درخت حوزههای تخصصی
گروه های ویژه
ادبیات اقتصاد تاریخ تربیت بدنی جغرافیا حقوق روانشناسی زبان شناسی علم اطلاعات و دانششناسی علوم اجتماعی علوم اسلامی علوم انسانی علوم تربیتی علوم سیاسی فلسفه و منطق مدیریت مطالعات زنان هنر و معماری
آثار و آرای تاریخ پژوهان و باستان شناسان ایرانی آثار و آرای تاریخ پژوهان و باستان شناسان جهان ایلات و عشایر باستان شناسی برنامه ریزی و فنون آموزش تاریخ تاریخ ادیان تاریخ پزشکی تاریخ زنان تاریخ فرهنگی-اجتماعی-اداری ایران تاریخ مذاهب تاریخ مطبوعات تاریخ نگاری تاریخ نگری جغرافیای تاریخی جنبش ها و قیام های یکصد سال اخیر خلیج فارس و دریای خزر سفرنامه و سفرنامه نویسان سکه شناسی سند شناسی و سندپژوهی شخصیت ها فعالیت های مذهبی (فعالیت های ادیان، فرق و مذاهب) مجلس شورای ملی منابع و کلیات
فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۷٬۵۷۳ مورد.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۱ - Serial Number ۵, June ۲۰۲۳ 11 - 26
The purpose of this study is to the development of creative industries through the development of cultural quarters within historical contexts as a creative strategy that affects the city as a whole and provides the field of competition and the possibility of being present at international levels. The research method is descriptive-analytical and its type is applied-developmental. The geographical area under study is "Karim Khan" street in Tehran, which has a rich historical and cultural identity. Therefore, using the hierarchical analysis process and "Lisrel" software, the cultural quarters' indicators were ranked and each one's importance was extracted. The findings, according to the calculations of the importance coefficient and the compatibility coefficient of each of the indicators in the study area, show that the "walkability" criterion, "the drivers of the creative economy", and the meaning index of a cultural quarter, the criterion of "evocativeness and urban memory" with importance coefficients of 0.62, 0.78, and 0.65 in the quarter have been assigned the highest rank among other indicators. And as a result, it was shown that the economic importance of sidewalks and the presence of active horizontal grains on the edges, the permeability of the passages, the safe accommodation for pedestrians, the facilities for the transportation of cars and their related services, as well as the quality of urban furniture and green spaces in the quarter as underlying factors. The instrument of creative development and the formation of the cultural quarters are the most important.
Identifying the Mobility Patterns of Human Societies in the Hawraman Cultural Landscape Based on the Ethnoarchaeological Approach
The lifeways of mobile human societies are a field investigated by anthropologists and archaeologists. Mobility is considered an effective way of foraging and resource production among human societies (for hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and farmers, respectively). Various classifications regarding the mobility patterns of human societies have been proposed so far. As of today, the majority of archaeologists use Murdock’s multi-purpose classification which divided mobile human societies into four groups: (1) Nomadic societies, (2) semi-nomadic societies, (3) semi-sedentary societies, and (4) sedentary societies. But some societies have characteristics that do not allow them to be placed in one of these groups. For identification of these unclearly defined societies, the authors will refer to 5 criteria of demographic dimensions: Mobility, number of movements, movement distance, residential criteria, and lifeway. For instance, it was not until 2003 that archaeologists began to recognize the intermediate trajectory of nomadic pastoralism from early village-based herding to the formation of full-fledged pastoralism in the western part of Central Zagros. Extensive study of pastoralist communities, however, can be used for the identification of several intermediate stages of the 5 criteria. Current archaeological evidence in most of the early Neolithic sites in Central Zagros such as Qazanchi, Sheikhi Abad, Sarab, Asiab, and Guran, unlike the Levant region which was settled in the Epipaleolithic (Natufian) period, indicates that these sites are seasonal. So how can we explain the mobility of human societies in the proto-Neolithic period of Zagros? As a result, the authors try to use these criteria to identify the intermediate stages of sedentarism in Zagros, from mobile societies in the Epipaleolithic period to sedentary societies in the late Neolithic period. For this purpose, the authors have studied the mobility patterns and residential criteria of human societies in the cultural landscape of Hawraman. The research was conducted in two seasons, in the summer of 2016 and the summer of 2018, respectively. At first glance, the patterns of mobility and lifeways of human societies seemed homogeneous and identical in the cultural landscape of Hawraman. But with a deeper analysis, Four main mobility patterns were identified. The patterns include (1) single-stage agriculturalist residential mobility in Koh-e-Takht, (2) multistage pastoralist residential mobility in Kosalan and Shahu Mountain, (3) logistical mobility (transhumance) in Javeh River, and (4) logistical mobility (based on cultural exchanges) all over the Hawraman. The patterns show that the Zagros societies did not become sedentary in a single stage. Therefore, semi-sedentary societies with residential mobility and semi-sedentary societies with logistical mobility can be placed in the intermediate stages.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۲ - Serial Number ۶, August ۲۰۲۳ 67 - 73
