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This study strives to investigate the importance of ‘education’ and ‘gender’, as two major sociolinguistic variables, in accepting or rejecting the words coined by the Iranian Academy of Persian Language and Literature (APLL). A total of 500 students from state universities in Tehran were chosen as subjects and provided with a questionnaire consisting of 50 APLL equivalents. The respondents’ acceptance of the first 25 words correlated with the extent to which these words are used in newspapers and magazines; however, the second 25 equivalents were treated differently. Close to half of the Undergraduates and Masters and only a little more than half of the PhD students accepted the equivalents. The results showed no significant relationship between education and the acceptance and rejection of the APLL words; however, there was a significant relationship between respondents’ parents’ education and the acceptance and rejection of the APLL words. Although, males tended to be slightly more accepting than females who were split 50:50, there was no significant relationship between gender and the acceptance and rejection of the APLL words. The respondents preferred words which had only a single equivalent.
Expanding Middle School Students’ Literacy Skills Using the Journey Motif in Three Middle Grade Novels and Short Stories
This paper analyzed three middle grade novels and a short story from two cultures using the journey motif as the vehicle for the analysis. The three novels are Bud Not Buddy and The Watsons Go to Birmingham both by Paul Curtis (1995, 1999) and Journey to Jo’burg by Naidoo (1985). The short story is My Two Dads by Lee (2000). The three novels and a short story were chosen because these novels are on the reading list for students in many school districts in the USA at the middle grade level. The analysis showed that for the three novels and a short story in the study, each text adhered to some elements/ parts of the journey motif. The paper then suggested 10 literacy strategies that can be used by English Language Arts teachers to engage learners, make the instructional process more interesting and hopefully improve achievement for all learners.
The English literature component has been around in the Malaysian Education system since 2000. However, literature as a subject has always been learned more for transactional purposes rather than for its aesthetic value. Basically, a regurgitation of knowledge from years of learning, poured out in one major examination. In this research, the researcher applies a teaching method, called the literature circle in a classroom to study how it could be an effective way to learning literature beyond the classroom and for completing exam papers. Accompanying the literature circle activity is the writing of personal responses to gauge the students’ understanding and views on the literature component being studied. This paper discusses the findings of the study that investigates the effect of literature circle in the students’ personal responses and also to examine the students’ perception towards literature circle. The findings of this study, obtained via qualitative and quantitative instruments, comprising of observations, interviews, personal responses, and questionnaires, provide insights for educators and other researchers into another dimension of the teaching and learning of literature component.
The Impact of Greece’s Political and Social Conditions (Fifth Century B.C.) on Plato’s Political Thought(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: حکمت و فلسفه سال هشتم زمستان ۱۳۹۱ شماره ۴ (پیاپی ۳۲) 61 - 80
Plato is the first philosopher who states his political views in a sound philosophical system. The testimony to this statement is his two important works, i.e. Republic (Politeia) and Laws (Nomoi) in which one can trace his political views. Plato’s political writings indicate that his life as a great philosopher has never been devoid of the political and social issues of his time. The fusion of politics, metaphysics, ethics and education in Plato’s works demonstrate that he was involved in political and social problems in an important and eventful period. Since no thought is created without passing through the historical bottlenecks, an attempt is made here to examine the impacts of Greece’s eventful and flourishing period, i.e. the fifth century B.C., on Plato’s political views as the recognition of the effective factors influencing the views of a philosopher which will help the researcher understand the historical trends.
Educational System as a Discourse of Power: Reading Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye in Terms of Adorno’s Theory of ‘Halbbildung’(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
منبع: Critical Literary Studies, Vol ۱, No ۲, Spring and Summer ۲۰۱۹ 245 - 259
Discourse has been one of the most challenging interdisciplinary terms during the past few decades which connects variety of fields of study such as politics, philosophy, sociology, linguistics, and literature. One of the approaches which is born out of mutual interaction between Linguistics and socio-political debates is critical discourse analysis (CDA), which studies the relation between language and power. Among the influential figures of this approach, one may refer to Antonio Gramci, Paulo Freire, and Frankfurt School Critical Theory. Theodore Adorno as one of the key members of this school challenges the basic assumptions of educational system in his writings particularly his essay “Theory of Halbbildung,” by which he meant “Half-education.” In his viewpoint, education is deemed as very forceful, one of the manifestations of power relation, which speaks in its own language to its audience or learners. The present paper is an attempt to analyze the failure of educational system to foster autonomous individuals in Salinger's Catcher in the Rye in the light of Adorno's theory of half-education.
