ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک

ژئوپلیتیک سال دهم زمستان 1393 شماره 4 (پیاپی 36) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Geopolitical analysis of Azerbaijan local government reforms (in 1945-46)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Azerbaijan Firqa-yi Democrat Local government Reform Local army Land reforms Labor movemen

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۹۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۹
When the Local Government of Azerbaijan was established under the Fiqa-yi Democrat. Its main aim was directed towards a comprehensive reform of all Azerbaijan, since the province had for the past 20 years during the rule of Reza Shah, been totally ignored and neglected, as we have attempted to show in this article. The reforms enacted in the single year that the Local Government survived exceeded all those introduced throughout the previous 20 years. They included land reform, division of land among the peasants, re-opening factories or building new ones, generally reducing unemployment, reconstruction of cities, resurfacing of roads, creating Fida I groups, establishing the local Army of Azerbaijan, improving education, introducing a national health service, reducing the crime rate, lowering of inflation, prohibition of profiteering and the black market, and ending the coupon system. Low was made equal for all Azerbaijani citizens, the local language was made the official one even in government documents. A theatre holding 800, and 50 general hospitals, with 700 beds were built. The author has tried to answer this question to what extent the local government of Azerbaijan was successful in its objectives or reforms.
۲.

Rivalry of global powers in Central Asia after the Cold War(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Central Asia Geographical values Rivalry Global powers the Cold War

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۴۷ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰۳
Geographical values play an important role in the behavior of countries and create different behavioral patterns such as cooperation, interaction, rivalry and disputation. Central Asia, as a geographical space with a set of values, opportunities and potentials, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and creation of power vacuum in Central Asia, has caused rivalry among powers in order to gain these values and opportunities. This research is intended to examine the role of geographical values of Central Asia in the rivalry of global powers. The research methodology adopted is descriptive- analytic and the data- gathering procedure is library finding. The results of this research based on library findings reveal that geographical values of this region are influential in the rivalry of global powers. The most important geographical values leading to rivalry are: geographical location, energy resources, energy transmission routs and the consumption market of Central Asia.
۳.

Techno-Geopolitics; a pro classical geopolitics challenging critical approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Critical geopolitics Traditional geopolitics Techno-geopolitics

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۹۰
Geopolitics as a multidisciplinary view has been defined most succinctly as the relation of international political power to geographical setting, This definition has three principle conceptual components, the international system of states, political power and geography each of which has a significant relation to technology , this notion is initially based on the study of effects of geography on politics especially in an international scale, witnessed a post structural orientation with the idea –called critical geopolitics- that nation-states are not the only legitimate units of geopolitical analysis. But new technologies with their capabilities provided for states in shaping and reshaping the geographical environment and changing it into a dominant discourse, reveal as a pro classical geopolitics challenging the critical approach in this regard.
۴.

Explanation of relationship between Geography and Elections (Electoral Geography)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Geography Election Politics Democracy Electoral geography

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۳۷
Democracy is a social philosophy and the most geographic form of government in which people in role of arbitration hold the ultimate power to make decisions about issues of politics. Effectiveness of democracy and the development of democracy around the world have made the electoral geography the most flourishing trend of political geography over the past four decade. Since the politics is a plural phenomenon and geographic phenomena which are influenced by location- space processes, have dynamic and changeable nature, the spatial patterns obtained from the plurality and dynamism are studied in political geography and consequently in the electoral geography. Despite of many researches in the area of ​​electoral geography, fewer researches have been conducted on the nature and existential philosophy of the topic. This research is a fundamental study which through an explanatory approach assumed that the scientific description of electoral geography is possible in a combine conceptual form. Required data is collected by library research methods. The results showed that electoral geography as a subset of political geography studies the spatial distribution pattern of power in the context of mutual relations between geography, election and power.
۵.

The strategic importance of the strait of Tiran in the conflict in South West Asia(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Strait of Tiran Geopolitical conflicts South West Asia

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۲۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۴
One major geopolitical conflict in South-West Asia, the Strait of Tiran in the Red Sea is located in the North East. Strait of Tiran and Tiran Island and the entrance Snafyr Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea is located. This conflict has been involved in several conflicts at the same time are prolonged. Strait of Tiran strategic position from the beginning of the Arab-Israeli conflict has played a major role in this regime and operation of the Strait as major geopolitical Arabic countries to put pressure on the Zionist regime the main reason for starting the crisis in decades past. This article aims to explain the strategic importance of the Strait of Tiran in the conflict in South West Asia. The research method was descriptive-analytical study using methods to collect information from library and internet capability. In this thesis, we answer this question we” Strait of Tiran in South West Asia conflict is in what position?” the results of this study show the importance and status of the Strait for the Zionist regime is surrounded by Arabic countries most of the other countries involved in the conflict. Zionist regime, arguing that freedom of navigation in the past, it has wage war in neighboring violated. Defeated in battle and captured the Arabic countries overlooking the Strait Islander peace agreements signed by the Zionist regime and freedom of navigation for the regime brought and it is possible to achieve national objectives. Entrance to the Red Sea, East Africa and increase the penetration of strategic depth, this regime has freed geographical deadlock.
۶.