Biological samples such as bones, tooth, and hair obtained from archaeological excavations are mainly used for dating measurements. However, these findings provide valuable information about the diet, lifestyle or migration, and genetic interaction of communities, and disease because the biochemical content of biological tissues such as bones, teeth, and hair changes under the influence of the lifestyle of the past population. Therefore, it seems that human remains' biochemical, microscopic, and histological studies could be advantageous for clarifying the dark events of the past societies. Bioarchaeology, as an interdisciplinary science, assesses the historical-cultural relationships in ancient samples and human remains like hair, bone, or tooth by biological tools and techniques. In this science, the biological data of specimens are combined with archeological information to obtain a more accurate sociology of past civilizations. The purpose of the present review article is to familiarize archeology researchers with the usual methods in bioarchaeological studies.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۱ - Serial Number ۵, June ۲۰۲۳ 69 - 92
Luristan is located in the Central Zagros Chains and it plays an important role in the events of the first millennium BC. Therefore, archeological and historical studies of this region lead to a better understanding of the events and the role of Lorestan in this period. The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of Lorestan in the first millennium BC based on historical and archeological sources. This research was done with a descriptive-analytical method with a historical approach. The Results show According to the Assyrian documents, Greek and Roman sources an ethnic group lived in the Zagros Mountains. Their land more probably was bigger than the administrative borders of Lruistan. Presumably, it should be somewhere between the Greater Media and Susa or Chaospes River. Luri is the common language of these peoples in this area.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۲ - Serial Number ۶, August ۲۰۲۳ 43 - 53
Among the archaeological documents, seals and seal impressions are of special importance because the symbols and designs therein represent much of a country's customs, practices, customs, and beliefs, as well as aspects of its history. It shows rituals, religion, philosophy, and art as well as administrative and social management over the centuries. This motif has its roots in the ancient civilization of Iran and is sometimes influenced by the neighboring nations. These portable data have caused the spread of culture and art to other lands for the sake of use in business exchanges, administrative letters, and political relations. The introduction of seals and the study of inscriptions carved and motifs on them can help us to know some of the unknown aspects of ancient Iranian culture and civilization and introduce us to the intellectual world of this period. The main goal of this article is related to the documentation of stamp seals of the Museum of Ancient Iran and the interpretation of the symbols engraved on them.
An Intertextual Study of the Role of the Horned Man in the Artworks of Lorestan and the Role of Gilgamesh in Mesopotamia
Mythologies are closely related to each other because of the archetypes, and due to time, place, and specific geography, they appear in different forms in different peoples. Gilgamesh is considered the oldest Mesopotamian epic poem whose image can be seen on Lorestan bronzes in the second and first millennium BC in the form of a horned man supporting, killing, or taming animals. Identifying the visual relationship between the role of the horned man in Lorestan bronzes and Gilgamesh in Mesopotamian works in order to discover the common intellectual heritage between these two regions is the main goal of this research. The main question of this research is about what and why are the technical and visual similarities and differences of the paintings, which have dealt with the background of Gilgamesh's role in the Mesopotamian civilization with a descriptive-analytical method, and then, with an analytical method, he analyzed the relationship between the role of the horned man in Lorestan's bronze works and the role of Gilgamesh in Mesopotamian art based on the theory of pre-textuality. The results show that the artist of Lorestan created a work of art under the influence of Mesopotamian mythology and art which are similar in visual and narrative components, but according to the culture and customs of the region, differences can be seen in the performance style and the structure of the topics, which shows that Lorestan artist did not imitate Mesopotamian themes. Rather, it has created a new work of art by creating transformational relationships with changes in the pretext.
