ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک زمستان 1391 شماره 28 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Relative Deprivation Theory, Nationalism, Ethnicity and Identity Conflicts(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Nationalism Relative Deprivation Theory Ethnicity Societal Security Political Identity

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۷۳
Politicisation of identity is the operative and most pertinent term for the paper’s central argument. The gravity of the people’s identity problematic and state’s security concerns correlates closely with the extent to which societal identity is politicised. The more politicised these identities become, the more they display a ferocity which makes them a force to be reckoned with. By applying ‘Relative Deprivation Theory’ embedded alongside an appreciation of societal security, this research offers unique insights into how this process of politicisation takes place. This paper examines how identity, legitimacy and dissent from the existing state order have come to define a new security dynamic that denies agency to a purely Realist understanding of security dilemmas. This study builds upon an array of secondary qualitative sources, both in order to construct the theoretical argument and to back this theory up with historical and social scientific data. By combining the concept of societal security and Relative this research fuses two interrelated theories that allow the paper to make an innovative and original contribution to understanding the complexity of the internal security dilemmas and the process of political identity.
۲.

Transboundary Water Management Improvements, the Way Forward in the Middle East; Case Study: Transboundary Water Management of Iran and Neighbors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iran Middle East Transboundary Waters Hydropolitics Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۹۳
Human civilizations have been created and developed adjacent water resources such as rivers. The old Mesopotamia Civilization near Euphrates - Tigris Rivers, The Egypt Civilization near Nile River, The India Civilization near Indus River and The Burned City Civilization near Hirmand (Helmand) River and Hamoon lakes are samples of aforementioned civilizations. Demise of old Civilizations occurred according to wars, dangerous disasters and illness, droughts and deficiency of water. Today, with regards to limitation of ancient empires, kingdoms and governments and creation of new small and big countries, new boundaries have been established and the importance of fresh water resources and transboundary rivers has been increased much more and after that several challenges and disputes have been occurred between countries for accessing fresh water over these resources and even some serious disputes and wars between countries have been occurred in 20th century. According to aforementioned, government's consideration and attempts of countries are toward compiling new methods for water resources management specially based on principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Also for decreasing challenges and disputes and prevention of new challenges, water treaties based on international laws, and previous historic water rights and or the necessity to friendship relations between countries could help us achieving to unique and more suitable solutions in Transboundary Waters. Iran and its neighbors have several Transboundary Rivers Basins such as Aras (with Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan), Atrak (with Turkmenistan), Arvanad (Shat-Al-Arab) (with Iraq), Hirmand and Harirud (with Afghanistan) and others. In this paper, after a brief survey on Transboundary Rivers of Middle East Countries, it is presented the experiences of Transboundary Water Management of Iran and its neighbors in several fields of implementations, challenges, successful and new required process for implementation of IWRM in the Transboundary Rivers.
۳.

U.S Offensive Policy toward Iran's Security in the Middle East and Persian Gulf after 33 day's War(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Iran Security arrangement Security Preventive strike War

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۱۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹۰
U.S foreign policy interests in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region has always had three components: economy, security and politics. It is not overstated to stress the centrality of energy resources in the economic sector as a predominant factor. In this context, securing access to energy and the flow of oil become vital for world economic prosperity. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, added more impetus to the U.S security issues in the Persian Gulf. President Bush's doctrine of ""preemptive war"" and ""the global war on terror"" placed the Persian Gulf region at the heart of his post-9/11 strategic vision. The Bush administration used the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington as a great opportunity to revamp the regional security by undertaking some drastic measures. The invasion of Iraq in March 2003, the idea of regime change in Iran as well as other American Neocons' grandiose plans about the necessity to reshape the ""Greater Middle East"", made governments in the region nervous. In addition, by giving prominence to the ""security question"" over all other considerations, the US policy plunged the region deeper into uncertainty. Washington has systematically tried, and to a large extent succeeded, to securitize the inter-state relations in the region. This approach combined with the NATO plan to further its regional partnership, made any significant rapprochement among the Persian Gulf states on the issue of security almost impossible. For these reasons, a collective regionally crafted security arrangement that includes littoral states of Iran, Iraq the countries of Persian Gulf Cooperation Council would be unattainable in a foreseeable future.
۴.

