ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک سال نوزدهم تابستان 1402 شماره 2 (پیاپی 70) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Iran and the Resistance Policy making Toward US Regional Client’s Actors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: resistance Identity Group’s Gecurity Policy Making Islamic values violence

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۶۲
Resistance is a concept that has been raised at different times and considered by many analysts from different angles. Islamic Republic of Iran’s resistance Policy Making is a method for foreign Policy analysis. Iran’s Foreign Policy is based on Policy Making. The Indexes of Islamic Republic of Iran’s resistance Policy Making in Foreign Policy is Cooperative method and interactive process with regional and international actors in environment crisis. Iran’s foreign policy is related and accordance with Identity and Revolution a thought on international relations.This article uses the descriptive method of analyzing and using library resources and information to answer the main questions of the article. What is Iran's strategic policy towards the American regional clients and what is the role of resistance in this process?The results show, the content and orientation of resistance policy making is based on regional competitive approach. Each kind of resistance Policy based on environmental competitive controls structural, identity, cultural and ideological differences and changes Islamic Republic of Iran’s resistance policy making have be seen in different issues especially resistance diplomacy and environmental security making in competitive regional policy.
۲.

Critical Attitude to the Function of Capital in the Urban Space of a Geopolitical Aspect(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Urban Space Geopolitics Capital the Political Economy of Space

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۶ تعداد دانلود : ۶۳
From the geopolitics point of view, the city is considered a geographic space that a variety range of actors competes with each other for achieving power and benefits, and in this proceeding, economy and capital are in the spotlight. It can be said function of capital in urban space is much-expanded that causing the formation of contesting, so capital is studied in urban geopolitics. For this reason, capital is the major issue of this study and authors have tried to show how capital affects the spaces of urban geography with a critical approach. Ontologically, this study is descriptive-analytical research and has used library methodology to achieve the goals. Results demonstrate which, from a critical geopolitics point of view urban space is an important focus for presenting the appearance of spatial political economy, which in its framework a collection of spatial proceedings and functions of capital, is recognizable and displayable.
۳.

The Impact of Spatial Injustice on Ethnic Conflict in Ethiopia(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Ethnicity Inequality Spatial Injustice Ethnic Conflict Ethiopia

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۵۷
Inequality and its increasing process is one of the obsessions of politicians and researchers of politics domain all around the world. In political geography terminology the issue is called spatial injustice. In fact, the main focus of spatial justice is identifying and expounding the political, economic and social factors and processes paving the way for injustice and also its consequences. African States affected by imposed and optional factors have the most multiethnic diversity and have also experienced most and dangerous ethnic conflicts in the world. Ethiopia is one of the African States which have experienced long range of ethnic conflicts. This paper using descriptive-analytic method is intended to expound the role-playing of spatial justice in the formation and continuation of ethnic conflicts in Ethiopia. In fact, the main question of the article is, what effect has spatial injustice had on ethnic conflicts in Ethiopia? The research findings show that ethnic conflicts affected by spatial injustice are categorized into two main categories: first, organized and continuous conflicts which are prevalent in Shinaiel and Afdar of Somali region in East of Ethiopia, Central State and OLF conflicts in Oromo and ARDUF conflicts with Ethiopian state; second, ethnic and tribal conflicts which are visible in different regions of Ethiopia.
۴.

Oil Price Manipulation as a Geoeconomic Weapon Against the Soviet Union / Russia(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: economic warfare Geoeconomics Oil Russia Soviet Union

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳
In modern geopolitics economic warfare has become more and more significant. This paper examines a special segment of economic warfare: can oil price be manipulated and serve as an effective geopolitical (or geoeconomic) weapon, and if that is the case, under what conditions? This article demonstrates that the United States and its allies (mainly Saudi Arabia)—when certain economic, technological, and political conditions are fulfilled—may be able to achieve a considerable and lasting decline in oil prices to restrain the military/geopolitical activities of the Soviet Union/Russia that are deemed overly excessive. This paper analyses the relationship between the oil market and geopolitics in the last decade of the Cold War, when the oil price fell sharply contributing to the collapse of the Soviet economic and political system. Research results may prove useful in forming the geopolitical/geoeconomic strategy of superpowers, and it may be applied to forecast oil price fluctuations too.
۵.