Archaeological Investigation of Southeast part of the Sahand Mountains case study: Khalifeh Kandi Village
Khalifeh Kandi village is located in the southeast of the Sahand mountain range and northwest of Hashtrud province. Investigation at these sites started in 2013 and continued until 2015. Obtained evidence included a variety of potteries, carved stones, and caves from the historical and Islamic eras. in this paper an attempt has been made to introduce and analyze cultural and historical founds. The result shows that most of the surveyed sites and places around Khalifeh Kandi, in terms of pottery types, belonged to the Islamic period and rarely, artifacts from the pre-Islamic period were observed. The settlements identified in the area under study are mostly located in w slopes by the river and shallow valleys, and only one of these archaeological sites was observed in flat and elevated lands. probably this site was used in certain seasons of the year. Glazed and simple pottery from the Islamic period and rough pottery that was produced in local workshops are among the artifacts observed in the surveyed sites.
The Archeology of the Ritual Practices The Case Study of the Iron Ages Cemeteries of Talesh Region (Maryan & Tandevin)
During the life of humans on earth, there has been no subject more interesting and complicated than death. The knowledge and understanding of what will happen to a person after death form the basis of most religions in the world, which have since been referred to as religious matters or religious experiences. The issue of death is so important in many societies that it has caused the birth of schools of thought and, as a result, the growth of various religions and cults. Burial customs include the structure of the graves, the direction, and condition of human or animal skeletons, and the placement of objects in the graves. The Iron Age in Iran and Guilan is divided into three sections: Iron Age I, II, and III. This Period includes from 1500 B.C. to 550 B.C., of course, some archaeologists believe the existence of Iron Age IV, which continues until the middle of the Parthian period (the End of 1st Millennium B.C.). All major discoveries from selected Iron Age sites in the area of Guilan have been explained and classified. In this research, a new attempt has been made to review the religious experience and ritual practices regarding the repeatability of ancient cemeteries of Talesh during the Iron Ages. The main aim of this article is to identify the Iron Age Burial culture in Guilan. This investigation shows that the society’s People of Iron age in the area of Talesh have social Rank and Status but the factor of Gender is not important in classifying their classes.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۲ - Serial Number ۶, August ۲۰۲۳ 29 - 41
Light and color are effective factors in the creation of works of art, which, as the most immaterial element of nature, have always been influential in Iranian Islamic painting, and in fact, they represent the sublime world and spiritual atmosphere Also, the research about light and color in painting and its impact on painters and its contribution to the scope of expressing the influence of mysticism in the whole Islamic culture and art is at the starting point certainly knowing and understanding the three words mysticism, light and color and finding their meaning and meaning in a symbolic way is not only effective in better understanding Iranian and Islamic painting, but also our insight in understanding the Islamic ideas that are rooted in mysticism and Sufism and It also makes the behavior smoother. Colors have a chemical aspect in art, and mixing them is an art similar to alchemy. The main concern of this research, which is presented in an analytical way, is aesthetics and investigating the mystical aspects of paintings and motifs in Islamic civilization in Iranian art and architecture. It seems that Islamic art and architecture tries to manifest God's unity among colors, forms, lights, and sounds. Each color has a special allegory and a relationship with one of the inner states of man and soul. Color is an important factor for spiritual use in the painting effects of Islamic architecture. Mosques in the Islamic world usually use turquoise green and blue colors. Blue and turquoise colors are the main background colors of walls, tiles, altars, domes, and courtyards and along with the golden color in Iranian Islamic paintings, among other colors, they have a special shine and effect. These colors are manifestations of the inner meanings of colors. The colors of turquoise, green and white, which are symbols of nature's sky and divine light, respectively, are mixed together and add to the majesty of the mosques. The colors that result from the radiation of light are a symbol of the manifestation of unity in multiplicity and the dependence of multiplicity on unity. The reflection of the existence of colors in Iranian art shows an extraterrestrial truth outside the world of the senses, rather than imitating the surrounding natural colors. Vigilance and accurate insight in the arrangement of colors and the correct selection of each color refers to a symbolic concept of colors and their mutual effects that permeate the human soul and spirit.
