Families develop shared worldviews called family paradigms, an ordered set of beliefs about the social world that are sensibly connected to the ways families actually respond to and interact with their social world and which help or hinder their problem solving abilities. Evidence suggests that these paradigms are generally built in and endure and regulate transactions with the family's social environment. Under stress, however, a family may alter its paradigm as a result of transactions with the environment. Using a family system paradigm, this presentation will examine the theoretical literature in search of a better way of understanding stress and its management in families. Multiple causes and multifaceted coping strategies, and the advantages and disadvantages of management strategies in families will be highlighted.
The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Iranian Coping Style Scale (ICSS): Associations with Individual Differences(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Historically, psychologists have been interested in categorizing and measurement of coping styles. Moreover, development of culture-specific measures has been neglected in the coping literature. The present study is intended to develop and validate a parsimonious and broad measure of coping style in Iran. An item pool of 80 items was administered on a random sample of 911 university students in ten groups. A principled components analysis was performed on a subsample and a confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the remaining subsample. Twelve concurrent measures were used to ensure concurrent validity. A principled components analysis suggested a nine-factor solution. A confirmatory factor analysis on a distinct subsample confirmed the nine-factor structure. Subscales were labeled as turning to religion, procrastination, positivity, self-blame, avoidance, seeking social support, problem solving, wishful thinking, and passivity. All subscales were significantly correlated with theoretically related constructs. Alpha coefficients of the subscales ranged from 0.77 (problem solving) to 0.92 (turning to religion). The present study developed and validated the 45-item Iranian Coping Style Scale (ICSS) with nine subscales. Therefore, ICSS may be used as a reliable and valid measure of coping styles in research and clinical settings.
A Cross-Cultural Study about Positive and Negative Emotions and Its Relation to Health and Well-being(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This review article consists of two studies about well-being and positive and negative emotions in two different cultures of Iran and Sweden as markers of collectivistic and individualistic cultures, respectively. Study 1 compared Iranian and Swedish undergraduate students with new measurements of well-being distinguishing between cognitive and emotional components (Diener et al., 2010). Whereas there was no difference between the two cultures in cognitive component of well-being, there were significant differences between the two cultures in emotional components. Iranian students reported more negative emotions while Swedish students reported more positive emotions. Furthermore, whereas, in Iranian population, negative emotions more strongly predicted their well-being, positive emotions more strongly predicted well-being in the Swedish population. In Study 2, the same measurements of well-being and positive and negative emotions were used among Iranian and Swedish infertile women who were in an unpleasant situation and experience a significant amount of stress and negative emotions. The results of this study also showed no difference between the two cultures with respect to cognitive component of well-being. There were again cultural differences in emotional component. Infertile Swedish women reported higher levels of positive and negative emotions than infertile Iranian women. In both infertile populations, the most predictive affect with regard to flourishing was the balance affect. It was concluded that, under a stressful and unpleasant situation like infertility compared to a normal situation (such as university student populations), the same pattern of distinction between cognitive and emotional components of well-being can be still observable. However, negative emotions can act differently at cultural level: they become more noticeable in the Swedish population than in the Iranian population. The results are discussed with respect to individualistic-collectivistic dimension. <br />
Comparing Stress Management Strategies and Impulsivity in Opioids, Moderators, and Stimulant Abusers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present study is aimed at dealing with stress management strategies and impulsivity in opiate abusers, sedative and stimulus is conducted. In the study, a causal-comparative method was adopted. Research participants included 180 drug users inhabiting the already determined addiction centers in Shiraz. They were selected using Available random sampling. To collect the data, stress management strategies and impulsivity scales were employed, and to analyze the results, descriptive statistical methods and variance analysis were used. The results indicated that abuse stimulating consumers significantly more than consumers emotion-centered use of opioids and moderator of coping strategies virgin (0.007), but abusers response-moderator (0.26) and opioids - moderator (0.43) were not significantly different. As well as the construction abusers significantly greater impulsivity as compared to the stimulus (0.012) and opioids (0.005) showed, but stimulants and opioids two groups had no significant differences in impulsivity variables (0.94). It can be said that the research is based on the type of substance, in terms of coping with stress and control of their impulsivity, of consumers stimulants other than using virgin materials more negatively of coping with stress and drug abuse-moderator of impulsivity than other people are experiencing abuse.
