Our main aim was to identify and prioritize the obstacles to the implementation of decent work in the industry. The current research was applied in terms of purpose. It was also descriptive survey in terms of collecting data. Due to the large extent of industry sector actors, only one side of the main actors' triangle in the industrial sector in Yazd province was selected as the statistical sample.This side of triangle included the heads of unions and workers’ representatives in the industry sector. Thus the data was collected purposefully from this sample. To collect data, in the first step, obstacles to the decent work and its components were identified based on library studies and in-depth initial interviews. In the second step, though, using the Delphi-Fuzzy method and the opinion of some of the experts in the industry sector, the identified obstacles in the first step were analyzed and summarized. In the third step, a questionnaire was designed for ranking the identified obstacles based on the Fuzzy Best-Worst Method. The questionnaire was distributed among a sample of 130 members, of which 80 questionnaires were returned. The final findings of the current study indicated that from the workers’ point of view, the shortcoming in upstream laws, lack of a trust in dialogues, allocating welfare budget to unrelated areas, government-owned industries and lack of trust in other members (workers, employers, and government), were the most difficult obstacles in the implementation of decent work.
Identifying Component Themes of the Consumer Products` Brand Personality in Contemporary Iranian Market (A Qualitative Approach)
Nowadays, marketing professionals are increasingly aware of the importance of brands in the success of organizations, as it can be an asset with utmost importance for a lasting competitive advantage. Indeed, what is called a brand is something far more than a name. The brand and its affiliates pave the way for human communication. Brand personification is done in this respect. Although BP can be defined separately from human personality, it is not entirely independent of it. Therefore, in this study, the indicators of the component themes of consumer BP present in Iran’s market are clearly demonstrated. The present study, which falls into the category of developmental research in terms of objective, is carried out qualitatively. As a developmental research, this study uses a sample of 29 students of management whom were selected by non-probability sampling (purposive and judgemental). The main research tool was an open-ended questionnaire, completed and collected by semi-structured interviews. The findings consist of 74 indicators that were extracted and compiled from the literature review, theoretical foundations, research background (such as Aaker, 1997 and Geuns et al. 2008) and semi-structured interviews using NVivo software, which could be divided into eight positive and negative dimensions. Furthermore, some of the 74 indicators or personality traits identified for Iranian consumer brands include beautiful, personable, hardworking, always friendly, strong and capable, skilled, attractive, creative, efficient, competent, competitive, friendly to little ones, old friend, funny, dysfunctional, uncommitted, insincere, unfriendly (unkind), bully, tyrant, naughty, narcissistic that actually constitutes the personality themes of consumer brands in Iran’s commodity market.
An Appropriate Framework in the Area of Organization Knowledge Management of Civil Projects Using a Dynamic Model
The world economic image has been changing. It has been a long time since the sole important resources of an organization were financial and physical. In the newly-emerged global economy, knowledge and information are accounted as the most significant resources in order to produce value. Obviously, as the demand for knowledge to reach success is increasing day by day, maintenance and enhancement of an organizations’ inner knowledge possesses a high degree of importance. This knowledge is used by the individuals inside the organizations. In other words, human resource plays a vital role in an organization’s knowledge management. Additionally, due to the complexity of working conditions and advent of fierce competitions, a sheer number of organizations have moved towards project-oriented activities in an attempt to detract from the costs and to boost flexibility. Accomplishment of project-oriented activities is met in the form of a matrix organizational structure and therefor, upon completing any project, the human resource will immediately become involved in the next project or are even likely to leave the organization. Hence, maintenance of their knowledge and experience and transferring them to the next projects tend to be a matter of discussion.
Comparative Comparison of Strategic Thinking in the Management and Planning of Universities Inside and Outside the Country
In the light of various studies carried out in various socio-economic areas, scientific and cultural development has been introduced as a prerequisite and fundamental factor for sustainable development of the societies. Obviously, universities, as a "scientific and intellectual command center of the society" have a fundamental and unique role and function. In order to achieve this, the most significant and fundamental problem or challenge of universities is the lack of a comprehensive and long-term plan that can clarify the prospects for university development, providing a reasonable and reliable framework for different types of activities such as educational, research, technology and support-staff activities. Since the strategic thinking in the management and planning of universities can be used as a solution to the challenges of the present age and to the strategic requirements of higher education institutions both inside and outside the country, so: The present study aims to "compare comparative strategic thinking in the management and planning of universities inside and outside the country "with the aim of identifying the main and subcomponents of management and strategic planning. This research is a comparative study in the field of university management.The research data have been analyzed to extract the main and subcomponents of strategic management using "factor analysis". The research findings showed that there are 6 main components and 6 sub-components in the comparative comparison of the strategic thinking in the strategic management and planning of universities inside and outside the country.