The Sociopolitical Context of Central Fars during the Achaemenid Era and its Relation with the Economic System
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۱ - Serial Number ۵, June ۲۰۲۳ 41 - 51
Emphasis on the importance of social-political fabric and its effect on the urbanization and economic system that are aspects of urbanization life is one of the necessities during the Achaemenid Period. This study was conducted based on the deductive-inductive method. First, written sources (clay inscription of Persepolis and classic authors) have been used to achieve general information about the social-political fabric of Fars during Achaemenid Period then archeological evidence remained from the economic system of Achaemenid period in Central Fars was analyzed within this framework. No coin, including Shahi or so-called Satrapy, has been discovered from archaeological excavations in Iran, even. It seems that Achaemenid Empire had no plan for monetary economic development, and coin promotion and use in transactions despite its wide territory and regular discipline. On the contrary, it seems that Darius and his successors considered coin as a political instrument used to convey and show the message of the political and military power of the Achaemenid king at that ear not as a tool for the economic system. Therefore, studies focused on clay inscriptions of Persepolis and evaluated works of authors indicate that the sociopolitical fabric of Iranian society, especially Fars has been traditional and based on agriculture and husbandry during Achaemenid Era. As we know, the city was not shaped during the Achaemenid period despite the presence of urban structures, such as social sophistication, specialism, and the modern administrative system of the ear; therefore, coin use was not institutionalized in the economy of that era.
The final goal of this research is to investigate the design of Qajar women's clothing in different periods. In the first step, the question arises whether the cover can be a language. Then this research seeks an answer to the question of what messages in the form of language mean. Therefore, in the current research, the above issue has been analyzed by a case study of Qajar women's clothing and using a descriptive-analytical qualitative research method. Findings: This study shows that the clothing of Qajar women can be considered a single language of signs. In deciphering this language, concepts such as women's attention to religious foundations, gender inequality, and patriarchal view in society, the value of wearing Iran's old traditions, as well as the desire to move towards westernization and fashionism of Europeans can be inferred. The results of this research show the importance of the role, color, code, sign, symbol, and finally language in the field of women's clothing in the Qajar period.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۲ - Serial Number ۶, August ۲۰۲۳ 55 - 65
A recent trend in photogrammetry is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for photogrammetric purposes. A data acquisition sensor is mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle to collect data during short-range aerial photogrammetry from a low altitude. This system is capable of filling a significant gap left by other conventional methods in the field of map production. The improvement in processes over conventional methods is the basis for this method's effectiveness. A significant portion of valuable data is obtained after the first processing stage as a result of automation in all data production processes. Real orthoimages, 3D models, and a detailed point cloud of the area are all included in this data. Drawing and mapping maps have gotten much easier, more accurate, and quicker thanks to modern software. We are looking for ways to use these kinds of methods in documenting the archaeological heritage in this article by applying this method at the historic site of Susa. The experts and practitioners in this field will benefit from this method, which is a collection of the most effective techniques for geometric measurement, analysis, and interpretations related to issues raised in archaeology.