An Investigation of the Relationship between Sources of Meaning of Life and Mental Health(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Since Frankl (1985) has introduced the role of meaning in life in mental health, some psychologists tried to operationalize this concept and study in this field (Crumbaugh and Maholic, 1964; Batista & Almond, 1973; Steger et al., 2006). By development of new instrument in the domain of life's meaning by Schnell (2009), the wider investigation of mental health and meaning in life has been provided. The present study aims at determining the relationship between four sources of life including life meaningfulness, the crisis of life's significance, spirituality, and religiosity and indices of mental health. Therefore, a sample comprising 126 participants (53= female; 73= male) among the students of University of Tehran carried out the questionnaire for investigating the sources of life's meaning (SoMe) and a brief form for the scale of depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21). The results were analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Among the variables of life's meaning, the crisis of life's meaning showed the highest positive correlation with depression (r = 0.62, p ˂ 0.01) and stress (r = 0.39, p ˂ 0.01). Also, the life meaningfulness showed the highest negative relationship with depression (r = -0.52, p ˂ 0.01) and stress (r = - 0.34, p ˂ 0.01). In conclusion, considering the meaning of life as an important associate of mental health seems essential in order to decrease the depression and stress, and improving the general health of society.
Comparing the Efficacy of Three Therapeutic Methods of Emotional Expression, Mental and Combined Relaxation in Reducing Perceived Stress(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The phenomenon of stress and its role in sickness and health is overt. Furthermore, various studies have confirmed the role of emotions in psychological well-being; but the relation between stress and emotions is one of the important issues about which there are different theories. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of three interventions including: emotional expression, meditation and compound method on perceived stress. <br />The design used in the present study is quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest with control group and a two-month follow-up stage. Forty men who voluntarily had referred to Tavan Afza Clinic were chosen using hand-to-hand sampling method and were randomly assigned to four groups. The Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale was used in the pretest, posttest and follow-up stages and the intervention lasted for eight sessions within one month. The data were analyzed by covariance and T-test independent group test. The statistical data indicated that the difference between the compound treatment group and control group by the significance level of 5% and the confidence level of 95% was significant; but the difference between the other groups was not significant. The results indicated that the compound method can be effective in reducing perceived stress of the youth. Therefore, this method can be used as an effective way to reduce stress in the stressed-out people and to improve psychological well-being in the youth.
The negative signs of stress can be reduced or even eliminated if they are recognized early. Hence, the level of stress needs to be continuously measured and reported especially if the stressors are frequent or continuous. M-health is a new technology to provide mobile healthcare services including mental and behavioral. It allows the healthcare specialists and patients are linked beyond their mobility and physical location while the system is connected. This paper presents the system model for an M-mental healthcare system which automatically detects stress. This system, which is called MSAS, continuously measures the stress level using wearable sensors connected to a mobile phone. The consumer gets alarm and/or the mental healthcare team receives a call if the stress level is recognized above a particular threshold. MathLab is used to simulate and evaluate MSAS. The results show that MSAS offers benefits to detect stress with an acceptable level of accuracy.
Predicting the Social Anxiety Based on Stress and Timidity in University Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This research was carried out in order to predict the social anxiety based on the level of stress and timidity in students of Islamic Azad University of Boroujerd. The present research was fundamental in terms of purpose, and it was descriptive-correlation with the type of prediction in terms of method. The statistical sample of this research was composed of two-hundred undergraduate and master students in Azad Islamic University of Boroujerd, and all of them participated in this study. Data were collected by using social anxiety (SPIN_2000), Stofford's timidity and stress (DASS_21) questionnaires. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multivariate Regression Analysis were applied to analyze the data by step by step method. Data Analysis showed that social anxiety is predictable based on stress and timidity, and these two variables could predict twenty-six percent of variant variance of social anxiety. Research findings indicated the significance of stress and timidity in social anxiety. Most of the university students encounter different stressors and factors that cause their anxiety in social occasions to be appeared. Also, these findings can raise the importance and role of timidity in outbreak of social anxiety disorder to a great extent, however it has not still considered as a separate disorder.
