Shame is one of the emotions that a person experiences in a variety of everyday situations and many cases it is annoying. Shame is known as a moral emotion, yet its role in psychopathology has been emphasized. This study aimed to examine the lived experience of shame in individuals . This research is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. This research describes in-depth what shame is and how it is experienced from the perspective of individuals. The participants included eight men and seven women who contributed to an in-depth unstructured interview. A seven-step Colaizzi method was used to analyze the data. Data were analyzed using MAXQDA (2018) software.Based on our findings, the eight themes of "physical reactions", "accompanying emotions", "making mistakes", "vicarious shame", "gaze of others", "being subject to judgment", " preoccupation" and three sub-themes of "worry", "rumination" and "blame", "existential shame" with the sub-themes of "inadequacy" and "feeling different" are the most common ones in people's experience of shame. Results are discussed regarding the existing literature. In general, the study of people's experience of shame shows that there are common themes in the description of different people from what they have experienced. The use of shame as a concept in psychotherapy may improve our understanding of the nature of some psychological problems.
Development and effect-evaluation of a new family-based art therapy on depression and pain anxiety of the hospitalized children with cancer(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The consequences of cancer do not just impact on the body only, but expands into the other levels of human existence, including psychological levels. Sometimes these consequences are even more painful and more destructive than physical harms, especially in children. Therefore, the use of psychotherapy for children, particularly art-based psychotherapies, is necessary. So, the main objective of the present research was to develop a new family-based art therapy for hospitalized children with cancer and to evaluation its effectiveness on the symptoms of depression (DEP) and pain anxiety (PA). Five hospitalized children with cancer, participated in this single-subject study (A-B type) accompanied with their mothers. The intervention was applied in eight sessions (30-60 minutes per session). Children’s depression and pain anxiety were measured repeatedly in two phases and data were analyzed by graphs and tables. The effect size (ES) and reliable change index (RCI) are also reported in addition to the customary values. The results showed that family-based art therapy was significantly effective in reducing the symptoms of depression and pain anxiety in all of the children. The findings indicate the effectiveness of family-based art therapy in helping to modify the psychological consequences of cancer, and clarify the need for this approach to be applied in similar conditions.
Job is one of the most important issues in the discussion of human resources, and since the discussion of job stress in the flight crew and its relationship with the performance of the flight crew is very important and vital. This research is about recognizing and developing a model for job stress among the cabin crew of Mahan Airline. The qualitative research methodology has been followed by qualitative inductive approach and grounded theory, that is the common approach in this case. The population of this research has two sections; the first section includes the new related scientific documents from 10 to 20 texts that are collected by using targeted approach until achieving domination criteria. Inductive qualitative content analysis method was applied for analyzing the specialized texts that are related to the research. The second population contains the whole flight crew of Mahan Airline Company. The research sample is chosen by using targeted and snowball method and by 37 items has been reached to theoretical saturation. The data are gathered by Semi-structured approach and they are analyzed by Straws & Corbin(1998) systematic analysis method. A total of 260 opening codes and 19 axial codes were extracted, which were categorized into 5 selected codes. as a result the job stress model of Mahan Airline flight crew is established and then is validated by focus group. The results show that the established pattern for job stress has five main aspects including the job stress nature, appearing job stress, the sources and conditions of job stress, reaction to job stress and consequences of job stress, and there is connection among them.