Explaining the Effectiveness of Human Visual Perception in the Architectural Environment of Golden and Geometric Proportions in the Sense of Belonging to the Place
The ability to recognize and compare shapes and understand the concept of proportions is one of the first human findings from environmental geometric data. And certainly the formation of geometry as a science of recognizing the arrangement of lines, shapes and levels and proportions leads to the definition of golden proportions in the mathematical sciences as a new way of organizing shapes and forms. Golden and geometric proportions are effective as a determining element in the scale of spatial forms, and the formation of spatial forms by not using or misuse of geometric proportions is due to functional and psychological interactions on human perception and cognition. Which causes the construction and formation of scales and proportions of the environment and the emergence of psychological effects due to human activities in the environment. And then the abnormal effects and environmental dysfunction on the saccade system of the human eye and as a result the feeling of fear and lack of belonging to the place interacts. On the other hand, nature as the raw material of creation, and the principle and mother of man, which causes him to model the proportions in nature. Understanding the laws governing the relationships between elements and spatial shapes leads to the formation of geometric and golden proportions in the spending of space. Because knowing the symbol of shapes, proportions and scales in the world of meaning and kingdom is reminiscent of the divine order in all dimensions of the world (even in astronomy). Therefore, evaluating the values of spatial proportions in nature as the bedrock of human life and the pattern of psychological perceptions, leads to the adoption of human activities. Also, the study of human needs on a mental and psychological scale from the perception of the environment causes the recognition of scales and dimensions by human visual senses, which leads to the perception of the correct golden and geometric proportions through Sakadi eye movements and psychophysical sciences. . Certain ratios can also be observed in the creation and design of various shapes in nature. These relations are those geometric relations that have immaterial roots and follow the spiritual and supernatural principles, believing that their subject is sacred, and have a symbolic language and spiritual characteristics. In the traditional world, geometry was inseparable from the other four Pythagorean sciences, namely arithmetic, music, and astronomy. And traditional geometry is also associated with the symbolic composition and shapes of space. To this end, the study of the effect of golden and geometric proportions on human visual perception of the architectural environment based on the sense of belonging to the place, causes visual quality to increase the sensory richness of the place and achieve human values and criteria in the sense of belonging to the place and human needs. To be considered by the architect. In this research, with the perspective of this identity and the interaction of geometric and golden proportions and the sense of belonging to the place, the criteria and indicators of the research have been studied and the results have been presented in the form of tables and diagrams.
Image processing on images of ancient artifacts with the help of methods based on artificial intelligence
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۱ - Serial Number ۵, June ۲۰۲۳ 27 - 39
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize the field of archaeology by enabling researchers to analyze large amounts of data quickly and accurately. In this article, we have tried to implement some methods and algorithms in image processing on the image of ancient artifacts. We implemented the algorithms on two historical models as examples, one of which is the image of a coin decorated with the image of Farkhan the Great and the other is the coin with the image of Khursheed Daboui to obtain the details of these works from the images on the computer. We used Edge Detection, Hough Transform, imcontour, and Filter Images Using Predefined Filters algorithms in MATLAB software, each of these algorithms is used for specific purposes in image processing. By using digital image analysis techniques, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the objects and sites they are studying and can make new and important discoveries about the history and culture of ancient civilizations.
Dakkatol-Qada in the Mosque of Kufa from an Ancient Point of View and Judging at the Beginning of Islam “Looking at the Judicial Jurisprudence of Ayatollah Mousavi Ardabili”
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۱ - Serial Number ۵, June ۲۰۲۳ 53 - 67
Dakkato al-Qadaa is a place in the Kufa mosque where, according to historical narration, Hazrat Ali (pbuh) used to judge and many of his judgments were narrated in this place. The study of this place is important in terms of the role that mosques have played in various aspects of the spiritual and material life of Muslims. This place can be researched in several ways: the historical reference of the place; the ancient aspect of the remaining signs; Jurisprudential rulings related to judgment in the mosque. According to the studies that were carried out, such a place definitely existed in the history of Islam, and even now there are signs of it in the mosque of Kufa, which is honored and celebrated by the Shiites of the Prophet, which is one of the characteristics of The richness of Islamic civilization is in terms of judicial functions. The knowledge of this specific place depends on the knowledge of the mosque of Kufa on the one hand and the examination of the place of mosques in the Islamic culture and civilization and how proceedings were conducted in the early ages of Islam. This article is organized with a descriptive and analytical method using the remaining written documents and physical works available in the place.
Logical Analysis of Iran's Historical Buildings in order to Read the Effective Components in the Architecture of Collective-Ritual Spaces based on the Wisdom of Art and Architecture
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۲ - Serial Number ۶, August ۲۰۲۳ 1 - 16
Nowadays, with advanced technology and information, the attention to national and religious culture and ritual has faded, so the lack of collective cultural-ritual spaces based on the correct principles of architectural wisdom is considered as a problem in today's world of speed and technology. The goals of the research are to improve sociability through the analytical analysis of Iran's historical buildings in order to read the effective components in the architecture of collective-ritual spaces based on the wisdom of Islamic art and architecture. The research method is in the form of case studies and logical reasoning and analysis of the content of fundamental principles and concepts, which in the case examples of social arenas from the perspective of the teachings of architectural wisdom in which national and religious rituals are held and a comparative study The factors of each were done in the form of tables; In the following, by adapting the arguments and relational analyzes of anthropological and epistemological discussion in the results of the research, it was shown that the fundamental principles and concepts in architectural wisdom are the result of focusing on rules and precise theorizing and are formed according to the culture of the people. And on the basis of basic needs assessments, it reduces discussions involving duality and difference of opinion. In addition to the semantic dimensions, components with physical-spatial aspects were extracted in an understandable way for the users, whose strategy and solutions will lead the way in improving the sociability of collective-ritual spaces.