A Literature Review on the Implications of Moral Intelligence and Educational Effectiveness in the Area of Educational Management; Are They Interrelated?
Moral intelligence is one of the most important factors that can increase effectiveness and efficiency, the two important factors that every organization wants to survive in a chaotic market and should concentrate more on them. In general, when researchers want to promote moral intelligence they study its effects on other related issues like educational effectiveness. This paper investigates moral intelligence and effectiveness in education.
Transition to a Democratic Family in Iran: A Socio-Philosophical Investigation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Democratic family, as a new phenomenon in Iran, is based on some fundamental principles such as liberty, equality, rule of law, and tolerance. In this article, some of the important aspects of a democratic family in Iran will be explained and evaluated by applying conceptual analysis and critical evaluation. The family, which is characterized by middle class, rights, population and urbanization, marriage and divorce, violence, and nuclear family, lead to reasonable decision-making through dialogue and cooperation. The patriarchal mode of management in Iranian family has gradually changed into a collective decision-making, in which, the role of boys and girls are significant. These characteristics indicate that Iranian democratic family is a transitional process of social and political development in Iran.
How to Escape the Middle Income Trap in Iran? Lessons from Malaysia, Thailand South Korea and China(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
In 2010, the World Bank categorized countries by GDP (at Purchasing Power Parity) per capita (at constant 1990 prices) in three categories: low, middle (low and high), and high. If a country falls in a trap at least 28 years in the low middle income and at least 14 years in the high middle income group, then it is included in low and middle income groups, respectively .In this paper, using the experience of successful countries in avoiding the trap, we investigated the impact of investment, human capital, high-tech exports, total factor productivity, exports of goods and services, and the value added of service sectors on per capita GDP growth during 1991-2014, using panel data. Research findings in the literature indicated that in selected Asian countries, human capital and total factor productivity growth with positive and significant effects have the greatest impact on avoiding the trap. In the case of Iran, human capital and the total factor productivity growth have positive and significant effects on the economic growth, but such effects have not been so great to help escaping Iran’s economy from the middle- income trap. Therefore, Iran has remained in the middle- income trap over the past 58 years. JEL Classification: J24, D24, E22, C33.
The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education on Females’ Labor Force Participation: A Case of Some Cities of Pakistan(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of gender inequality in education on females’ labor force participation in 14 major cities (rapidly urbanizing areas) of Pakistan after taking into account the socio-economic indicators like the marital status of female, the gender of the head of household, physical facilities, the median income of the household, etc. Data were gathered from the Pakistan Social Standard of Living Measurement Survey from 2004-05 to 2011-12. Pseudo Panel technique was applied using cities and females in the age group 15-65 as cohorts. Graphical representation and fixed effect techniques were used for analyzing the issue. On the basis of the results, the study recommends some policies such as education facilities, especially, technical, vocational, and job-oriented education should be provided to the females on an equal basis. Females should be given equal opportunities as males, there should be laws to eliminate wage differential. Women’s participation in the manufacturing and trade sectors should be encouraged. Moreover, facilities for married women such as day-care centers should be increased. JEL Classification: I32, I24, J16, Z130, J21
The Effect of the Idea of Education Content Knowledge on the Planning and Development of Faculty Members in Farhangian University, Region 2 of the Country
منبع: Curriculum Research, Volume ۱, Issue ۱, Summer ۲۰۲۰ 69 - 76
Purpose : The impact of content knowledge idea instruction on teaching quality of Farhangian University faculty members of Region 9 of Iran. Method : This applied study was conducted with a mixed approach using a qualitative and quantitative approach. In the qualitative section, the statistical population included 20 professors of Farhangian University in Region 9, 10 of who were selected by purposive sampling method based on saturation law, and 263 faculty members, professors and visiting lecturers of Farhangian University in Region 9 of the country. Including (Semnan, Mazandaran and Golestan) were in the quantitative section that 156 of them were selected as a sample using random sampling method classified according to Cochran's formula. To collect data, two content knowledge education questionnaires (researcher-made) with 82 questions and the development of faculty members of Qoroneh et al. With 93 questions were used. The validity and validity of the instruments were confirmed by the supervisors and consultants and the combined reliability and Cronbach's alpha were calculated higher than 0.7. SPSS21 and PLS3.2 software and structural equations were used for data analysis. Findings : The results of structural equation test showed that the effect of content knowledge of education and training on the development of faculty members in Farhangian University, Region 9 was positive and significant. Conclusion : The results showed that the effect of content knowledge of education on the development of faculty members in Farhangian University in 9 countries has been significant.