The Effectiveness of Compassion Focused Therapy on Depression and Rumination after romantic Relationship Breakup: A single case study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of compassion-focused therapy on Depression and Rumination after a romantic breakup. The present study was carried out using the single-case quasi-experimental method and a simple baseline method. For this purpose, three female participants were selected through targeted sampling and they were treated through an individual Compassion-focused Therapy (CFT) during eight 90-min sessions. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Rumination (RRS) questionnaires in the baseline stage (pre-treatment) during the second, fourth, sixth and eighth sessions, and in the one-month follow-up stage. Moreover, in the pre-treatment stage, the participants completed the Love Trauma Inventory (LTI) and the MMPI-2RF questionnaires to identify the severity of disturbance after breakup and to detect the serious disorder in axis, respectively. Then they were interviewed in order to identify their personality disorder. For data analysis, clinical significance method and the recovery percentage index were used. The results showed that compassion-focused therapy has a significant effect on the reduction of Depression and mental Rumination. The percentage of non-overlap data (PND) on the Depression Scale was 100 for the first and second participants and 75 for the third participant; it was 100 on the rumination scale for all three participants. The rate of recovery of depression in the first, second, third participant was 65%, 72%, 25%, the rumination rate in the first, second, third participant was 47%, 42%, 33%, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who experienced a breakup after a compassion-focused therapy look at themselves with a new and compassionate look at their own.
The effectiveness of self-encouragement training based on Adler's theory on psychological capital and academic engagement of students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the training of self-encouragement based on Adler's theory of psychological capital and academic engagement of female high school students. This study was a semi-experimental research and used a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The sample consisted of 60 students (30 participants for experimental group and 30 participants control group) who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The experimental group was then educated for self-encouragement for 8 sessions while the control group did not receive any training. The instrument used in this study was Schaufeli & Bakker's (2006) Academic Engagement Questionnaire and Luthan's (2007) Psychosocial Capital Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data and Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to investigate the research hypotheses. By analyzing the data, results indicated that self-encouragement training increased the academic engagement and psychological capital of female students. Regarding the effectiveness of this training on increasing the academic engagement and psychological capital, this training is evaluated useful for students.
Comparison of Marital Satisfaction in Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Alternative kidney treatments, including renal transplantation, hemodialysis (HD), and peritoneal dialysis (PD), are administered when severe kidney failure occurs and the kidney can no longer function. The present study compares different dimensions of marital satisfaction in HD and PD patients so as to assist physicians and patients in choosing their appropriate treatment. This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was performed on 77 hemodialysis and 46 peritoneal dialysis patients who had referred to the Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Nephrology wards of Imam Reza Hospital and Ghaem Hospital, Tehran, in 2018. Marital satisfaction was significantly different between HD and PD patients, with the latter displaying a greater score in this regard (p <0.05). PD patients also enjoyed a higher level of satisfaction with personality issues, communication, conflict resolution, leisure activities, sexual relationships, children and parenting, and religious orientation (p <0.05). However, satisfaction with financial management and family and friends made no significant difference between HD and PD patients (p> 0.05). Other results suggested that gender, education level, age, number of children, disease onset, type of delivery, and urinary tract infection do not have a significant impact on marital satisfaction (p> 0.05), but diabetes, hypertension, occupational status, and income level significantly affect this variable (p <0.05). This study provided evidence that PD patients, compared with HD patients, experience a higher satisfaction with marital life, especially in terms of personality issues, communication, conflict resolution, leisure activities, sexual relationships, children and parenting, and religious orientation
The Relationship between Attributional Style and Mental Health in Diabetic Patients with Good and Poor Metabolic Control of diabetes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Diabetes is one of the common diseases which is increasingly rising in most countries and has wide a range of complications ranging from physical to psychological problems. Given the importance of this disease, this study aims to investigate the relationship between attributional style and general health in diabetic patients with good and poor metabolic control of diabetes. The main research question was that “Is there a relationship between attributional style and general health in diabetic patients with good and poor metabolic control of diabetes?”. The statistical population of the study included all diabetic patients who referred to the medical centers of type 2 diabetes in Tehran. From this population, 82 patients were selected through availability sampling. The research instruments were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Data was determined based on gender, metabolic control of diabetes, level of education, and frequency. The correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results of the correlation coefficient indicated that attributional style, as an internal dimension, had a significant relationship with general health in the good metabolic control group while the stable dimension in the poor metabolic control group had a significant correlation with general health ( r = 0.341, p = 0.05). In addition, men had better general health than women but no difference in attributional style was found between men and women. Based on this research, changes in attributional style of patients can improve general health of them.