The Compositional Study of Qajar Silver Coins Using PIXE Technique; Case Study of Coins of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar of Tabriz Mint
The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Tabriz during the Qajar period can help to investigate the socio-economic situation of that period. In this case study, Proton- Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analytical technique has been applied to twenty-eight Qajar silver coins selected from a private collection. the purpose was to study and investigate the changes in silver elements in Qirans of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar in Tabriz mint. The metallic elements Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Au were observed. The results show that the content of Ag the main constituent of the coins varies from 90.07 to 82.88%. this significant variation in the content of the major constituent reveals the economic difficulties encountered by the dynasty. The results, which are shown by using the PIXE technique, brought to light valuable information about the economy of the period under study.
منبع: Journal of Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume ۲, Issue ۲ - Serial Number ۶, August ۲۰۲۳ 19 - 27
Coins are engraved metals like books full of historical, cultural, religious, and mythological information. They are also like written documents that can be analyzed through their motifs through symbolism, and they are the most important guide for researchers in recognizing and familiarizing themselves with religious beliefs in different historical periods. Therefore, studying the images and symbols on them opens a window to ancient periods for researchers. Due to its long reign, the Parthian is one of ancient Iran's most important critical periods. They minted many coins with various motifs. One of the symbols used is the pattern of a palm branch, which from the time of Phraates II can be seen as the reverse of the drama and tetradrachm coins of the Seleucid Mint. This study has investigated the symbol of palm branch in coins of Phraates II in the Seleucid Mint to realize political goals. These coins are kept in Reza Abbasi Museum in Tehran (Iran) and were purchased through private collectors. In this study, 250 Parthian coins were examined, among which 60 coins had palm motifs. The palm branch is considered a mythological plant common between Mesopotamia, and Greek. Parthian king, the branch palms were used as symbols for victory, under the cultural influence of the Seleucid and Mesopotamia.
عوامل زیستی موثر بر فرسودگی زیستی سطوح آجری در میراث جهانی یونسکو – برج گنبد قابوس(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی عوامل اصلی فرسودگی زیستی ساکن روی آجرهای متعلق به میراث جهانی گنبد قابوس واقع در شهر گنبد کاووس در استان گلستان است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از مشاهدات میدانی، مشاهدات ماکروسکوپی در محل، روش های میکروسکوپی و مطالعات کتابخانه ای به شناسایی و نحوه تأثیرگذاری عوامل زیستی بر سطح آجری بنای گنبد قابوس در سه قسمت پایه، بدنه و مخروط پرداخته شد. بر این اساس، عوامل فرسودگی زیستی به دو گروه نمونه برداری تقسیم بندی شدند. گروه اول، شامل ماکروارگانیسم ها که برای جلوگیری از صدمه به بنا، روش شناسایی بر اساس مستند نگاری و عکس با دوربین انجام شد. گروه دوم، نمونه برداری از عوامل میکروارگانیسم هایی مانند باکتری ها و قارچ ها، ریزجلبک ها و سیانوباکترها، گلسنگ ها که با پنس استریل از روی سطح آجری نمونه برداری انجام و سپس به داخل میکروتیوپ انتقال و با روش های ریخت شناسی و کشت و میکروسکوپی شناسایی شدند. به طور کلی، نُه گروه از ارگانیسم های عامل فرسودگی زیستی در این مطالعه شناسایی شدند که ازجمله گروه های عمده آن ها می توان به باکتری ها، سیانوباکترها و جلبک ها، قارچ ها، گلسنگ ها، خزه ها و گیاهان، حشرات و حیوانات کوچک اشاره کرد. ماکروارگانیسم ها با تغییرات میزان رطوبت، کم و زیاد می شوند و بنابراین، در تخریب مکانیکی اجزای بستر مؤثرند. در بین ماکروارگانیسم ها گیاهان و خزه ها از مهم ترین دشمنان بستر آجری بنای گنبد قابوس موجود شناخته شدند. میکروارگانیسم ها قادرند کلون و بیوفیلم هایی را روی سطح بستر آجری تشکیل دهند. آن ها اسیدهایی را ترشح می کنند که مواد معدنی تشکیل دهنده بستر آجری را تجزیه کرده و به این صورت نقش مهمی در فرسودگی زیستی بنا ایفا می کنند. به طور کلی، آجرهای دیوار های بیرونی بنا در معرض حمله عوامل متنوع زیستی و عوامل غیرزنده قرار دارند و درمجموع، مقاومت کمتری نسبت به فعالیت های عوامل فرسودگی نشان می دهند. رطوبت، دما و نور و آلودگی غبار شهری از عواملی بالقوه در افزایش عوامل دخیل در فرسودگی زیستی می توانند در پژوهش های بعدی مورد بحث قرار گیرند.