Eurasian Economic Union – Iran Partnership on Bilateral and Multilateral Basis: Economic and Geopolitical Aspects(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iran Interim Trade Agreement strategy Politics the Middle East

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶
The recent signing of the Interim Trade Agreement between Eurasian economic union (EAEU) and Iran has been the subject of political discussion. The future of cooperation between these two parties may shift the look of the Middle East and solve numerous problems, characteristic for the region and for EAEU. Russia as a key player in EAEU plays a significant role in the process of cooperation with Iran. The article aims at: a) revealing the economic and political benefits of cooperation between Iran and EAEU, b) revealing the economic and political benefits of cooperation between Iran and Russia, c) developing a strategy and clarifying the vision of the future of Interim Trade Agreement for EAEU. The key findings of the article incorporate the proof of the effectiveness of trade cooperation between EAEU and Iran and the effectiveness of the development of trade in services between Iran and Russia, based on energy cooperation; the strategy which allows to gain more benefits for EAEU countries and Iran in the process of cooperation under the Agreement and its successor. The novelty of the article comprises from revealing the high potential of such cooperation format and its future and the assessment of political and socio-cultural consequences and benefits of cooperation for both sides
۶.

Future Research on Geo-Economic Relations between Iran and Africa(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Future studies Economic Capacity Africa Islamic Republic of Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶
Scenario writing is especially important in the field of geo-economics because it prepares geopolitical actors to take advantage of continuous international conditions in the best possible way and reduces risks as much as possible. In the meantime, the Islamic Republic of Iran, to shape its geo-economic relations with the countries of the African continent in general and North Africa in particular, as spaces with high capacity and attraction, necessarily needs to know and understand the upcoming scenarios. Therefore, the present research was done with descriptive and analytical methods and based on library and field findings (questionnaire). The findings of the research show that the 8 sources of power geography are "investment opportunity for the private sector", "strong dependence on technical and engineering services", "cheap labour force", "the presence of rich non-metallic minerals", "availability of legal investment platforms". Foreign direct (ease of investment)", "Entrepreneurial development", "wide agricultural capacities" and "Geoeconomic position (sea trade)". respectively, the scores have had the greatest impact on the future of the geo-economic relations between Iran and Africa. The results of the scenario board show the semi-critical and critical situation of the future geo-economic relations between Iran and Africa, which makes it more important to revise the macro strategies and policies in this field. 
۷.

Turbulence Management Model in Iran's Middle East Policy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Chaos the Middle East Iran Strategic Management

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۹ تعداد دانلود : ۷۷
The Middle East today can be considered an area with the features of chaos due to its geopolitical structure, complex historical identity and decades of crisis. In this volatile area, security has undergone an extensive alteration, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, as a major actor and historical activist, needs certain behavioral patterns to correspond to the situations and trends of security chaos. The present paper seeks to identify the elements of Iran's regional behavioral patterns in the Middle East security chaos. It is hypothesized that Iran needs to take advantage of patterns of constructive interaction, balancing, geopolitical stability, and Interactive Order-Building to play a regional role in this chaos. A descriptive-analytical method and theoretical modeling is employed to account for the historical process of chaos in the Middle East and Iran's chaos management model in foreign policy.
۸.

Geopolitical Challenges in the Formation of Nations in Central Asia and the Caucasus; A Comparative Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Central Asia Caucasus nation Nation - building Geopolitical Challenges

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۷ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳
Central Asian and Caucasian countries are among the countries that have faced numerous ups and downs in the process of nation-building, and they are currently facing various challenges, particularly in the geopolitical arena. Since nation-building is a process greatly influenced by a country's historical roots and events, Central Asian and Caucasian countries have unique coordinates despite sharing a part of history. This article examines the nation-building process in Central Asian and Caucasian countries through a comparative approach. It focuses on the practical geopolitical challenges of nation-building in these two regions. The study findings indicate that Due to differences in the social context, historical processes, and geopolitical features, Central Asia and the Caucasus countries have gone through two different patterns of nation formation. In particular, Central Asian countries face significant geopolitical challenges during this process. 
۹.