The Impact of Positive Psychotherapy on Decreasing the College Students' Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Increasing their Well-being(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of positive psychotherapy on decreasing the students' stress, anxiety, depression and increasing their well-being. In this study, an experimental research method was adopted using a pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 34 undergraduate students were sampled out of 1200 students in academic year 2013-2014 University of Shahid Beheshti. Using convenience sampling, the participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The instruments employed in the study included Depression/ Anxiety and Stress Scale Lovibond (1995) and positive psychotherapy inventory (Rashid & Seligman, 2013). The positive psychotherapy was trained to the experimental group on a weekly basis during six two-hour sessions. The results of covariance indicated that positive psychotherapy was effective in decreasing stress, anxiety, depression and increasing the students' well-being and that their permanence was observed two months after the experiment. Because the early period of the students' life is stressful, and as the results represented, positive psychotherapy can be beneficial for students as an effective way to strengthen the psychological resources and mental health.
Designing a Happy Learning Environment in Schools and Investigating Its Relationship with Stress and Mental Health(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The present qualitative-correlational study is aimed at developing a model for designing a happy and active learning environment in schools, and also identifying the relationships between different components of a happy learning environment and students’ mental health and stress. First, the qualitative method was used to review the relevant literature and interview several experts in the field. Accordingly, 8 main components and 36 sub-components were identified for a happy learning environment, and a conceptual model was developed. Next, the correlational method was used to determine the relationships between a happy learning environment and students’ mental health and stress. A total of 200 students (100 females and 100 males) studying at five primary schools in Kermanshah in school year 2014-2015 were selected as the sample. The inclusion criteria were the observation of some specific symptoms such as nail biting, withdrawal, aggression, and academic underachievement. Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a researcher-made questionnaire on the components of a happy learning environment were used to collect the data on the students’ behavior as observed by their parents and teachers. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and independent t-test.There was a significant correlation between students’ mental health and different components of a happy school environment. (p<0.01). Among the components of mental health, stress had the most significant inverse correlation with different components of a happy school environment (p = 0.01, r = -0.17). In addition, female students were mentally healthier as compared to their male counterparts (p < 0.001). However, both gender groups scored equally on liveliness (p < 0.05).Given the significant relationship between students’ improved mental health and reduced stress and the presence of a happy learning environment in schools, it can be concluded that a happy and dynamic learning environment can significantly improve students’ mental health.
Challenges like employees' psychological strain and organisational changes have forced governments and organisations to define new major procedures in governmental section. These changes should be reviewed especially for police employees who are under the pressures and stresses from their policing job. <br />The present study is intended to identify the occupational stresses and their intra-organisational and inter-organisational effects in preventive police of Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI). This is a descriptive heuristic research based on an applied goal and a statistical society consisting of senior officers (Senior Management) of preventive police of IRI. 230 people of the society were randomly selected from all over the country. After interviewing the seniors and commanders and completing the questionnaires, the results were analysed by PLS and SPSS software packages. The findings showed that the variables were a combination of internal and external factors and R2 was equal to 0.821; so the value of R2 is correct and therefore the constructed model is validated. According to the results, the hypothesis that the two intra-organisational and inter-organisational factors can impact the stress level of the police employees is confirmed; and after ranking, intra-organisational factors showed greater impacts on the stress levels as compared to the inter-organisational factors.
Stress is one of the most important social factors which are effective in disturbing psychological balance. Regarding the length of time the people spend in working environment, this issue is of high importance in the field of employees. One the other hand, during past decades, there has been much attention paid to psychological features and positive psychological processes in positive organizational research in the studies; specifically, it is well known that these constructs are effective in the human's welfare, optimism, vitality, and self-mastery are some cases in point. The effectiveness of above-mentioned variables on the stress has been investigated in the present study. The study sample includes 110 employees working at Isfahan industrial companies. The sample has been selected using stratified random sampling method appropriate for the sample size. The study instruments include Eliot Job Stress Questionnaire, Scheier and Carver optimism questionnaire, Nix, Ryan, Manly & Deci vitality questionnaire and Pearlin and Schoolers Self-mastery. The data analysis method adopted was step-wise regression. In regression analysis, first, optimism, second, vitality, then self-mastery were recognized as perceived stress predictors. The relationships between positive variables and stress have been reported to be opposite. Based on the results analyzed, three above-mentioned variables have had the capability to explain 36% of stress variance. The results of the study imply that working on positive variables to make them act effectively on decreasing stress is of high value in the organizations.