مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه

strategy


۱.

How to Reproduce Farming: A Description of the Strategies for Survival of Plum Gardens in Mountainous Rural Areas of Neyshabur County

کلید واژه ها: Reproduction strategy embeddedness motivation plum gardens Neyshabur

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۴۰
Purpose: we investigate the strategies for survival of small orchards in present paper through considering this question that why orchards have kept their productive function despite of renovation pressure and universal market and totally not to be economical. Design/methodology/approach: grounded theory method of qualitative research, especially in this article is based on a case study should be placed on the agenda; in total, 60 semi-structured interviews and in-depth (Purposive sampling: Stratified, questionnaire) those involved in this field was Finding: The results showed domestic garden maintenance in Neyshabur when a part of strategy Employment-oriented and income from non-agricultural business backing for investment and economic mobility has become a garden. Of course, it also organized social factors in the context of traditional interactive and strong local relationships and kinship rather broad and external basis for the stability of the production process in the region; That is to say, it is also the main cause of underdevelopment. Individual motivation and personal preferences (values and beliefs) also has a fundamental role in the continuing rebel activities. Practical implications: developers don't have more than two ways in order to participations programming in future in condition of peasant's economy conquest to rural society. The first one knows internal mechanisms and satisfaction of present production way which it guaranties the minimum of village persistence. The Second one is removing the existing obstacles in destructing the traditional interactions and extending social networks among orchardists and communicating with others in production field. Originality/value: relational and territorial approaches in the concept of embeddedness, the main axis domestic garden maintenance strategies in the study does not explain in purely economic and rational action.
۲.

A Security Effective Structure for National Defense in the 21st Century

تعداد بازدید : ۲۲۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۹
In accordance with human necessities and deep attention into security, research studies have today became an irrefutable necessity in this area. It is noted that traditional concepts of this important issue have changed, as a result of occurring various events in the past, particularly in the 20th century; so that security is no more limited to protecting human beings against individual and collective dangers. Because geopolitics is the science of studying power relations in the political arena, the main actors in this field are the national constituencies determining the international equilibrium. In this context, competition for power through the strengthening of development indicators among different countries has been taken into consideration, through the geopolitical weight and the bargaining power to increase national security and, of course, security. Therefore, this research pursues two goals in relation to security and geopolitics: First, an analytical approach, on the views of academics, from the 1980s to the 20th century and to achieve motivation for the study of its fundamental concepts and the effect of geopolitics on these issues. Second, geopolitical approaches to security, related to the beginning of the 1990's up until now; and their assumptions, with emphasizing on future and geo-strategy. In this research, it is emphasized that geographically disrupted governments lose their territorial integrity, which results in them not being able to redefine national symbols according to global accelerated developments and floating identities.
۳.

Determination of Appropriate Strategies in the Field of Renewable Energies within Iranian Educational System and Prioritization of Them by Using Fuzzy Preference Programming (FPP) Technique تعیین راهبردهای آموزشی در زمینه انرژی های تجدیدپذیر در نظام آموزشی ایران و اولویت بندی آنها با استفاده از تکنیک برنامه ریزی فازی ترجیحی (FPP)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۱
The present study mainly aims to determine appropriate strategies for performing relevant educational programs to promote the level of awareness among different people of society to replace non-renewable energy resources with clean and renewable energy resources as well as to prioritize these strategies for use in the educational system of Iran. This study is conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important policies and strategies regarding the application of renewable energies and education in this field were extracted. Then 80 strategies proportionateaccording to Iran's educational needs in this field were suggested. The most comprehensive of them were determined using the comments of 50 specialists through a questionnaire. Among these strategies, 40 strategies were selected for training renewable energies at schools (10 cases), Higher Education (10 cases), informal education (10 cases), and non-formal education (10 cases). In the second stage, for prioritizing the selected strategies, another questionnaire including pairwise comparison tables of these strategies was prepared based on the results of the experts' comments and data resulting from it was used to rank the strategies using fuzzy preference programming (FPP) method in MATLAB software. All fuzzy group decision- making matrices are suitably adapted for each of the four educational groups (γi> 0.3679). Prioritization of these 40 strategies for training renewable energies in the educational system of Iran is presented at the end of the paper in terms of formal education at schools and universities, informal and non-formal education.
۴.

