Domestic pharmaceutical industry, as one of the strategic high-technology industries, has a significant impact on individuals’ health. Despite its success in providing maximum medicine domestically, the industry, with its more than 110 active manufacturing companies in the form of semi-governmental holdings, private companies, and agile knowledge-based companies, faces challenges at the policy and operational levels. The challenges, situations, and some strengths of the industry would be identified in the present study using the scientific research method. To identify and review the challenges and status and also to explain the improvement strategies, in-depth interviews with 8 experts in the pharmaceutical industry in senior management positions in the manufacturing industry, regulators, and related syndicates planned and qualitative content analysis method using MAXQDA 2020 software platform applied to identify the challenges, situations, and strengths of the industry. According to the qualitative content analysis, challenges related to inappropriate policy-making, limited financial resources, and inappropriate pricing policies in the industry have been identified as the most important obstacles versus industry development, and on the other hand, the maximum supply of medicine in the country, appropriate knowledge base and desirable quality of some products are listed as strengths of the industry. Efforts to reform macro policies and industry strategies at the policy and regulatory levels, including private sector development, commitment to quality improvement, and the development of new pricing methods, are among the most important future solutions to cope with the challenges of the industry.
Several theories have been presented about the corporate capital structure; some researchers believe that the structure of capital and firm value depend on each other. Moreover, others believe that the firm value is not influenced by any changes in the structure of capital, and with the change in the structure of capital, the value of the firm remains constant. The present research studies the historical theories of capital structure and presents the classification of existing theories in terms of the optimal capital structure. This classification is subdivided into two categories: the presence of an optimal capital structure and the absence of an optimal capital structure. With the historical review of theories of capital structure and the presence of an optimal capital structure or the lack of an optimal capital structure, it seems that none has been a complete model and so far, no one has been able to provide an optimal capital structure. In this research, from the system dynamics approach and using VENSIM software, the capital structure and share price of the company have been studied and the results of model simulation with real data are to ensure the correct performance of the model behavior. And the results show that financing through debt in the capital structure of the company has a significant effect on the debt cost rate and capital cost rate and does not have a significant effect on stock prices. Finally, the share price shows little sensitivity to the company's financial structure.
The purpose of this study is to prioritize the development of social responsibility in the food industry based on the taxonomy method. The method of this research is qualitative-quantitative, which in the qualitative stage of the research, using in-depth interviews with food industry experts, Experts were identified by purposeful sampling and snowball sampling, and due to the adequacy of the data, a total of 13 experts were interviewed. The model was fitted using a questionnaire based on structural equations with Smart PLS software based on base theory and in a quantitative stage of research. In this study, 149 questionnaires were collected from a number of companies active in the food industry in Tehran and Zanjan provinces. In the second phase of the research, those food industry experts in the selected provinces were considered as cluster sampling classified as community. The required number of samples was determined based on the sample adequacy method. The model was fitted and the model was approved and finally using taxonomy method, degree development of food industry responsibility was achieved. According to the results of the research, Zarmakaron Company was able to occupy the first rank among nine companies.
The aim of this paper is to develop the model of international networking. Based on purpose, this is a basic research. This study used a systematic review method to gather data for identifying, collecting and analyzing the different dimensions and components and the propositions related to international networking. The statistical population is all the research in the area of international networking, which covered by the Scopus database in the period of "open start date (not specified the start date) until the end of January 2021". The search date in this database is January 30, 2021. This research used keywords related to international networking terms in the "Title" and in the subject area of "Business, Management, and Accounting" and document type, limited to "Article" to identify the research on international networking. This search yielded 112 articles. In the following step, after reviewing the abstract of the above-mentioned articles and, applying other indicators, 47 articles remained. This research coded the components and dimensions of international networking in these articles, and classified them into three categories of antecedents, processes and consequences, and, finally, identified the gaps of the previous research on the concept of international networking as well as provided research suggestions for future researchers.
According to published reports on the level of internalization of commercial vehicles, it shows that most carmakers pursue a minimal domestic manufacturing policy and less have a policy of increasing domestic manufacturing on their agenda. The most important research gaps are need to study R&D activities in the form of a dynamic system in the automotive industry based on the three variables of supply network capabilities, product innovation and process. The purpose of this study is to provide a dynamic model to investigate the behavior of a commercial vehicle R&D system. The present study is applied in terms of purpose. The basis of the system analysis is previous research as well as information obtained from interviews with automotive industry experts. For this purpose, first the variables affecting the cycle of R&D activities are studied and modeling is presented using the dynamics approach. Also, various policies on the performance of the development research cycle based on the time of knowledge acquisition and product introduction have been simulated and analyzed. The results of system performance simulation show that the weak share of research and development budget along with low and limited market share and lack of proper investment makes the research and development capability at an unfavorable level during the next 10 years. Therefore, it is suggested that the necessary measures in this regard be taken in the fields of product sales marketing along with appropriate investment in research and development.