Geopolitical regions of Southwest Asia based on civilization variable(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Civilization Southwest Asia Geopolitical regions

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۸۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴۸
South-West Asia, the most common theories is the world as part of the Middle East. Limits the term is unclear or there is no consensus. South-West Asia, the most common theories is the world as part of the Middle East. Limits the term is unclear or there is no consensus. While South-West Asia, is a geographical term that refers to the part of Asian countries and political units of the Southwest are included.This part of Asia is a large region based on different variables, is comprised of several distinct regions. Study based on cultural and Civilization factors, several regions the region's geopolitical and political units combined and a single political unit that is shared between each of these regions, there is geopolitical hierarchy. In each of the geopolitical regions in South-West Asia, intra-regional competition and competition between regions neighboring a region with no longer there, Therefore this kind of competition is reflected in the behavior of social - cultural and Civilization regions appears.This article is a descriptive - analytic study using a documentation data gathering method, tries to analyze the geopolitical regions South-West Asia and geopolitical relationships prevailing each of these regions is based on cultural and Civilization variables.
۷.

Geopolitical bottlenecks of Republic of Azerbaijan based on Peter Haggett model(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Republic of Azerbaijan Hypothetica Geographical sources of tension Peter Haggett

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۰۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۰
National space and existing human and natural geographical values in each country are the creating factors of tension and conflict within the milieu of that country, especially with neighboring countries that may have potential and actual effects on geopolitical relationships of that country with its neighbors. Using a 12 – trigger hypothetica model, Peter Haggett, the famous English geographer, has represented the geographic sources of tension contributing to the conflict of that country with others. Depending on a country’s geographical situation and the functionality of natural factors and human operations, these sources of tension can play a role in creating crisis at national and supranational (macro regional) scales. If proper management fails, the geographic sources of tension can not only overwhelm the country’s capabilities to reinforce general politics of the country, but also falsify the relations and ties of a political unit with other neighboring political units. Hence, the role of geographical factors and values should not be considered as neutral, null and void in international relations and in the emergence of geopolitical challenges and crises. As the most important country in the Southern Caucasia, ‘The Republic of Azerbaijan’, like any other political unit, has a series of geographic sources of tension with neighboring and other countries and this is no exception. Naturally, the geographical grounds of conflict involve in determining the level of foreign relations and policy and without doubt, recognizing these factors contribute to reducing this country’s problems and tensions in the region both intrinsically and extrinsically and particularly with its neighbors as well as with Iran. Accordingly, the current study, using descriptive-analytical method, attempts to answer this question ‘if geographic sources of international tension of the Republic of Azerbaijan fully conform to Peter Haggett’s 12 - trigger hypothetica model’. According to research findings, from among twelve triggers which Haggett called geographic sources of tension, six triggers can be obviously observed in Azerbaijan and the remaining six ceased to prove true in this country. Meanwhile there is a series of geographic factors creating tension in geopolitical relations of this country about which nothing is mentioned in Haggett’s model, the differences and conformities of geographical factors of conflict with the facts and realities of the Republic of Azerbaijan are reflected on various maps.
۸.

Explanation of the functions of Iran’s buffer status in the past two centuries(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iran Geopolitics Buffer space Powers Rivalry Great Game

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۷۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۵
In the past two centuries, Iran as a buffer space, has played multi-functional roles in political and geopolitical arena due to power games of maritime and land empires of Britain and Russia in order to prevent the possibility of direct contact and conflict between rival powers. These functions have been performed sometimes by bilateral powers’agreements, sometimes by one of them and sometimes by Iran’s government and nation as a reaction against powers’ game. Although Iran has had a weak and neutral presence in these regional and global rivalries, it has had different important functions that can be presented as a model of functions and roles of buffer State. So, this research considers explaning the functions of Iran’s Buffer space with a descriptive- analytic methodology. Data gathering procedure is library and field finding. The research findings iluminate 22- functions in two general class of external functions and internal functions of Iran’s Buffer location.

آرشیو

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