Promoting urban spatial and social development, through strategic planning of GIS

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۲
Nowadays one of the most important subjects discussed in the field of Management and planning of social and spatial development of cities is strategic schematization, which in case of proper usage can lead to arrangement and optimum usage of the resources and existing possibilities and desirable symphonic constant growth. Strategic schematization is actually systematic methods that cause incorporation and premiership actions considering four important parameters which are internal strengths and weaknesses and external chances and threats. With the help of this schematization we find out where we are, where we need to go and how we should get there. On the other hand one of today’s most important discussions in the world in the field of urban management and extension, according to the growth of urbanization, is the creation of metropolises and their problems and difficulties. The development of ICT contraction and information technology and its specific capability in haltering, controlling, omitting or reducing the difficulties of urban society has caused the idea of electronic cities which is in need of creating electronic organizations which is followed by electronic governments. Because of the unique traits such as exact and quick analyzing of the descriptive information related to them and also urban management needs of today’s society, the GIS positional information systems have changed into a safe tool to patronage the decisions of the reference location. Therefore achieving a complete useful location information system needs a calculated and proper short term and long term schematization. In this process using new methods of strategic schematization which includes analyzing SWOT as surveying and identifying the current situation, valuating and analyzing GIS needs and eventually recording the strategic and massive program can be very effective and solving. In this article surveying this subject and discovering paths towards this achievement has been discussed.
۵.

Presentation of Structural Equation Modeling the Role of Human Resource Strategies on the Development of Job Performance

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۷
The purpose of this research was to provide a "Structural Equations Modeling Template" for the role of Human resources (HR) strategies on occupational performance development of colligate personnel. The current study is an applied research in terms of purpose, and a descriptive-analytical sample in terms of research method. The statistical population of this research included all employees Islamic Azad University of Shiraz Branch. The sampling method was "Random Classification". The standard questionnaire was used for data collection. By applying SMART PLS software, the research hypothesizes were made based on structural equations modeling & factor analysis .Findings showed that, there is a positive and significant relation between human resources development strategies and occupational performance of employees. Meanwhile, the HR development strategy, and employees' recruitment strategy have the greatest and the least impact on employees' occupational performance, respectively. The research findings showed importance of human resources strategies in evaluating occupational performance of employees. Therefore, HR strategies should be considered in Islamic Azad university of Shiraz.
۶.

Strategy Compiling Case Study: ZTE (A Chinese Telecommunication Co.)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰
The goal of this paper is to compile strategies for a Chinese international telecommunication vendor which entered into Iran telecom market in the year 2000. Since ZTE is involved with business in more than 135 countries and it is out of our power to collect huge data from all over the world, we have limited our strategies to Iranian market and we will compile strategies for Iran business unit only. To proceed with compiling strategies for ZTE Company, we will firstly give a brief introduction about ZTE. Then we will give a short explanation about the method of compiling strategies for any kind of firm. At the end, based on the method introduced, we will select the most adequate strategies in order to maintain ZTE’s competitive advantage in Iran telecom market.
۷.

Toward An E-business Governance Model Based on GRC Concept

تعداد بازدید : ۳۸ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹
E-business Governance is the decision-making framework within which decisions about relationship, accountability, compliance, direction, and control in e-business activities are made. This structure make the e-commerce organization manage itself more effectively and prevent failure that take place by having not adequate attention to governing elements, risk of e-business, dynamic of standards, and rules. In this research by using literature review and interviews with experts, a questionnaire was designed and by analyzing the gathered data through surveys, the e-business key success factors such as e-business enablers, corporate and IT governance, the best practices, management and strategy were extracted. Then these key factors were presented as the e-business governance models. The results of statistical analysis confirm that the model might be helpful in handling the process of e-business in Iran.
۸.

EFL Students’ Epistemological Beliefs and Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Bahir Dar University

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
This study attempted to investigate the level of EFL learners’ epistemological beliefs and learning strategy use as well as the contribution of epistemological beliefs to their learning strategy use in Bahir Dar University. Comprehensively selected 136 EFL students at the Faculty of Humanities of Bahir Dar University responded to modified versions of Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire and Motivated and Self Directed Learning Strategies Questionnaire. The descriptive statistics showed that the participants generally held a low level of epistemological beliefs (mean scores ranging from 2.49 to 3.09 on a five-point scale) and they moderately used cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies (mean scores ranging from 3.29 to 3.82 on a five-point scale). The results of multivariate analysis indicated there was a significant multivariate effect of epistemological beliefs on the various dimensions of learning strategies, contributing 15.8% of the variance. The follow-up univariate analyses also showed the difference in epistemological beliefs had a significant impact on their use of all dimensions of learning strategies except rehearsal strategy. This means that EFL students with sophisticated epistemological beliefs, compared to their counterparts with naïve beliefs, are more strategic in handling learning situations through deploying appropriate higher order cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.
۹.