U.S Foreign Policy and Regional Power and Influence of Iran: A Comparison of Bush, Obama and Trump Administrations(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: regional influence Iran Bush Obama Trump

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۵۷
In the present study, the impact of U.S. foreign policy strategies on Iran's regional power and influence is investigated. The main question is how U.S. foreign policy strategies on the Middle East and Iran during George W. Bush, Barack Obama and Donald Trump's presidencies affected Iran's regional power and influence. The hypothesis is that various principles and strategies of U.S. foreign policy during Bush, Obama and Trump administrations have led to the greater regional power and influence of Iran. In order to test this hypothesis, after investigating the historical context and selecting a conceptual framework, the impact of U.S. foreign policy on Iran's regional power and influence has been studied. Next, the impact of the U.S. foreign policy strategy on Iran’s regional power and influence, such as aims, interests, behaviors, actions, costs, achievements, effects, and implications are analyzed.
۱۰.

Back to Geopolitics: The Problem of Ignoring Iran's Geopolitics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Geopolitics Ideology Iran Islamic revolution Political Islam international system

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۸۱
Looking at the studies and analyses conducted in the field of Iran's issues with the world, we see the ignorance of Iran's geopolitical aspect. The concern of the present study is why Iran, despite its geopolitical importance, is always analyzed in terms of ideology and political Islam in the international arena? However, given the current geopolitical components and even its future geopolitical advantages, Iran has a potential and actual position and importance at the regional and international levels. The purpose of this study is, first, to highlight the more deliberate neglect of Iran's geopolitical aspect as an existing problem and to show some of its most important effects, and second, to highlight the geopolitical nature of Iran. The data collection method is descriptive-analytical, and they have been analyzed in the framework of the theory of "Geopolitics: The Impact of Politics on Geography" and the analytical framework of "Hermeneutics of Reflection". Based on the analysis of the effects of Iran's geopolitical neglect and with a look at the historical course (contemporary history), the research findings are a set of "historical" and "geopolitical" symbols and signs revealing the importance and determination of Iran's geopolitics, its precedence on political, ideological, cultural aspects, and the error of degradation in terms of geoculture. The result of this study is to ignore Iran's geopolitical aspect, reduce Iran's effective acting power in the international arena by introducing it more as an ideological actor, and put all the pressure on the Islamic Revolution, political Islam and the Islamic State.
۱۱.

Assessing NATO's Deterrence Strategy against Russian Federation Security Threats in the Baltic Sea(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: NATO Russia Baltic Region Extended Deterrence Deterrence by Denial Deterrence by Punishment

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۴
Today, the Baltic Sea has become the epicenter of the European crisis. The Baltic Sea is the only region where NATO has a land border with Russia, increasing the region's sensitivity. The slightest incident can turn into a full-blown war in the region. Russia's complex security challenges, the region's geopolitical situation, and the Baltic states' defense vulnerabilities have raised the need to revive NATO's military presence and strengthen deterrence against Russia. In the light of interpretive structural modeling, this study seeks to answer the question of what effect Russia's escalating activities in the Baltic Sea have had on the effectiveness of NATO's deterrence strategy in the region. Given the theoretical framework of broad deterrence, it hypothesized that Russia's security strategy in the three areas of conventional, nuclear, and hybrid threat had led NATO to move toward broad deterrence based on the threat of punishment and denial. However, both types of deterrence do not have the quantity and quality necessary to fully contain Russia in the region, as in the Cold War. In order to measure efficiency according to the research method and its extended formulation, the indicators of credibility, communication, and capability are used. The findings show that deterrence through punishment is much more pronounced than deterrence through denial and that the normal state of deterrence in NATO is highly vulnerable to Russia. Weaknesses in capability and communication have also led to the fragility of NATO's deterrent credentials in the region, making the Baltic Sea very sensitive and critical.
۱۲.

