Abstract Tension and conflict between political-spatial units in different local, regional, national, and global aspects have been a part of the human beings history on this planet. The nation-state countries as the most basic political units of sovereignty and authority in the territorial space, which is under their own control, have experienced relations based on tension and conflict with their neighbors due to their quest for national survival and expansion of their sphere of and to achieve national interests. In many cases, governments, because of their perspectives toward geographical and geopolitical factors and values both within and outside their territory, have hold inharmonious views with neighbors or regional and global powers and in such a case tension and conflict occurs. Considering the importance of factors causing tension and conflict in countries relations, different and various perspectives from different scholars and experts from various disciplines such as geography, political science, sociology, management, international relations, geopolitics as well as different schools of thought in this area have been presented. The research hypothesis is that most of the theories presented by professionals and scholars relating to the sources of tension and conflict between countries have uni-factor or multifactor essence and none of them have succeeded in providing a comprehensive theoretical model. Accordingly, this paper by using descriptive-analytic approaches and using library resources attempts to assess and evaluate theories related to the origins of conflict and tension between countries and by the means of criticism and analysis of theories provides a new theory in the field of factors causing conflict in countries relations.
The security of Iran depended to many political factors. Geopolitical regions will be affected on global security and power. countries like Persian Gulf, and the stability of regional Countries depended on the global economy. It risks triggering arms race for preventing a strong state and powerful state in region. Strong state in Iran will change the balance of power in the Middle East. Persian Gulf countries will opposite with strong state in Iran. However, US intend to have political leaders in the region and the unraveling of the non-proliferation must conduct a robust public discussion that thoroughly treaty. US and its regional allies accused Iran for its capability in normative Ideology and revolutionary policy. In addition to those mentioned by Obama, there explores the nature of the Iranian threat, the different policy are many other costs of a nuclear Iran for regional and international countries. So they reaction to the Iranian capability and abilities. The competition of Persian Gulf and Middle East countries, will be affected on the future of regional security. Global economic cannot disregard of Iran’s policy and situation. It does not consider options available, and their consequences for great power and their policy in Persian Gulf. This article discusses on relationship Iranian regional and great power policy. Western allies argue that Iran’s influence in the region; emboldened Iranian-sponsored resistance groups, Iran’s nuclear attempts create enormously challenging such as Hezbollah; the further spread of radical Islamism issues with no easy solutions. In the public debate during and anti-Americanism in an already tumultuous region. In several years ago, especially since 2006 a recurring concern has been the economic reduced chance for Arab-Israeli peace; and greater military risks posed by the available means for preventing a nuclear deployments to the region that American taxpayers will Iran, whether tough sanctions or military action. Such need to fund to try to deter Iranian revolutionary policy.
Border Management; as Strategy of States to Maintain Order and Security in the Country(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The process of accomplished evolution in different areas such as globalization and entering to information era causes more inter dependency of countries and their close relationship to reach self-interests and goals in different areas; so that no countries can live in their close borders and satisfy all their needs independently. So, the countries need to open their borders for using new opportunities to reach self-interests in international community. On the other hand, there are some problems and challenges besides these interests and opportunities that affect countries in different ways and encounter their order and security with some problems. Meanwhile, countries should open their borders in different grounds of objective space, cyberspace and identical (perceptional) to catch interests and opportunities of overseas, and close their borders to some extend so that insecurities and challenges of overseas can’t bring disorder and insecurity into the country and society; this can be possible by border management. So, this paper tries to explain the state of border management in different grounds of objective, cyber and identity and its relation to order and security inside the country, besides expressing the concept of border management.
A Critique on Shia Geopolitics Discourse; With Emphasis on Genealogical Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The results of the research show that located of Shia Iran in Matrix Sunni countries in the Persian Gulf, Always one of The West Maneuver Fields was for political Pressure action against Iran. So that The schemes such as “Iran Fears”, “Shiite Crescent”, and “The New Middle East” from regional and trans-regional actors purely has been a strategy to drive out Iran from playground area. Geopolitics In modern thoughts was in based on place as a key factor in understanding the geopolitical zones. But, in the postmodern thoughts, is emphasized on “Space” Instead of “Place” are emphasis on near discourses to each other in public space. For example, the shia geopolitics unlike geopolitical objective effects, has no Visual effects neither the territory nor any level of mapping. But a kind of an attempt to strengthen new words Discourse after Cold War is that threatened the Shia is intended to produce soft power for the west Countries. The idiom of Shia Geopolitics is revealed a Power structure system which can be realized to incentive coined the term. This paper is trying with the re-reading of terminology of Shia Geopolitics, stressed Iran’s, through a “Conceptual Genealogy”, that is done in form of “Discourse Method”, and disclosure of the"" invisible structures of power ""to give a better understanding of these term.