Test-taking Strategies and EFL Learners’ Performance on the Reading Sub-test of Iranian Universities PhD Entrance Exam

تعداد بازدید : ۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۴۲
The present study was an attempt to investigate the validity of the English section of Iranian Universities PhD Entrance Exam in TEFL. To this end, 15 EFL learners from university of Isfahan who were in their last semester of that MA education were invited to contribute to the study. A group of 5 university lecturers were also asked to support the study as expert judges. A TOEFL reading paper was used to divide the participants into three ability groups, each consisting of five learners. Think-aloud study was used to find out the strategies each ability group used when completing the test. All the participants completed the reading section of the PhD Entrance Exam while verbalizing their thoughts. The verbal reports were transcribed and coded based on Barati’s (2005) taxonomy of Test-taking strategies. The Chi- square analysis of the think aloud protocols revealed that Monitoring and Evaluation strategies were used significantly more than other strategies by all ability groups. Moreover, the results indicated that the high ability group of test takers were more successful compared with others in maneuvering among different type of strategies. Further, different patterns of strategy use were observed in the three ability groups. The findings of the present study may be of interest to the PhD Entrance Exam developers as well as EFL material designers and classroom instructors.
۱۰.

Designing a Strategist Training Model at National Iranian Oil Company Based on a Mixed Approach

تعداد بازدید : ۳۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۹
The aim of the current research is to explore a strategist developing model based on a mixed method for National Iranian Oil Company. This study is an exploratory and applied research, and it methodologically uses mixed methods. In the qualitative part, which is based on a data theory approach, the required data were gathered by means of semi-structured interviews. The participants involved in the study were 24 industrial and academic experts. After collecting the data, they were encoded, and necessary measurements were then taken to determine dimensions, main categories, subcategories, and relevant concepts related to our coding system. Having gained a coded table which was pivot and selective, finally, the goodness of the fit of the paradigmatic research model was developed (n=320). Quantitative analyses were performed by means of SPSS 24 and Lisrel 9.30 software. The qualitative findings of this study included 11 main categories, 24 subcategories, and 98 concepts. The concepts which were related to development strategists included causative factors (individual factors, organizational factors, and discourses); the category of central strategic thinking (conceptual and organizational thinking, foresight, and philosophical attitudes); obstructive factors (both inter organizational and intra organizational factors); contextual factors (cultural context, psychological factors, and organizational independence); strategies to identify the talents, to attract them, and to retain them; the outcomes of the establishment of monitoring system; strategic thinking; and the process of developing experts in our oil company. Our findings resulted in discovering a pattern to develop experts in oil industry.  
۱۱.

Designing a Specific Model for Technology Transfer in the Oil, Gas & Petrochemical Sectors

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۶
Technology Transfer is a process which technology supplier can transfer technology to receiver through it by numerous activities. Now in Iran, lots of companies are facing difficulties in correct implementation of technology transfer. Varying complexity and specific nature of each of the technologies has been caused many problems to technology transfer process design. In the other hand, the lack of integration between the components of the technology transfer process and the lack of consistency in the way of transferring with the company's strategies has been caused additional difficulties. In this paper, we have attempted to design the model of technology transfer process in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical industry which includes three stages of " decision making, technology transfer and acquisition the knowledge".The model is derived from the literature survey and is developed based on the experiences with adding necessary elements in order to resolve the problems. In order to validate the model, it is used for DMD technology transfer in RIPI.
۱۲.