Geographic Explanation of Foundations of the Identity at Local, National, and Global Scales(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Geographic Explanation Place Foundations of Identity Geographical Scale

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۰۲
Human being as a social creature is always interacting with his “place” of living. In fact, “place” is part of the earth which has a variety of connections, communication networks, or social processes acting at three main local, national, and global geographic scales. Although in humanities, identity is considered as a social phenomenon, in geography, it is the results of interactions between “human” and his living “place”. It requires “geographic explanation” of foundations or factors affecting the identity. If “geographic explanation” is considered as the explanation and interpretation of the “why” or “how” of the emergence of a geographic phenomenon or event and its outcomes, this study intends to geographically explain the foundations of identity at local, national, and global scales. It intends to find answer to the key question that “why” and “how” “geography” affects the “identity” formation at various “geographic scales”, employing analytical - descriptive method.
۵.

The Role Of Border Markets In Regional Security Case study: Bashmagh Border Market in Marivan, Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Security Border Market Development Bashmagh Border Market Marivan

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۸۰ تعداد دانلود : ۵۰۹
International boundaries have their own specific characteristics among which underdevelopment, privation, economic and cultural inequality are of the main features of border regions of Iran, leading to insecurity in these areas. Iran has land and water frontiers with 15 countries of which some are penetrable with respect to illegal transportation of individuals and commodities and etc., menacing their economic, political, military and social aspects. The frontier between Iran and Iraq is confronted with a great deal of problems because of no peace no war circumstances in which illegal transportation of individuals from illegal pathways, committing illegal crimes such as addictive drug trafficking, selling and purchasing alcoholic drinks and weapons threaten the security of border regions. This study aims fundamentally to investigate whether developing border market can affect the security of the region or not. According to the results of analytical descriptive approach, library studies and survey method (questionnaire, observation) in Marivan, Bashmagh and conducting some interviews with officials of the region, it is concluded that the effect of developing Bashmagh market on the security of the region is significant.
۶.

An Outlook on Energy Cooperation Approaches in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Region(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Energy China Regionalism Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Eurasia Russia Central Asia

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱۹
In twentieth century, especially during the Cold War era, the two ideas of Nationalism and Internationalism were the main competitor approaches in different schools of thought in the field of international studies. However, global integration between states and nations from economic, cultural, and communicational aspects has created a new magnificent world which is more integrated and the interests of political units are more incorporated. Based on this new world order, the major rival trends in the world arena are two recent dominant approaches of globalism and regionalism. The appearance of the successful regionalism regimes in Europe and also in the South East Asian region while they have tried to keep their correlations with the global trends, have prepared a suitable model for other regions to construct regional unities in a globalized framework. This paper aims to examine one of the most important issues in the SCO region - the exploration and transportation of energy - in the framework of regionalism and globalism approaches. Regarding to this matter, the outlook of the energy cooperation between the SCO countries and the position of the other powerful players in the region will be analyzed. The opportunities and challenges confronted with the producers and consumers of this strategic commodity to achieve energy security in this region also will be discussed
۷.

Explanation of the Structural and Functional Characteristics of Geographical Buffer Spaces(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Geopolitics Buffer space Rivalry between powers Geographical space

حوزه های تخصصی:
  1. حوزه‌های تخصصی جغرافیا فنون جغرافیایی سنجش از راه دور GIS
  2. حوزه‌های تخصصی جغرافیا رشته های جغرافیای عمومی جغرافیای اوقات فراغت
تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۵۹۳
Some geographical areas, in order to prevent the possibility of direct contact and conflict between rival powers, often by mutual or unilateral agreements, function as buffer spaces. These powers are then committed not to trespass on any spaces or take control of them. Buffers as geographical phenomena are as old as mankind, but there have been no academic studies on the subject so far, and only some brief scientific definitions of ""buffer states"" have been proposed by scientists without dealing with their nature, features and usages. On the other hand, ""buffer geographical space"" was first used by the authors of this study without prior inclusion in geographical, political and international studies. Rivalry of two powers and existence of a weak space between them with strategic importance for them shifts their attention to this space and a rivalry emerges between them in controlling and maintaining it. Also, such spaces are zones for the incidence of overt and covert rivalries between these powers. Problems that countries, like Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Korea, Afghanistan and Cambodia in Asia, Poland and Belgium in Europe, Uruguay, Nicaragua, in Central America in the twentieth century, have faced or sometimes they still face. Current study, based on descriptive – analytical method, seeks to understand and explain the nature and structural-functional characteristics of buffer spaces

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