ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک سال سیزدهم زمستان 1396 شماره 4 (پیاپی 48)

مقالات

۱.

A Study of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Policy Toward New Iraq (2003-2015)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
In the present study, the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy on post-Saddam Iraq is investigated. With the U.S and its allies attacking Iraq in 2003, Iraqi Baath regime was overthrown and a new Iraq with new policy emerged. With a change in the structure of power and sovereignty of Iraq, the ground for the presentation and penetration of regional actors including Iran was provided in this country and the question is raised “what policy the Islamic Republic of Iran has followed on post-Saddam Iraq and what goal it pursues”. Drawing on analytical-descriptive synthetic method, the findings of the present study indicate that Islamic Republic of Iran’s policy on post-Saddam is based on collaboration and coalition, in that I.R. Iran has laid an emphasis on consolidation and establishment of the Shia in the political structure of Iraq and the reinforcement of the country’s central government, in an effort to bolster its penetration domain and reduce threats caused by Iraq’s developments to its homeland security. <br />  <br /> 
۲.

The Middle East Security and Donald Trump’s Grand Strategy

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
The Middle East region has been a longstanding major source of concern for American leaders due to its eternal religious and cultural relevance, a strategically pivotal location, huge oil reserves, interlocked and intractable conflicts, and the persistence of major security threats such as terrorism and the risk of nuclear proliferation. <br />The Middle East region is undergoing security shifts. Regional security in the Middle East will be changed in Trump era. Security and power in each region has connected, empowered and influenced a new generation of young people, who are questioning political authority with new intensity. <br />The outcomes of the Arab Spring mostly disappointed the world and its policymakers. The region is violent; disfigured by inter and intrastate conflict and by sectarian divisions. Power and security in Middle East countries has been fragmented. The nature of security in Middle East policy is based on Proxy war and Non-state actor’s initiation. Non-state actor who are active in the region, are both a symptom of state weakness and amplify the threats to states. <br /> The Middle East region recognize with economic bedrock of the regional security as exports of hydrocarbons is under threat. Surveying the region shows that, in the throes of historic turmoil and facing massive challenges. The US, UK and other European countries has critical interests in the region, both economic and security. Moreover, what is happening in the Middle East, it will be expanded to other regions and does not stay in the Middle East. In this situation, Trump’s policy and strategy lead to instability, turmoil and power transition. For control and leading this process, world politics to need co-operational security model with other great powers and regional actors like Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. <br />This article, by descriptive-analytical method, seeks to study the "Trump’s Grand strategy in the Middle East". the main hypothesis emphasis that “U.S strategy on Middle East in Donald Trump policy based on offshore balancing, proxy war and increasing chaos’’. <br />  <br /> 
۳.

Analysis of the Spatial Pattern of Voting; Case Study: Tenth Parliamentary Elections in Northern Electoral District of Ilam Province

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶
Investigation of the spatial patterns of voting as a function of electoral geography shows the dispersion of different ideas in voters’ political action in an electoral district. This pattern because of human decision-making has been created over time and is capable of converting to geographical map. This article investigates such pattern in tenth parliamentary election in northern electoral district of Ilam province. Therefore, in terms of purpose, the research is applied and is a descriptive- analytic in terms of nature and method. Data gathering procedure is based on library and field (questionnaire) findings methods. Data analysis method is based on qualitative and quantitative methods like Giss, T-test, and one-way ANOVA. The research findings show that sociological, reformed rational choice, geographical, and Chicago school models affect geography of voting in this electoral district. <br />  <br /> 
۴.