Design of Strategic Management Model in Technical and Vocational Training

تعداد بازدید : ۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۷۰
The present research aims to design strategic management model in technical and vocational training. The research has qualitative design and for data analysis and classification, thematic Analysis Method (Thematic Network) was applied. The statistical population of the study consisted of experts of the Iran Technical and Vocational Training Organization. The number of 13 participants were selected by purposive method based on experience and expertise criteria. For data collection, the structured and semi-structured interview were used. The data collection process was performed using theoretical saturation technique until it reached the iteration and saturation stage. For data validation, triangulation method was used. Content validity index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) were used to decision making and assess the consensus of experts and to evaluate the reliability, Holstein coefficient was considered. At the end of the thematic analysis process, the conceptual model of research was designed based on the themes extracted and the theoretical foundations of the research. Results showed that number of eight inclusive themes, including strategic goals, external environment analysis, internal environment analysis, strategic analysis, educational goals, technical and vocational training plans, implementation of technical and professional training and evaluation plans, as well as 33 organizing themes and 160 basic themes were recognized for the strategic management model in technical and vocational training. According to results, this model can provide promisingly a suitable framework for strategic management execution in skill training.
۱۳.

Geopolitical Strategy to Settle the Crisis of Pandemic Diseases

تعداد بازدید : ۳۸ تعداد دانلود : ۴۸
From the end of 2019, the world has faced with instability resulted from Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic (WTO. (1),2020); a fatal and destructive virus which can have many lessons for the vulnerable world. The virus has spread to the entire world and has affected all of the states of the world which have affected by complicated and interwoven economic, social and spatial actions. The twenty-first century world is under threat by one of the smallest microscopic families. One of the hypotheses is that because natural order requirements are neglected, the nature has given the clearest answer and reaction and it will continue, if the destruction continues (Andrawes,2020). It is obvious that COVID-19 is not the first and the last one from pandemic diseases in human live, but it is a part of historical process of pandemic diseases and spreadable to the entire world that some other cases will be emerged in the future. So, based on such experiences, WHO, national and local states, civil organizations and citizens should design appropriate and synergic reactionary patterns to confront with them and execute the designs with previous preparations. The world mutation of the virus is started from a living organism (bat, pangolins or any other creature) in micro space, namely from a local market in Wuhan City (Hui and others,2020:265-266). But, the pattern of virus transmission was in a way that spread to world, rapidly and became a global epidemic and pandemic (Roumina,2020). Local origin, weakness of science, transmission rate, geographic spread pattern, global epidemic, different and doubtful reactions by the states and its destructive and multi-faceted effects can be an experience for the states, citizens and common reactions of the world society to similar threats in the future.    In global scale, the pattern of virus spread is pandemic and has spread to all of the states (WHO,2020). Even the states that have had high level of control power, they have been only able to delay its spread to inside of their territory and have not been made free from economic consequences and global fear from Coronavirus. Today, economic, social and spatial actions in the world are affected by Coronavirus monster. The chain of global production, distribution and consumption is extracted from normal cycle, at least for short term (Nguyen,2020). Because of the decrease in the global production and transportation activities, oil consumption has reached to its lowest rate and its price was negative. Many economic, social, cultural, scientific and administrative activities like business, transportation, trade, education, religious rituals, and tourism etc. activities have been decreased. Decreasing process of global economic growth and falling stock exchange in developed states are emanated from Coronavirus pandemic in the world (The Economic Times,2020). Networked economy and economic interdependence in the world from one hand, and huge effects of this phenomenon on the industrialized developed states are among the issue which will affect the global economy for long time. It seems that heavy shadow of the pattern of global distribution of China’s economic productions is in direct connection with Coronavirus fast spread in the other regions of the world. If this was occurred in any other state in the world, it would not be spread with this speed, geographically/spatially. Spatial and time pattern of Coronavirus spread show China geopolitical power and influence in the other geographic spaces of the world. Although some states closed their political geographic borders to confront with the virus spread, but they were not successful in this domain and the virus spread to the world. Closing or non- systematic hasty controlling of the borders in local and national scales were the first strategy of the states in which only some states earned relative success (Worldometers Website, 2020). It seems that closing or controlling of the international and internal borders with cellular approach toward geographic space and time as human structure habitations to close or reduce spatial transactions to the extent of inevitable necessities is a geographical strategy which can control epidemic diseases and preserve human immunity and guarantee human health and human structures in micro and macro levels. But, unfortunately China as the geographic origin of Coronavirus epidemic (Shadi,2020), and then WHO and consequently national states