A Developed Model for Purchase Intention of Foreign Food Products: An Empirical Study in the Iranian Context
The aim of this study is to develop a conceptual model for purchase intention of foreign food products in the Iranian context. Based on an in-depth review of past literature, the sub-factors related to customer’s purchase intention were extracted. Then, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were applied to identify and confirm the factors affecting purchase intention of foreign food products. The obtained results illustrate the thirteen factors as follows: “corporate social responsibility”, “customer knowledge and awareness”, “perceived risk”, “retailer’s commercial image”, “customer’s personality characteristics”, “social identity”, “product features”, “attitude”, “country-of origin”, “perceived value”, “subjective norm”, “loyalty”, and “perceived behavioral control”. The proposed model could contribute to international food companies and retailers to understand customers’ expectations and to gain more market share in Iran. Designing a conceptual model for purchase intention of foreign food products in Iran based on a comprehensive set of the effective factors, developing the theoretical literature in the field of the factors affecting customer’s purchase intention, and presenting valuable results for academicians, marketing managers, and retailers.
Using Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods for Evaluation the Entrepreneurship and Innovation Indicators
This paper offered a procedure for ranking the entrepreneurial and innovative indicators using Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), taking into account three individual,organizational and cultural dimensions simultaneously in decision making procedure. Henceforward, by using the Meta synthesis framework, the form of group classification of indicators from afinding’s combination was suggested and recognized. After that, the entrepreneurship and innovation specialists' sight were congregated based on Meta-analysis. Then, the indicators were arranged using Analytical Network Process (ANP) and the Decision-Making Trial and Assessment Laboratory (DEMATEL). The outcomes found from Meta-analysis and MCDM methods were used as input and output data, respectively, to describe the methodology of evaluating and prioritizing entrepreneurial and innovative criteria in smart international companies.
Identification and Explanation of Dimensions of an Entrepreneur-Training Organization and its Impact on the Organization’s Policies
Today, organizational entrepreneurship is considered as an effective factor in growth, creativity and dynamicity of organizations in order for their promotion and survival. Therefore, the present study aims to identify and explain the dimensions of an entrepreneur-training organization and its impact on the organization’s policies. The research method, due to sequence of qualitative and quantitative methods, is a sequential mixed method. In the qualitative section, the statistical population of this study is consisted of experts and elite in the field of management having experience in administrative system. Using a targeted sampling method and snowball method, 15 experts of the mentioned statistical population were identified and semi-structured interviews were conducted with them. In the quantitative section, the statistical population of this study is consisted of heads of trade unions of Khorasan Razavi’s chambers of business who are 850 people. The sample size has been calculated to be 265 people using Cochran formula, and simple random sampling method has been used for collecting the data. The collected data has been analyzed using structural equation modeling technique and Amos software. Finally, four dimensions of innovation, creativity, risk taking and independence have been identified as the dimensions of entrepreneur-training organization and the impact of each of these dimensions on the organization’s policies has been confirmed.
Designing the Causal Sensory Impulses Model in Creating a Positive Brand Image (Case Study: Dairy Industry)
The aim of this research is designing the Causal Impulse Model to create a positive brand image in the dairy industry. The present research is applicable in terms of purpose, descriptive-exploratory in terms of research type, gauging in terms of collecting the data, quantitative- qualitative in terms of the kind of data, and sectional in terms of time horizons (data gathering time).Communication Method based on asking respondents has been used as the method of this research. Measurement tools in this research are interviews and questionnaires. This research includes interviewing experts and a questionnaire for assessing the views of consumers and experts who are ranked according to the Likert Scale. As this study consists of two stages, it has two statistical populations. The first statistical population includes experts, therefore, the managers of dairy producing companies were selected and we did semi-structured interviews with them. The second statistical population consists of customers of dairy products. To determine the sample size of consumers, the Cochran Formula was used. Finally, 373 questionnaires were analyzed. Also, Structural Equation Method and PLS software were used to study the causal relationship between variables. The results of the test of the model showed that the olfactory and tactile senses have a positive and meaningful effect on the positive image of the brand. The number of T for the olfactory sense on the brand image was 2.704 and for the tactile sense on the positive image of the brand it was 4.668. Also, the Effect Rate or the Path Coefficient were respectively 0.139 and 0.24. There was no meaningful effect for other sensory impulses.
Providing a Model of the Enterprise Market Capabilities with an Emphasis on Organizational Entrepreneurship
The aim of this study was to provide a model of the enterprise market capabilities with an emphasis on organizational innovation and entrepreneurship. This is a mixed (combining qualitative-quantitative) research in terms of methodology. As well as, because this study intends to design the model, it is an exploratory research. An In-depth interview (12 experts) in the qualitative section and a questionnaire in the qualitative section were used. To analyze the data, SPSS and Smart PLS software were employed. The designed model revealed that the indices of the model of enterprise market capabilities with an organizational entrepreneurship approach can be classified into four categories of factors related to services & products, factors related to customers, as well as factors related to sales and factors related to marketing. The rating findings of the factors showed that sales and marketing are at the highest levels, and products & services and customers are in the next priorities, respectively.