Identifying and Ranking the Dimensions of Resonant Leadership with the Curriculum Planning Approach in Schools of Education of Mazandaran Province
منبع: Curriculum Research, Volume ۱, Issue ۱, Summer ۲۰۲۰ 77 - 84
Purpose : This Research was conducted with the aim of identifying and ranking the dimensions of resonant leadership with the curriculum planning approach in schools of education of Mazandaran province. Methods : This study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was descriptive from type of survey. The study population was school managers of Mazandaran province in the 2018-19 academic years with number of 4865 people. The research sample according to Cochran's formula was estimated 359 people who were selected based on multi-step cluster sampling method with respect to the ratio of courses. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire whose face and content validity was confirmed by expert’s opinion and tool construct validity was confirmed by exploratory factor analysis and its reliability was calculated 0.87 by Cronbach’s alpha method. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and Friedman test in SPSS software version 19. Finding : The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the dimensions of resonant leadership with the curriculum planning approach in schools had five leadership dimensions including the coaching (5 items), linking (5 items), psychological (5 items), democratic (4 items) and deep-view (4 items) that these five dimensions together were able to explain 80.04% of the total variance. The results of Friedman test showed that the leaderships dimensions of coaching, linking, psychological, democratic and deep-view had higher ranks, respectively. Conclusion : Based on the results of the present study, in order to improve resonant leadership with the curriculum planning approach, can be improved the leaderships dimensions of coaching, linking, psychological, democratic and deep-view, respectively via workshops.
Designing an Effective Professional Ethics Model in Training from the Perspective of Heads and Deputies of Education of Tehran Province
منبع: Curriculum Research, Volume ۱, Issue ۱, Summer ۲۰۲۰ 100 - 109
Purpose : This aim of present research was designing an effective professional ethics model in training from the perspective of heads and deputies of education of Tehran province. Methods : This study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was mixed (qualitative and quantitative). The research population in both qualitative and quantitative sections was the heads and deputies of education in 2019-20 academic years. The research sample in the qualitative section according to the theoretical saturation principle was 40 people who were selected by purposive sampling method and in the quantitative section according to Cochran's formula were 230 people who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The research instruments were the semi-structured interview and a researcher-made questionnaire whose psychometric indicators were confirmed. Data were analyzed with using methods of open, axial and selective coding, exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in SPSS and LISREL software. Finding : The results of both qualitative and quantitative sections showed that effective professional ethics in training had 40 indicators and 9 components including self-efficacy, scientific responsibility, individual ethics, managerial factors, organizational factors, job ethics, extra-organizational factors, social responsibility and belonging to scientific society. Also, the effective professional ethics model in training had a good fit and all 9 components had a significant effect on the mentioned model (P <0.05). Conclusion : According to the results, planning to improve the effective professions ethics in education is necessary by experts and planners. As a result, they can enhance the components of self-efficacy, scientific responsibility, individual ethics, managerial factors, organizational factors, job ethics, extra-organizational factors, social responsibility and belonging to scientific society
The Components of Richard Rorty's New-Pragmatic Educational Philosophy and Islamic Educational Philosophy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and investigate the differences existing in the attitudes of one of the most influential philosophical schools, Rorty's new-pragmatic, and the associated Western pragmatism, especially the educational system of the United States, with the Islamic educational philosophy. Methodology: This is a qualitative research study in which the internet and library resources have been used. The finding of this study indicated that the tenet of new-pragmatic is to propose factual issues beyond time and ignoring objectivity. Findings: Given that, new-pragmatism made use of some principles based on which it could bridging the gap of relativism. However, it is unable to explain the identity of an individual in a comprehensive educational philosophy. Consequently, new- pragmatism proposes the design of modern language which is an idealistic one and since it is a futuristic model, it cannot be the basis for educational philosophy which needs a practical model. Sequentially, it should be noted that in the studies which are conducted on the current educational philosophy practiced in Iran, many of the new alternatives are provided are not without failures. Discussion: That said, no new educational philosophy should be used in Iranian context without doing research and comparing it with the Islamic philosophy which pays the utmost attention to the human spirituality for many years even if the founders of such schools of philosophy have global reputation and be among the most influential philosophers.