The Role of Fossil Fuels (Oil and Gas) in the World Geopolitics of Energy (Case Study: Iran 2000-2015)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۷ تعداد دانلود : ۷
The energy plays a significant role in human life and almost it is not possible to continue the life without it. This is why energy has a key role in our national and international policies and has shaped up patterns of rivalry, cooperation, conflict, violation, interaction, convergence, and divergence in the international arena and relations between countries and authorities. Therefore, interestingly the sources of energy provision, energy corridors, and consumer markets, energy trade, energy technology, and things like them increase in value. This study investigated energy resources in Iran and Middle East in library research method. In addition to have a unique geopolitical position, Iran is located in ellipse of energy and there is more than 70 percent of world resources of oil and 60 percent of world resources of gas in Iran. In addition, Iran has located in the energy corridor of north to south and east to west and all of the ways pass through this wide country. Hence, it can pump money into the country not only by selling energy, but also with transmitting of energy and accordingly, it can evolve the country economy with a correct planning and engagement with countries. <br />  <br /> 
۵.

Theoretical Explanation of Ethnic Divergence in Political Geography

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶
Ethnic divergence and investigation of its identity, spatial and political aspects is one of the central topics of geopolitical studies. Although different disciplines have addressed the fundamental applications of this cultural-geographical phenomenon, the ambiguities about the position of ethnic studies in geopolitics sometimes results in blurred expression of its epistemological domain with other scientific domains such as sociology, political science and international relations. In this regard, the aim of this paper is to present a framework and theoretical model for study of ethnic divergence in geopolitics. This is a descriptive-analytical study. The data were collected by library study. Results of this study show that if the ethno-nationalism is based on two bases i.e. bedrock (spatial-politics) and mechanisms, geopolitics will investigate the domain mainly focused on environmental elements (spatial-politics). This means that national, regional and global environments are the platforms that facilitate ethnic divergence. Therefore, it can be said that geopolitics addresses effective environmental bedrock contributing to formation of ethnic divergence which can play an important role in the emergence of and guiding of divergence mechanisms. <br /> 
۶.

Analysis of the Role of Border Villages in Border Security; Case Study: Zaam and Golbanoo Rural Districts of Torbat-e Jam

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
Border security is a major influence on internal sustainability and stability of countries; thus, countries take various military and non-military measures to control their borders and secure them. Residents of border villages and the support they can provide could play a key role in securing borders and bringing profit to them as the main beneficiaries. Therefore, the present study intends to investigate and analyze the roles residents of border villages could play on border security. In order to do so, descriptive-analytical research method is used in both field and library levels and the data are collected and analyzed from 63 local experts in different levels. Findings revealed that, from the point of view of state experts, villagers could be of more significance in economic, social- cultural, political, physical- environmental and defensive- military security. Confirmatory factor analysis on the other hand demonstrated that villagers’ maximum impact on border security could be their political collaboration. Economic, social and physical-environmental factors are in the next level and the defensive-military dimension has the lowest impact for border guards give military aids and the need for military tools and other special conditions makes it impossible for local people. <br />  <br /> 
۷.

Strategic Solutions for Security Doctrine in Geopolitical Transition Period; the Environmental, Economic, Locative-Spatial and Cultural Attitudes

تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۶
Security doctrine is an official viewpoint in expression of national security considerations; a viewpoint, which is planned, based on different foundation & considerations of political units. This doctrine is operated within strategic solutions format and tries to maximize the security of the territory as the most important political concern in general meaning and geopolitics in particular meaning by offering decision-making strategies to the country leaders. In this regard, studying the security doctrine strategic solutions in geopolitical discourse of the transition period with emphasis on the 4 theories of environmental, economical, locative-spatial and cultural, are the main issue of the current article. The importance of the issue is the final goal of geopolitics as a science of locative-spatial study of the political phenomenon with emphasis on the power, security maximization by the territory capacities.  Based on the above mentioned, identifying the security strategic solutions is required in the views of this science. The main question is about, what are the security strategic solutions in the above-mentioned geopolitical view? The author is explaining his hypothesis based on descriptive and analytical methods by using library resource tools, as below: "Security strategic solutions of changing the current situation, peace and preemptive war are suggested for the views of geo-ecology, geo-economy, locative-spatial and geo-culture." The current results show that every geopolitical theorists needs to suggest territory safety secured by different security strategic solutions with a particular focus in order to success in operational fields.
۸.