Throughout the history, cities, from city states of the ancient Greece to the Islamic cities and the cities of the middle ages have been related to each other and have always been the origin of the changes of human societies. The main instances of communications and transformations can be witnessed in Islamic cities, such as Mecca, Baghdad, Basra, Isfahan, Cordova, and Cairo during the eighth to tenth centuries A.D. when they were involved in major, and mostly, global processes. The Middle East, after a long period of decline, is now the arena of globalization, and its cities are entering into the process of globalization and are increasingly connecting to the network of global cities.The aim of the present study is to explain the range of globalization in the Middle Eastern mega cities, and the position of such cities in the network of global cities. This study was conducted through descriptive-analytical method. The findings indicate that although Islamic cities have been, for a long time, the main actors at global level, they were unable to play a significant role in the process of globalization due to lack of civil institutions, colonization and the rentier nature of most regional governments. However, today, some of these cities, due to their geographical position, and friendly approach to world economy and capital have been able to gain a good position in the network of global cities.
The Qualitative Relation between the Geographical Environment and the National Security(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Understanding the security environment, as one of the issues of security geography, has attracted the attention of scientific and political circles. Since the main topic of geo-security, i.e. reviewing and studying the international relations and links among the security factors of environment on the local, national, regional and global scale, has a close similarity to the subjects being studied in the national security, particularly at national, regional and international levels. This has resulted in ambiguity regarding the essential reason of the two sciences of national security and geography and their relation with each other and the common and specific concepts and issues of these two among the students and researchers. The main question of the present paper is as follows: ""what is the main reason for the similarity between geography and national security?"" In addition to this question, there are other questions including: A- What is the relation among geography, national security and geopolitics? B- What are their specific and common concepts? C- What are the methodological similarities and differences between these two sciences? In the present paper, efforts have been made to answer the given questions through comparative method. Based on the achieved results, the main reason for the similarity between geography and national security is studying the key concept of country and government in both sciences. Among the present discussions in the protection geography of national security, the study of relations among the political units is more similar to the study of security. In terms of methodology, the concepts of ""scale"" and ""analysis level"" have the pivotal role in classifying the information, limitation and the range of variables. In terms of ideological schools and methodology, there are also some interesting similarities and differences among the two sciences which will be discussed in this paper
The present paper is an attempt to discuss the symbiotic relationship between two geopolitical regions, i.e. the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Since the Persian Gulf access to the high seas is through the Indian Ocean sea-lanes, geopolitics of oil routes also should be studied in the light of the geopolitics of Indian Ocean. The main contention of the present paper is that there is a symbiotic relationship between the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf which goes much beyond mere morphological geographical connections. In fact, this symbiosis has a geopolitical-geographical nature as described by Stephen Jones' geopolitical theory of Unified Fields. In this perspective, the Persian Gulf is vitally dependent on the Indian Ocean while any development in the Persian Gulf would crucially affect the developments in Indian Ocean. The data required for this research were collected through documentary method which included books, journals and data available in statistical centers. The collected data have been analyzed to test the hypothesis within the framework of Stephen Jones’ Unified Field Theory. The findings of the research sustain the hypothesis indicating that there is a geopolitical symbiosis between the two water bodies.
The establishment of the Dimukrat party of Azerbaijan has been traditionally interpreted by both Western and Persian scholars as nothing but a soviet creation. It is an approach characterized by the importance given to the role of the Soviet Union within the province of Azerbaijan: the presence of this Communist regime has been assumed to have been such a powerful factor that the establishment of a party with so marked an affinity with socialist ideas could not have come about except under its direction and aegis. This is an answer, however, which fits the facts too neatly, a trap of which we must beware, since it conveniently hides much more complicated motivations and tensions.