Investigating the Relationship between Educational Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Organizational Culture and Creativity in Faculty Members of Tehran University(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: Entrepreneurship culture needs to have a favorable environment for innovation and creative responsiveness to environmental needs. Entrepreneurial culture emphasizes identifying, supporting, and developing creative talents. The prevalence of this kind of culture makes universities, in their confrontation with the threats of competitors, the innovation, creativity, and risk-taking to exploit the opportunities necessary. Creativity is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that affects a variety of factors. These factors may be a specific environmental or cultural force in an organization seeking to create value and prosperity. Methodology: The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship The dimensions of entrepreneurial organizational culture and creativity are in the faculty of Tehran University. The research method used is a descriptive method from the survey branch. For this purpose, a sample of 262 faculty members from the colleges of Tehran University was selected and studied using the Cochran formula. To collect information, McGuire's Entrepreneurial Organizational Culture Dimensions Questionnaire (2003) and Islan Powell's Creativity and Innovation Scale (2006) were used. Pearson correlation test and linear regression models were used to investigate the existence of this relationship. Findings: The results of the research show that in women, only the effect of recreation and entertainment has been significant on the creativity of professors. And in men, the effect of recreation, hobbies, and communication on the creativity of professors has been meaningful. Discussion: The impact of other areas of organizational culture on the creativity of professors in male and female teachers was not meaningful.
Providing a Model for Promoting Public Participation in Tax Matters with Emphasis on Citizenship Education (West of Tehran)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: One of the indicators of economic development in the countries is the participation of citizens. One of the most important issues is the participation of citizens in paying taxes. Methodology: In this research, a model for promoting popular participation in paying taxes at the Tehran Tax Administration has been addressed. This study was carried out in combination; in the qualitative section, a sample of 20 individuals was deliberately targeted at experts in the field. The qualitative tool in the research was a semi-structured interview and a small tool for a researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical population of this study is 384 attendants and 254 employees of the General Directorate. A random sampling method was used. According to the opinion of the professors, the tool was selected through the implementation of 30 questionnaires and the determination of Cronbach's alpha The research used in this study was exploratory factor analysis, T test, Factor Factor Analysis and Verifiable Factor Analysis, which was performed using SPSS software and Lisrel software and MonteCarloPCA program and structural equation modeling technique (SEM). Findings: The research findings show that in this study 8 factors have been discovered to increase the participation and its model has been extracted and approved by the experts. Among these factors, technological and economic have the highest value and have been introduced as the most important factor for promoting participation. Discussion: these couple therapy approaches can be used as a useful strategy for creating coherence and creating a conscious relationship to the interaction of mental elements to improve couples' relationships.
Diagnosis of Extracurricular Courses of Sport in Educational system through employing Weisbord’s Model(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The present study aims to study the Diagnosis of extracurricular Courses of Sport in the Educational system through employing Weisbord’s Model. Methodology: The descriptive – survey method was employed. The statistical population was all sports teachers in North Khorasan Province who were 750 people. Based on the kerjeci & Morgan table, 256 sports secretaries were identified as the sample. The data gathering tool in this research was a researcher-made questionnaire with 22 questions, whose questions were designed based on the Weisbord’s design. The face and content validity of this questionnaire were evaluated using the opinion of the university experts. In order to study the construct validity of this questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis was used. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The reliability of this questionnaire was 0.87. The statistical methods used in the present study included the K-S test, exploratory factor analysis, and T-test. All data analysis was done in SPSS software version 22. Findings: The results of this study showed that the identified complications in accordance with the webs board pattern in the present study, explained 75.25% of the total variance of the questions. The number of complications detected in the research includes the Weisbord’s Model in all dimensions and domains below the average level of 3. Considering the significance level below 0.05, it can be stated that these complications are in poor condition. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that there are some complications in post-exercise training programs in education, all of which are in poor condition. The results of the present study indicated that goals, structure, rewards, useful mechanisms, communication, and leadership are all complications of the post-training exercise in education that all of them are in undesirable conditions.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the concept of ethical sensitivity as an essential component of ethical decision making and provide solutions for teacher students education in order to develop ethical sensitivity. Methodology: This was a fundamental descriptive correlational method. In this study, concept analysis method was used. In this regard, first, the preconditions and characteristics of ethical sensitivity, with emphasis on Weaver's studies (2005) was explained, and then, based on these preconditions and attributes, some approaches were presented to develop the teacher students’ education on ethical sensitivity. Findings: Regarding the analysis of ethical sensitivity through the research backgrounds, it can be stated that the purpose of the education and development of this concept is to assist students in accepting and analyzing the views of students, answering them, identifying and interpreting ethical issues, and finally, justify, reflex and anticipate the consequences of its ethical actions, and using methods that are effective in maintaining the student's personality coherence. Conclusion: ethical sensitivity and explaining the methods to develop it on student-teacher education can lead to the behavioral contradiction of the educators and lead to less emphasis of ethical sensitivity among the educators.