The Causes of South West Asia Tensions and the Presence of World Powers in the Region; with Emphasis on Geopolitics of Energy

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۵
Since the Persian Gulf region is rich in energy resources, it has always been a witness to the presence of out-regional powers. In order to politically and economically dominate the region in different eras, the great powers formulated short-term and long-term plans. Among all, in order to maintain its economic supremacy in the world and maintain the regional order, the United States of America paid special attention to the Persian Gulf. Therefore, it found the cooperation with the Arabic countries in line with its policies a step towards energy security of this region so that it could transport oil and gas resources to its country with spending a little amount of money. In the meantime, other major powers such as the European Union, Russia, and China need energy resources of the Persian Gulf for launching their industry. Obviously, this can increase the confrontation of great powers with each other in the Persian Gulf region. This study sought to investigate the reasons for the presence of powers in the Persian Gulf region. Therefore, research methodology in this study was analytical-descriptive, and data were collected through library research and fieldwork in order to analyze the consequences of the presence of out-regional powers in the Persian Gulf. Hence, with the prevalence of regional conflicts and strife in South West Asia, we witnessed the change of the geo-economic structure of gas and oil; the reason for the presence of world powers in this area is to first supply the needed energy of their country in order to run industry and to secondly limit their competitors’ energy supply. <br />  <br /> 
۹.

Trump and the Perspective of the US National Security Strategy; the Transition from Multilateralism to Unilateralism

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸
Donald Trump, the forty-fifth president of the United States, entered the White House with a very different agenda and sought to redefine the pattern of US action and engagement in the international sphere. While rejection of Obama's policies, Trump has sought to alteration, the US foreign policy and security strategy at almost all levels and in this pathway has sought to change the strategic mechanisms of the United States. The present paper, through a brief review of the US National Security Strategy during Barack Obama's presidency, discusses the most significant signs of a possible transformation in the US National Security Strategy in the coming years. This survey is based on reports, documents and white House new president and decision makers' speech. The main question of the present article is what features of the Trump National Security Strategy in the coming years differentiate from Obama's strategy in 2008-2016, And its initial hypothesis focuses on the formulation of a national security strategy in a different framework than Obama's multilateralism, mainly as a form of moderate unilateralism, and based on ambiguous politics and, in particular, the Madman theory of  Henry Kissinger as the main difference between Obama's declared strategy. <br />  <br /> 
۱۰.

Review of US Foreign Policy in the Middle East Looking to the Future

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۸
Since 1971, the United States follows Israel's security and ensuring the security of energy flow goals in the Middle East. Is the pattern that U.S. adopted to achieve these goals in Foreign Policy is subject to change in the future? To achieve these goals, America tried to take the Middle East geo-economic points including the Persian Gulf under its political –security control since World War II. At geopolitical points near Israel, it perused the change of elite's decision in countries such as Egypt and Jordan and Regime Change in countries such as Iraq and Syria. Entering countries such as England, France and Turkey, the results shows that America Will attempt to govern a multilateral security system in the Persian Gulf in the future, but it pursues decision change in geopolitical areas and political structure change with the priority of federalism in Weak countries. <br />  <br /> 
۱۱.