Multiplex Network Regionalism; A Theoretical Model for Iran's Multi-Neighborhood Foreign Policy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Multiplex Networked Regionalism Strategic Diplomacy Multi - neighborhood Foreign Policy Smart Synergistic

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۵۰
With the complexity of the international system and being in a state of transition, the evolution of regional systems and the foreign policy of countries requires structural adaptation to the strategic requirements of such a transition. What springs from these developments is that the classical analytical thinking of regionalism and the linear conception of foreign policy does not meet the complexities of the uncertainty age. Therefore, this fundamental question has been raised as the present study's direct engagement: How will Iran's foreign policy strategy as a multi-neighboring country with diverse and heterogeneous ones be reconstructed in the context of a complex international system? The paper's major reason lies in multiplex networked regionalism that will serve us as a suitable theoretical model so well to go beyond the linear thinking to the region and outline proactive regionalism based on multi-neighborhood foreign policy. Research findings by using the abduction method, show that drawing Iran's multiplex networked regionalism requires putting innovative and adaptive strategic diplomacy on the agenda and drawing a strategic partner’s map based on smart synerg, which emphasizes the equifinality and dynamic equilibrium between Geopolitics, Geo-economics, and Geo-cultural dynamics.
۱۳.

The Role of the Opposition Bloc in the Democratization Process of the Last two Decades in Turkeys(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Opposition Bloc Democratization Process process tracing Political Parties Turkey

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۷ تعداد دانلود : ۴۵
Just as the political structure of any country can have a positive or negative impact on the democratization process; The opposition bloc, which includes political parties and currents, civic institutions, etc., has a dual positive and negative impact on this process. In Turkey, the influence of the opposition bloc in the democratization process has been relatively positive for a century. However, in the last two decades, with the rise of the Islamist Justice and Development Party to power, the Turkish opposition bloc has adopted varying approaches to the political structure, which has had a more negative impact on democratization process. The current research has examined the performance of the Republic People's Party as the largest opposition party, focusing on three main approaches of Turkish parties towards the political structure. To this end, a historical institutionalism approach has been adopted using library and digital resources. In terms of methodology, this study has employed the process tracing method. Turkish opposition bloc, especially the political parties, though considered to be a major indicator of democracy, seems to have adopted undemocratic political procedures such as "appeasement procedure", "supportive procedure" and "deviant procedure" in the last two decades.
۱۴.

Exploring the Effects of key Factors of Smart Urban Governance on Geocultural Relations(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Smart urban governance cultural geopolitics Cultural factors Geo - culture

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۸
Cultural geopolitics refers to a complex set of interactions among government, power, culture and geographical environment through which the cultural factor, along with the spatial-locational processes formed by the city government, engages actors from various social strata in interaction. It is then very important to identify relationships between the components of the smart urban governance and cultural geopolitics in the political-regional development of metropolises and their globalization process. This developmental research employed a descriptive-analytical method, and the necessary data were collected through library and field research. The collected data were analyzed through decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique using Excel software, and finally, a network of factors was extracted and plotted using Microsoft Visio software. Based on the strength of interaction and affectability of the factors, a network of relations was obtained. The most affecting factor was found to be the participation in decision-making on electronic issues, and the least affecting factor was the political vision and strategy. The other affecting factors were ICT network scope and internet access, online public services, information transparency, and ethnic and national identity (nationalist belonging), respectively. In addition, the most affected factor was the geographical and spatial-locational belonging, and the least affected factor was the political vision and strategy.
۱۵.

Understanding the Security Environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran based on a Systemic Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Systemic Theory of Security Environment geographical barriers Self - restraint international structure defense Aggression

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۳ تعداد دانلود : ۵۵
Understanding the "security environment" is one of the main pillars of countries' security strategy. Unless a country's "security environment" is defined, any security planing will be useless. The "security environment" is usually assessed in terms of threats to that environment, but Shiping Tang in his famous article entitled "systemic Theory of the Security Environment ", offers a new approach to defining the 'security environment'. According to it, the "security environment" is considered as a "system" that is formed by several factors. In this study, while introducing the main parts of Tang’s theory, it examines five indicators "permeability of geographical barriers", "power of State", "behave with self-restraint", "robust constraint behalf international structure (structural constraints)" and "dominance of defense" that he presents about the good security environment of a country, is discussed and while examining the above five indicators, it is concluded that the "security environment" of the Islamic Republic of Iran is good (or desirable) and the likelihood of war is low. The purpose of this study is to apply a system-oriented theory in order to understand the security environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in order to manage the threats posed by that environment by understanding the "security environment". The necessity of research also stems from the use of a system-oriented approach that has received less attention, because the theoretical effort of researchers has been focused on using the traditional threat-identifying approach in order to understand the security environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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