landslide susceptibility maps. These thematic layers were assigned suitable weights on the Saaty's scale according to their relative importance in landslide occurrence in the study area. The assigned weights of the thematic layers and their features were subsequently normalized using the AHP technique. Finally, all thematic layers were integrated by a weighted linear combination method in a geographic information system tool to generate landslide susceptibility maps. FINDINGS: The landslide susceptibility maps are split into five classes, namely very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The results showed that the geological factor was the most important factor affecting the occurrence of landslides in the study area. Generally, 47.8% of the total area was considered high and very high-risk areas. The prediction accuracy of this map showed the values of AUC equal to 81.7% that showed the AHP model had very good accuracy. CONCLUSION: Overall, AHP is acceptable for landslide susceptibility mapping in the study area. A landslide susceptibility map is a useful tool to help with land management in landslide-prone areas. The results revealed that the predicted susceptibility levels were found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Possibly, this map can be used by the concerned authorities in disaster management planning to prepare rescue routes, service centers, and shelters.
۴.

Sociological study of the effect of political culture on social solidarity of youth in Tehran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۹
INTRODUCTION: This sociological study aimed to investigate the impact of political culture on the social solidarity of young people in Tehran. METHODS: The statistical population in this quantitative correlational study included young people who were aged 18 to 35 years in Tehran, Iran. In total, 382 cases were selected using Cochran's sample size formula, as well as cluster and random sampling method. The data were collected utilizing a researcher-made questionnaire the face and content validity and reliability of which were calculated via Cronbach's alpha at 0.80. FINDINGS: According to the results, among the indicators of political culture, political values (with 51% agreement), political knowledge (with 59% at a high level), and political attitudes (towards the political system) (with 66.7% pessimism) were raised by the respondents. The regression test also showed that the variables were able to predict 39% of the total changes of the dependent variable (social solidarity). Therefore, political values (with a regression coefficient of 0.403), political knowledge (with a regression coefficient of -0.340), and political attitudes (with a regression coefficient of 0.338) had the highest regression effects on the dependent variable (social solidarity) in descending order. CONCLUSION: The results showed a significant, positive, and direct relationship of political values and political attitudes with social solidarity. Moreover, there was a significant, negative, and inverse relationship between political knowledge and social solidarity.
۵.

Challenges of Rapid Relief in Earthquake Crisis Management (Case study: Sisakht region of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province)(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۸۲
INTRODUCTION: Today, most developed countries have considered natural disasters a part of their urban and regional planning and believe that preventing natural disasters is the best way to deal with them. Extensive natural disasters, especially in large cities, are always associated with negative consequences and disorder. Meanwhile, the role of specialized forces becomes extremely limited in quantity to save the lives of those trapped under the rubble and provide rapid relief to the injured because the factors of time and physical extent of the disaster play key roles in the success of the rescue operation. METHODS: This applied research was conducted based on a descriptive-correlational design. In this study, the location of the city of Sisakht city, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran, at the time of the earthquake was described, and without interfering with the variables, it merely measured them and drew conclusions about the characteristics of those properties or the relationship between the variables. This method evaluates the social benefits, desirability, or effectiveness of a process, product, or program, and focuses on the application of its findings. FINDINGS: The occurrence of widespread natural disasters, especially in major cities, is always associated with negative consequences, disorder, and confusion. In enormous disasters, such as devastating earthquakes, large amounts of rescue operations are carried out by people after the disaster. Meanwhile, the role of specialized forces becomes extremely limited in quantity to save the lives of those trapped under the rubble and provide rapid relief to the injured because the factors of time and physical extent of the disaster play key roles in the success of the rescue operation. CONCLUSION: In modern management, rapid relief during an earthquake has an important role in reducing casualties. Factors effective in saving time and providing rapid relief include choosing an optimal route to access the affected area and using new technologies, such as a Geographic Information System and Global Positioning System. In addition to playing a decisive role in reducing casualties and material damage, practical and rapid management can minimize the problems that occur in the medium and long term after an earthquake.
۶.