منشأیابی ماده خام دست افزارهای سنگی محوطه مله بوژان بر اساس مطالعات پتروگرافی و ژئوشیمیایی(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
دره های میانکوهی زاگرس ازجمله مناطق جغرافیایی مهم در پژوهش های پارینه سنگی این منطقه اند. پژوهش های باستان شناسی اخیر نشان داده اند که برخی محوطه های پارینه سنگی در زاگرس از نوع محوطه های باز هستند و در مجاورت برونزدهای رادیولاریتی سنگ چرت واقع شده اند. محوطه مله بوژان واقع در ناهمواری های مشرف به دشت سرفیروزآباد استان کرمانشاه به دلیل وجود دست افزارهای سنگی و گرهک های سنگ چرت رودخانه ای پراکنده در آن، یکی از این گونه محوطه هاست. مطالعه فناوری ساخت و گونه شناسی دست افزارهای سنگیِ به دست آمده از آن، که مبتنی بر تولید تراشه و فناوری لوآلوآ است، بیانگر این است که از محوطه به عنوان یک کارگاه روباز تولید دست افزار سنگی در دوره پارینه سنگی میانی استفاده می شده است. در مطالعه دست افزارهای سنگی یک محوطه، مطالعه بستر زمین شناختی و منشأیابی ماده خام مورد استفاده برای ساخت دست افزارها دارای اهمیت بسیار است، چراکه انتخاب محل زندگی و یا مهاجرت ابزارسازان پیش از تاریخ تحت تأثیر یافتن مواد خام مناسب برای ساخت دست افزارهای مورد نیاز بوده است؛ بر این اساس، در این مقاله نتایج دو آزمایش پتروگرافی (تهیه مقطع نازک) و ژئوشیمیایی (طیف سنجی فلورسانس پرتو ایکس یا XRF) روی تعدادی دست افزار سنگی انتخابیِ به دست آمده از اولین فصل بررسی محوطه مله بوژان دشت سرفیروزآباد استان کرمانشاه و تعدادی از نمونه های سنگی به دست آمده از سازندهای زمین شناسی اطراف این محوطه با هدف مشخص ساختن محلی یا وارداتی بودن گرهک های چرت پراکنده بر سطح آن و در نتیجه منشأیابی ماده خام استفاده شده در ابزارسازی ارائه شده است که در نهایت بر اساس نتایج آنالیزها و نیز بررسی نقشه زمین شناسیِ منطقه مشخص گردید منشأ سنگ های استفاده شده در ابزارسازی محلی و به احتمال بسیار سازند زمین شناسی کشکان (شامل لیتولوژی آهک، ماسه سنگ و کنگلومرای قرمزرنگ) بوده است. مقادیر تقریباً مشابه بین عناصر موجود در ذرات رسوبی آبراهه ها، گرهک های سنگ چرت پراکنده در محوطه و سازند کشکان، یعنی همخوانی عناصر کمیاب با یکدیگر، ملاک این نتیجه گیری بوده است.