ignored their political/geographic responsibility and also ignored to codify geopolitical strategy to confront with the virus and acted with delay and incompletely and caused spread of the virus in global scale and pandemic. They should accept the consequences of ignoring the mentioned strategy or postpone in taking appropriate measures to control Coronavirus and development of hygienic threats against micro and macro geographic spaces which act as habitations of human structures and human society totality. At least there is a one difference among the states in the domain of spatial/ geographic reactions towards Coronavirus crisis, and that is the fact that Coronavirus was emanated from Wuhan in central region of China, but China prevented the virus spread to the other spaces of China by taking the strategy of geographic isolation and cutting or decreasing in spatial relations and taking strict state policies (Financial Times,2020). But, some European States, the US and Iran had unsystematic, doubtful and postponed geographic reactions, and caused the virus spread from its origin to the other geographic spaces and caused to incontrollable geographic pollution.       This experience showed that it seems that coherent political systems with higher power of control, ignoring their political ideology, are successful in the domain of human health security than plural political systems and also weak systems. This experience can be starting point in ideological and attitude revolution in the citizens towards political thoughts and state paradigms in the world and can change the citizens’ perceptions and expectations toward the states’ structures and the criteria of legitimacy.                       The level of development and extensive relations with China shows that developed states and also the states which are more dependent in the network of China’s economy are more infected by the virus than developing states. These states have the more cases and deaths. It seems that there is a direct relation between the level of economic interdependence with China’s economy and increase in the cases of Coronavirus and its spread (Goldin,2020). This shows high level and multifaceted level of transactions and mutual interdependence between the states and China as the origin of COVID-19 which caused the virus spread to these geographic spaces and located the cycle of virus spread in the patterns of local and regional spatial actions of the other states. This process caused doubled spread of COVID-19 in geographic spaces of the other continents and global epidemic. The spread and epidemic of the virus in Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Italy, Iran, the Middle East, France, Britain, Eastern and Western Europe countries, Russia, the US and Canada etc. that are among developed states or are in connection with China’s economy is explainable in the frame of interdependence model.  In international scale, the states which reduced, controlled or managed spatial transactions and relations with the origin state namely China were less damaged and some states such as Iran that ignored the threat and continue its spatial transactions with China were more damaged.  The infected countries are faced with different challenges in national scale, and their economies have gotten Corona arrangement, formally and informally. Allocation of huge financial resources to prevent, confrontation, supply of medical equipment and supply of medical expenses have put the economies under pressure. From the other hand, crisis in small, medium and large scale firms have caused decrease in national production and have challenged economic growth and development. In informal economic domain, dark economic boom in economic systems which have gaps, have shown their inefficiency in such a situation. This issue is more critical in the states which face with wide spread of the virus and have not had appropriate financial resources and reserves. However, the lost costs in developed states are more than in developing states and they have suffered more.    Medically, healthy human with immune and resistant immunity system are less vulnerable in confrontation with the virus (WHO (2),2020), likewise in national scale, flexible and powerful systems have more power to cross from the crisis and weak systems will be faced with big challenges emanating from Coronavirus crisis. The consequences of Coronavirus crisis may last for several decades in these systems.   Regarding the above mentioned debate, Coronavirus crisis is one of the least experienced geopolitical crises of last decades which spread to the world incredibly fast and have made vulnerable geographic, biological, economic and social security of the spaces and have shocked and crippled the world. No matter where or what it is originated from, its consequences is global. It has spread to the world in a little time, and infected millions of people, and decreased global economic growth in developed states and it may collapse or bankrupt the economies of the developing states. This dangerous enemy has no weaponry and no complicated equipment, but it is developed through persons and needs and human spatial, economic and social transactions and it is become the biggest challenges of the world in short time and has minimized bilateral and multilateral spatial transactions in all local, area, regional, national and global scales.     So, confront with Coronavirus crisis, COVID-19, and newfound and pandemic diseases requires new applied paradigm in human minds which regardless of enemy-making policies originating from power relations, makes cooperation among the states necessary in interdependent and interconnected world in regional and global scales. It is fact that none of the states, even if it is the most powerful state in the world such as the US, cannot confront with the Coronavirus crisis or similar crises per se. As Coronavirus crisis is global, the exit path also requires global thought based on geopolitical strategy.      