Designing a Maturity Model of the Managers of Red Crescent Society in Tehran(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۸۹
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, manager maturity is one of the concerns of officials of most government organizations, especially the Red Crescent Society. One of the ways to manager maturity is to identify the appropriate maturity pattern of the managers of the Red Crescent Society. Therefore, this study aimed to design a maturity model of the managers of the Red Crescent Society using the Grounded theory. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted based on an applied research method using the Grounded theory. The statistical population of the study consisted of experts and specialists in the maturity field of the managers of the Red Crescent Society. The sampling was performed using the purposive method, and 20 individuals were selected based on theoretical saturation. The data were then collected using semi-structured interviews, and data analysis was performed at three stages of open, axial, and selective coding. The validity and reliability of the research were evaluated using a triangulation approach. FINDINGS: According to the obtained results, seven important factors, including managerial, structural, organizational culture, organizational education, organizational justice, organizational socialization of managers, and psychological contracts of managers with the organization, were recognized as the requirements for designing the maturity model of the managers of the Red Crescent Society in Tehran, as the causal conditions of the axial coding. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, the outcomes of the manager maturity were classified into five components, including employee participation, employee commitment, organizational productivity, organizational performance, and manager self-efficacy. Moreover, internal changes were selected as strategies along with three components of psychological characteristics and motivators, individual skills, as well as knowledge and attitude.
۷.

Designing a News Evaluation Model in Crisis Management(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۹۳
Introduction: Considering the country's vulnerability to various disasters and the important role of the national media at the time of accidents and disasters and the public's attention to the media at this time, the present study aims to achieve and design a news executive model in crisis management. Method: This research has a mixed approach and therefore the research was conducted in two phases, qualitative and quantitative. The first phase is done using the method based on grounded theory or grounded theory and the next phase is done using the quantitative research method based on the researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative section includes managers and media and crisis elites who were interviewed using purposive sampling and saturation (25 cases). The statistical population of the quantitative section also included 196 managers, experts and media and crisis experts (Red Crescent Society and Crisis Management Organization) of the country. Findings: Based on the research findings, it can be said that categories such as the nature and unprofessional coverage of news, biased news organization, lack of media independence and ultimately public distrust and tendency to alternative media as the requirements for designing news executive model in crisis management were coded as causal conditions. In the theory analysis process, the help of MAXQDA software version 2020 was used, which identified a total of 120 concepts and 20 categories. Then, in the quantitative part, using Smartpls3 software, the relationship of these categories to explain the news in crisis management was obtained. Conclusion: According to the results, the categories of accountability of officials, social cohesion and increasing resilience, improving media performance and gaining public trust are the consequences of using appropriate strategies for developing news in crisis management. The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the nature and unprofessional coverage of news with the design and explanation of crisis management news and also people's distrust and tendency to alternative media with inappropriate design of crisis management news.
۸.

An Academic Achievement Model for Students with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Kermanshah Earthquake) based on Cognitive Ability and Difficulty in Emotion Regulation(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۳
Introduction: Academic achievement is one of the main concerns of the educational system of any country, and as a result, any factor that is effective in reducing or increasing its quantity and quality is considered and emphasized by researchers. Psychological damage and stressful accidents have effects on academic achievement. This study aimed to develop a model of structural equations for academic achievement of students with post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD) (Kermanshah earthquake) based on cognitive ability; moreover, it was attempted to investigate the mediating role of difficulty in emotion regulation in this regard. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted based on a quantitative and applied research method. The statistical population of the present study includes all students with PSTD in Sarpol Zahab, Kermanshah Province, Iran, in the academic year of 2018-19. In total, 48 cases were selected using the available sampling method. The data were collected using the Capita’s Log software, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and final grades of Persian literature and mathematics courses. Data analysis was performed employing the structural equation modeling (SEM) and Smart PLS software. Findings: The results of this study in the form of a structural model showed that all t-coefficients among the three main constructs were higher than 1.96, which indicates the existence of significant relationships among research variables. In other words, cognitive ability has a direct and significant relationship with the academic achievement of students with PSTD. Moreover, there is a negative relationship between cognitive ability and difficulty in emotion regulation. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed the direct and significant effect of cognitive ability on the academic achievement of students with PSTD. In addition, an indirect effect of cognitive ability was observed on the academic achievement of these students with a mediating role of difficulty in emotion regulation. The findings of the present study indicate that the improvement of the cognitive ability, as well as the enhancement of the skills related to emotion regulation in students with PSTD, leads to improved academic achievement.

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