The Causal Model of Export Entrepreneurship and Export Market Orientation on Export Performance: a Case Study of Food and Agricultural Products Export Companies
The aim of this study is to define and introduce the variable of export entrepreneurship and factors affecting it in a global export-centric model. However, we seek to find the effect of the variables of export entrepreneurship and export market orientation on export performance. To test the research hypotheses, a sample of 296 people employed in food and agricultural products company located in Tehran Province has been used, whose information has been obtained. Data has been collected using standard questionnaire and the obtained information has been analyzed by SPSS and Smart PLS software. The research findings demonstrate that resources and the intensity of competition have a positive effect on export entrepreneurship, but the impact of market distance on export entrepreneurship has not been confirmed. The results indicate the positive impact of export market orientation and export entrepreneurship on the export performance of sample companies. However, the moderating impact of the degree of globalization on the relationship between export market orientation and export performance has been confirmed.
Today, the world faces a major problem called population growth, one of the consequences of which is food shortages. Therefore, organic farming is considered as one of the most effective approaches to responding to the challenges facing human beings in realizing sustainable development. The purpose of this research is to provide a comprehensive model of branding for sensory marketing based on an interview with 20 experienced experts and marketing proficient, aspects of model and variables related to the use of MAXQDA software has been identified. Finally, based on the detected final criteria, the model is presented based on the data theory method. The results of open coding of the collected qualitative data using the interviewing tool showed that 86 open codes were identified among 331 concepts. Finally, 86 initial codes in the form of 18 categories of brand value, trust, brand awareness, marketing, brand image, knowledge and vision of production and development, risk, performance, cultural factors of consumption, financial factors, process, competitive advantage, socio-ecological responsibility, role of Government organizations, customer requirements, brand identity, customer loyalty, product attributes, are identified.
Today, businesses need to manage their customer experience to succeed. Therefore, they must first have a clear understanding of the meaning of the customer experience. Customer experience management is a process-focused strategy around the needs of each customer that seeks to find a win-win strategy for both parties. The banking industry that provides financial services to customers requires special attention to the customer. Banking experiences for managers in this area are challenging because they are influenced by some elements that are within the control of managers and employees, as well as some elements that are beyond the control of managers. The purpose of this study was to design a desirable model of banking services based on customer experience. The data were collected from the bank branches by applying the data-based theory and performing in-depth interviews using the protocol based on multiple targeted sampling (Snowball Sampling). Moreover, using the open coding, axial coding and selective coding using ATLAS.ti software, the categories and themes are identified. The results show that bank interior design, brand equity, verbal advertising and bank staff skills have an effect on the loyalty, return and customer satisfaction.
The main purpose of this paper is providing a model to calculate the credit risk of Melli bank clients and implement it at Mellat Bank. Therefore, the present study uses a multi-layered neural network method. The statistical population of this research is all real and legal clients of Melli and Mellat banks. Sampling method used in this research is a simple random sampling method. Friedman test was used to calculate the required number of samples in a random sampling method from Cochran formula (1977) and Friedman test was used to rank the factors affecting the credit risk. Friedman test was also performed using data from a completed questionnaire of active experts at the Melli Bank. Based on the results obtained from Friedman test, five important factors in the credit risk of real clients of the Melli Bank of Iran, type of occupation, guarantee value, loan amount, having return checks, the balance average, and the value of the guarantee, the amount of the loan, the average of the balance, having returned checks and deferred loans are the most important factors affecting the credit risk of legal clients, which have been used as inputs in the neural network model. The results of credit risk prediction using the neural network showed that the designed model has a high ability to predict the credit risk of real and legal clients of the Melli bank, while it did not have this ability for the Mellat bank.
Exploring and Explaining Employees' Maturity Based on Quality of Work Life in Order to Present an Appropriate Model in the State Section of Iran
The present study aimed to explore and explain maturity of employee based on quality of work life. This work used Delphi survey through a researcher- made questionnaire to collect data. Confirmatory factor analysis and descriptive statistic are used to survey the data. In comparison with the present standards, both factors have a good statue. For components 'quality of working life' and ' maturity of employees', confirmatory factor analysis was used based on which the goodness of fit index for quality of working life, mental, emotional, career. Findings of the multiple regression model suggest that all the dimensions and factors except for mental maturity have a significant relationship with quality of working life.
The present study aimed to identify the organizational factors affecting the growth and success of academic spin-offs. The research was conducted based on a mixed method design and the study population consisted of experts of incubation centers and spin-offs. The participants were selected using purposive sampling in the qualitative part and random stratified sampling in the quantitative part. Data coding was employed to analyze qualitative data and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to analyze quantitative data. The qualitative results indicated that 26 organizational factors affected the growth and success of academic spin-offs. The quantitative results showed that “business planning to convert ideas into products” and “applicability of academic research” predict the highest and the lowest variance of the dependent variable, respectively.