The experience of this global crisis shows that the virus threat is not limited to one or several states, but its threat and spread in a state means the threat and spread to the all of states and human being and living on planet earth (WTO (3),2020). Also, control and confront with this threat goes beyond from a state power or regional political system such as the EU. For this reason, there is not an alternative than dependence on multilateral cooperation and participation of all of the states. This crisis can form a geopolitical cooperation pattern base on peace for newfound crises. Dimensions of geopolitical strategy to confront and control of the pandemic epidemics similar to Coronavirus in the world are as under:  1.preliminary and immediate responsiveness of Security Council and General Assembly of the UN as an institution of political management of global space in considering pandemic epidemics as threats to international security and then mobilization of the states and governments to control and confront with it by central role of WHO; 2.inherent responsiveness of WHO to manage operational project of controlling and confronting with epidemics at their preliminary stages and not to find moral suggestions and consultants sufficient; 3.creation of common perception and approach towards epidemics among all of the UN member states as a threat to national security for all of the nations and states; 4.take initiatives to international cooperation and creation of powerful mechanism to form rapid and effective inter-state cooperation to confront with epidemics in regional and global scales by WHO; 5.organizing of operational teams to international technical and consulting helps and supports to the state or states infected by epidemics; 6.duties division and obligations related to public responsiveness of the states to confront with epidemics and mobilization of international and non-infected states facilities to support infected states by WHO; 7.establish united spatial political management among international, regional, national, sub-national, local and residential levels in coordination with WHO and local states to organized, effective and targeted confront with the epidemics; 8.having perception of national security threat towards epidemics spread to internal space of the territory of the states and nation’s habitations by national states; 9.having cellulous approach towards spaces and places of human living in micro scale (family scale of resident, proffered); 10.establish technical, institutional and specialized systems to national monitor and alarm in relation with newfound epidemeis, even usual epidemics in the state; 11.rapid and effective responsiveness of national states to control and confront with microbial threats and preserve bio security of citizens and habitations against epidemics; 12.rapid activation of controlling function and possibly closing the borders and land, air and sea border gates and decrease or stop spatial/ geographic transactions in social, economic and cultural facets with abroad in particular with the infected states and geographic spaces;  13.structural and functional organizing and to give the power and authority to the national and local operating systems to confront with epidemics; 14.emergency isolation and strict control and decrease in geographic (spatial / place) transactions in interstate scales which are suspected to be infected; 15.exertion of hygienic controls to infected persons and isolation of their place from other citizens;  16.justifying citizens and civil institutions in relation with legal and moral responsiveness against other citizen's health and invitation to cooperate with the states and plans of control and confront with epidemics; 17.establish or organizing of sustainable bio-army institution against future biological threats to the state due to supply and guarantee hygienic, food, physical and psychological security of citizens and inner geographic places and spaces of the state; 18.establish united multi-level and multi-faceted management system with accrue duty division between national, province, local and residential levels in a situation of epidemics and pandemics in the state; 19.taking policies and compensatory actions by the central and local states to supply public social welfare services, biological immunity, hygienic and medical services, losing jobs, economic and financial supports etc. in pandemic period to the vulnerable and damaged citizens and paying the costs from national and public resources; 20.permanent monitoring of epidemic situation and simultaneously with starting process of spatial/ social contraction in the state, execution of gradual process of decrease in geographic/ social limitations in national and local levels by the central state and normalization of living situation of the citizens in the country and reaching at final stage of the crisis.
۱۴.

Role of Malacca Strait with a Geopolitical and Strategic Approach

تعداد بازدید : ۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱
One of the issues discussed in geopolitics is the role of international straits (canals); as such, it is of great importance to investigate their geopolitical and strategic role. It is because the straits are the places of distribution of power, where the competition of governments is very evident in using the potential of geographic space to achieve greater benefits and ultimately to gain power in international relations. Even in some cases, countries not located around the straits enter many ways in order not to lag behind other countries. That is to say, there is a kind of conflict and competition between countries over the use of straits, especially the countries bordering the strait. Therefore, the strategic straits play a decisive role in the power of nations and their fate and also in the foreign policy of the coastal states along with the balance of regional and global power, as a result, their study is essential for political geographers and geopoliticians. One of the most important straits in the world is the Malacca Strait whose investigation strategically and geographically provides important points. Using descriptive-analytical method and also based on statistics and figures for plotting diagrams in this paper, it has been tried to study the role, geopolitical features, and importance of Malacca Strait for coastal states and conditions as well as factors causing challenges and crises for the strategic role of the strait. According to the results, as one of the major international straits, the Malacca Strait has strategic potentials in the regional and global arena and coastal governments need to rely on targeted and strategic plans to combat the challenging processes in this strait<strong>.</strong>