In the current situation, one of the concerns in the fight against smuggling of goods and currency is the improvement of the inter-organizational network. The purpose of this research is to design and implement organizational architecture to improve the management of organizational networks with SWOT approach, in this area using the artificial neural network toolbox and fuzzy logic in Matlab. This research is applied-modeling in terms of purpose. The statistical population includes expert professors and experts of organizations in charge of combating smuggling of goods and currency. After distributing 100 questionnaires, the sample size of this study is equal to 96 experts who were selected by a combination of two methods of non-probabilistic purposive sampling and snowball sampling. The results show that using the intelligent system, the status of "success of the organization's network management" can be examined numerically and more accurately: In terms of ideal importance, if; The "Network Management Based on EA Application Layer" status is good, ie exactly 0.813, and "Network management based on EA data source layer" is good, ie exactly 0.824, and "Network Management Based on EA Central Component Layer" is good, ie exactly 0.819, and "Network Management Based on EA Data Preparation Layer" is good, ie exactly 0.812, and "Network management based on EA service quality layer" in good condition, ie exactly 0.815;Then; The status of "successful implementation of the organization's network management" is at the top level (fifth level), ie exactly 0.952.According to the membership functions of language variables by experts, the value of 4.76 within the 5-value range in the range defined for the "excellent" language variable, ie the success status of the organization's network management, has been calculated exactly 0.952.
Given the emergence of digital transformation from Industry 4 and the rapid dissemination of technological innovations as well as their impact as a strong driving force in new banking businesses, efforts should be made to identify the dimensions of this core factor as rapidly as possible. Providing a comprehensive overview of all aspects of the model. The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the state of the art of digital transformation in the banking industry and suggest ways for future research. Existing literature, especially research for 2019 and 2020, has enhanced our understanding of the specific aspects of digital transformation in future banking, and we are now grasping a clearer picture of nature, how, and the consequences of these in the years ahead. However, all its dimensions are not yet clear. In this article, by review of 218 articles in the WOS database, and the analysis has utilized the data-driven tools,165 questionnaire and 90 specialized interviews with experts, extracted factors of the research, and using SMART PLS statistical software, ANFIS and MATLAB software for analysis. The paper, therefore, tends to understand Open Banking Innovation based on the digital transformation area and its dimensions in its previously known domains.
In recent years, global reports on the irreparable damage of human economic activities to the environment, the need for efficient management systems capable of reducing pollutants and waste management and the optimal use of non-renewable resources, more than any other another time is needed. Therefore, in order to achieve this, a study was presented with the aim of designing and validating a model for green quality management in the food industry. The present study is an exploratory combination that through qualitative strategies with library study methods and grounded theory, a conceptual model is obtained and then through a quantitative strategy of structural equations with Smart PLS approach, the conceptual model of the research is tested and its goodness is calculated. Is. In the qualitative section, after extensive study in the theoretical literature on the subject and taking notes, as well as through theoretical and purposeful sampling with a selection of 24 experts and officials, a semi-structured interview was conducted. In the quantitative part, according to the Vinzy rule, 192 managers and experts of the food industry have been selected as a sample and the data have been collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. According to the findings of the qualitative section and after coding, finally 5 main categories and 19 sub-categories were extracted that green management of human resources from causal conditions and green management thinking as underlying conditions, technology management and environmental management system as intervening conditions. Green management innovation was selected as a strategy and also green supply chain as a consequence of green quality management model. The results show that the conceptual model designed with grounded theory approach was approved by experts and the GOF criterion was used to validate the model, which is higher than the level of fit classification based on the theory of Wetzel’s et al. (2009) which indicates that has it.
Supply chain coordination from supplier selection stages to customer delivery is among the issues creating the most challenges for supply chain management, especially for short-lived and perishable foodstuffs. The current study aims to identify and rank the factors involved in sustainable supply chain in the dairy industry. In this qualitative research, by reviewing the theoretical literature and surveying specialists and experts, the factors affecting supply chain sustainability and the sustainable supply chain dimensions (i.e., economic, social, and environmental) were identified. The determined factors were then ranked. To this end, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used as a decision-making technique and the targeted snowball sampling method was used for sampling. In the qualitative stage, factors were extracted from open interviews with 15 academic experts active in the field of sustainable development and experts in the dairy industry. The social dimension with a weight of 0.493 was recognized as the most important dimension of the sustainable supply chain according to the researchers and experts in the dairy industry. After that, the economic dimension with a weight of 0.314 was in the second rank, and finally, the environmental dimension with a weight of 0.193 was third in rank.
Insurance Corporate Governance Code 93 was communicated to the insurance industry of Iran in 2017. However, as the only Iranian governmental insurance organization, Iran Insurance Company has a different corporate governance structure in the insurance industry of Iran. The present study aims to propose a good corporate governance model at Iran Insurance Company. This study is applied research in terms of objectives and descriptive-survey research based on a combined methodology in terms of data collection. Semi-structured interviews were performed with fifteen experts. The final model was proposed through thematic analysis and the Delphi model with five components, including board effectiveness, transparency and disclosure, ownership institution, beneficiary management, and monitoring. The model was examined by delivering questionnaires to a total of 201 senior and middle-level managers and agency directors at Iran Insurance Company. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was utilized to determine data distribution, while the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and Bartlett’s test were used to examine measurement sample suitability. Also, the partial least square (PLS) method was employed for modeling in Smart PLS. The components were ranked through the Shannon entropy approach. The results demonstrated that board effectiveness had the largest importance among other components. The board structure and composition showed the highest weight. Among the components of board effectiveness, the separation of the chairman and CEO had the highest importance.