Geographical Restriction and Interests as a Bulwark against Disintegration of Iraq

تعداد بازدید : ۱۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
In the wake of the capture of Iraqi lands, especially Mosul by the ISIS, the talk of disintegration of Iraq was ever more serious in political circles. The idea is still at issue even after the collapse of the ISIS and its defeat in Mosul. The main objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic and religious conflicts are powerful enough to lead to Iraq’s disintegration. Considering the recent developments in Iraq with pretexts of ethnic and religious conflicts, the question considered in this article is whether this situation could pose a threat to the territorial integrity of Iraq or not? Monitoring the positions of internal groups of Iraq, U.S. interests as well as neighboring countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia and Turkey indicates that disintegration of Iraq would not be beneficial for these countries and it will cause farther violence in the region. In this research, the roles of certain Foreign & domestic or International & national elements in the Iraqi politics and society are being analyzed. A study of the effect of the three variables of Kurds, Sunnis and Shias on Iraqi disintegration or integrity indicates that the Kurd variable has the largest contributing effect on Iraq disintegration while the other two variables show lesser potential for driving the country towards disintegration. Nevertheless, the interests of the regional and trans-regional states combined with the geographical situation of Iraq as a landlocked territory prove to be an obstacle in the way of disintegration of the country. According to the findings of this research, the territorial disintegration of Iraq does not seem to be a viable scenario and territorial integrity of Iraq is more consistent with the objectives and interests of local communities and foreign governments. <br />  <br /> 
۱۲.

Geopolitics of Regionalism; Moving towards Regional Integration as a Means for Lasting Peace and Stability in the Middle East

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷
From emergence of ancient civilizations in pre-history era to the dawn of early 21st century in contemporary history, the world has witnessed a variety of ways according to which members of international community tried to solve their disputes and find peaceful solutions for their conflicts. However, a very recent mechanism, which proved to be fruitful, is moving towards integration and convergence within the region they belong to.  <br />Defining and drawing the lines of common interest is the first step in this long road. It is the objective of this paper to explore that how moving towards regional integration based on geographical closeness, cultural interaction, and economic cooperation can create the framework for a geopolitics in the Middle East leading to a new regional subsystem in international system ending decades of bloody wars and costly destruction and promising a better future with peace, stability and welfare for its nations. The paper also argues that a minimum level of mutual understanding, mutual trust, and political will, and less intervention by outsiders are among necessary preconditions for this process to begin. The paper finally evaluates the challenges facing this approach from an Iranian perspective. <br />  <br /> 
۱۳.

The Socio-economic Prerequisites of Democratic Transition; Case Study: Iran

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸
This paper initially attempts to demonstrate that Iranian society has constantly attempted to democratize the authoritarian regime, but it usually fails in the transition stage. I have shown that the democratization process in Iran has often resulted in the creation of a newly shaped authoritarian structure rather than an institutionalized democratic regime.  Meanwhile, I have argued that the democratic process has not been interrupted and some of the minimum criteria of the transition process, such as the politics of periodic elections, have been realized in Iran. In this study the democratic transition has been explained through socioeconomic development. The data for this paper consist of forty-two cases of parliamentary and presidential elections. The hypothesis is evaluated using regression analysis technique. The empirical findings indicate that the proportion of the total variance of democratic transition which is explained by the socioeconomic development is 0.56 percent. This relation is positive and is statistically significant at .05 level. <br />  <br /> 
۱۴.

Analysis of Iran’s International Borders from the Perspective of Stephen Jones

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۶
Borders which are specified by natural, man-made or contractual terrain specify the sovereignty limit of a state in a territory and with passing a line-like distance and the border line between two countries we will reach another state with a different political structure. The sensitivity of the border concept and the huge effects it has one national security and wars and conflicts and as well as on interactions between the countries has attracted a special attention toward it. Political geography as the main knowledge regarding the studies about the border possesses a more extensive background comparing to the other related sciences. Typology studies and classification of the borders with studying border from physical or cultural point of view and classifying it based on border conflicts have allocated a special place to them. In line with this, Jones has provided his classification of borders according to their relationships with the type of border conflicts. Considering this approach, the international borders of Iran also, as the lines confiding the territories of this country, have formed a significant part of the academic and geographers, and especially political geographers have conducted management studies in Iran and a large part of these studies. In this study, we intend to classify Iran’s border in terms of Jones perspective with the use of analytical method and from political geography viewpoint. <br />  <br /> 

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