Developing a Standard Model of Teachers' Professional Competence on the Basis of High Level Documents(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a standard model of teachers' professional competence on the basis of high-level documents. Methodology: This was an applied research in terms of purpose and was a sequential exploratory mixed study in terms of data collection. Data collection tools in the qualitative phase were the analysis of the content of high-level documents (Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE), National Curriculum, Comprehensive Scientific Map of the Country, and 20-Year Perspective Document for Iran) to extract the components. In order to ensure the validity of the content analysis checklist, content and face validity method and expert opinion were used. The data in qualitative phase were analyzed through three open, axial and selective coding methods. The findings included 69 symbols in the open coding, where they were classified in the form of 4 concepts including recruitment, teacher education, teacher retention & promotion and evaluation in the axial coding. In the selective coding stage, a standard model of teachers' professional competence on the basis of high-level documents was developed. The research instrument in the quantitative phase was a researcher-made questionnaire derived from the qualitative results of the research. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts in the field of education. Confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, and divergent validity were used to evaluate the construct validity, and hybrid reliability was used to evaluate the construct reliability. As well as, in the quantitative phase of research, structural equations under Smart PLS software were used to evaluate the standard model of teachers' professional competence. Findings: According to the results of t-statistic, all factor loadings were significant at 99% confidence level and played a significant role in developing the standard model of teachers' professional competence on the basis of high-level documents of Education. Conclusion: The proposed model enjoyed an appropriate quality and was approved. Managers, teachers, and administrators in the education of teachers can employ the symbols, concepts, and categories identified in this study in their future planning to shape the teachers' professional competence.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present a model of educational citizenship behavior among teachers. Methodology: The present study was applied in terms of purpose, in terms of data collection, Induction and exploration in terms of qualitative method with the data base method. The statistical population of this study consisted of all first grade High School teachers in the academic year of 2018-19 who were selected by snowball method. In this study, we interviewed 42 teachers and teachers from the northern provinces of the country who were interviewed from seventeen onwards, repeatedly on the received information, and after the twenty-four interviews, the data were completely duplicated and theoretically saturated, but to be sure of the interview. 42 continued. In-depth interviews started with questions about "Teacher Citizenship Behavior among Teachers" and the rest of the questions were based on the answers of the interviewee. In this study, systematic method (open coding, axial coding and selective coding) was used for data analysis. Findings: Data analysis based on content analysis and Grounded Theory method using data base theory showed that educational citizenship behavior in teachers was related to five components: economic needs, organizational justice, teacher organizational characteristics, education strategic plans, respect So we can base on these five factors. Developed a model of educational citizenship behavior in teachers. Conclusion: Teachers need mutual respect for power and social base. Teachers who have this need seek education, learning and teaching, and tend to have the learning environment under their control.
Sociological Study of Human Development Components in Male and Female Employees(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sociological components of human development in male and female employees of Maskan Bank. Methodology: The method of the present study was descriptive-correlational in terms of data collection method and in terms of purpose, it was applied and in terms of quantitative method, it was retrospective in terms of time horizon. The population of Maskan Bank was statistical population (12300) throughout the country and the Cochran formula was used to determine the sample size of the population, based on which the sample size was 372. Size-proportional stratified sampling with one-fifth sample ratio used. For the first time, the country was divided according to the provinces (31 provinces) and then according to the sample size 372 employees were selected as sample according to the total number of employees in the housing banks of each province. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and analysis of variance for gender differences between the two groups of men and women. Human Development Index Questionnaire was used to measure the research variables. Findings: The results of Pearson correlation test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between men and women in terms of variables of education, quality of life and health and human development. The results also showed that men's mean scores on all variables of education, quality of life, health and human development were in favor of men. So men are in a better position than any woman in the housing bank for all indicators. Conclusion: The increasing presence of women in the executive and employment market and their remarkable success in university examinations has given the Iranian society a different picture and it seems that the process of social change continues to promote the role of women. Going forward.