فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۹٬۶۷۶ مورد.
۱.

Unveiling Indonesian EFL Teacher’s Perceptions and Challenges of Technology-based Assessment as and for Learning

کلید واژه ها: assessment for learning assessment as learning Challenge Perception Technology

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
The significance of assessment as a learning component has led to the development of a sound assessment system that supports the teaching and learning objectives. Achievement of learning assessment should prioritize assessment as learning (AaL) and assessment for learning (AfL) rather than the assessment of learning (AoL). The appropriate AaL and AfL have influenced the process of AoL. Almost all teachers in Indonesia have faced the challenge of implementing Aal and AfL. This study used a qualitative study to report English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' perceptions and challenges regarding technology-based AfL and AaL. The design of the study was content analysis using the coding procedure and the grounded theory framework as the analytical foundation. Data gathered involved conducting structured interviews with 60 EFL teachers from three central provinces within Indonesia. The findings revealed that EFL teachers in Indonesia had different perspectives about technology-based AfL and AaL as flourishing assessment approaches. Most of the EFL teachers' perceptions said that due to a lack of time, large classes, and lack of knowledge and training on technology-based AfL and AaL principles and practices in EFL contexts, implementation of technology-based AfL and AaL was viewed as challenging. The study has implications for EFL teachers and trainers in developing an instructional model of technology-based AfL and AaL.
۲.

Examining Local Item Dependence in a Cloze Test with the Rasch Model

کلید واژه ها: cloze test Local item dependence Rasch model residual correlations

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
Local item dependence (LID) refers to the situation where responses to items in a test or questionnaire are influenced by responses to other items in the test. This could be due to shared prompts, item content similarity, and deficiencies in item construction. LID due to a shared prompt is highly probable in cloze tests where items are nested within a passage. The purpose of this research is to examine the occurrence and magnitude of LID in a cloze test. A cloze test was analyzed with the Rasch model and locally dependent items were identified with the residual correlations. Findings showed that three pairs of items were locally dependent. When these items were removed from the analysis, test reliability dropped but item fit and unidimensionality improved. Removing the three locally dependent items did not affect person ability mean and standard deviation, though. The findings are discussed in terms of LID detection and modeling in the context of cloze test and language testing.
۳.

The Effect of Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) on Intermediate EFL Learners’ L2 Autonomous Motivation, Self-efficacy, and Perceived Locus of Causality(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction Autonomous Motivation Perceived Locus of Causality EFL Learners Self-Efficacy

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲
The study examines the effects of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) on intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ L2 autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived locus of causality. Given the evolving paradigms of language teaching, SDLMI values ​​autonomy, competence and connectedness in teaching instruction and offers a distinctive approach. Drawing on contemporary motivational theories, the study examines how SDLMI impacts these key dimensions in intermediate EFL learners compared to a traditional instructional approach. Participants from four EFL classrooms completed SDLMI in the experimental group and conventional instruction in the control group. Instruments included the Preliminary English Test, motivational questionnaires, and SDLMI-based assessments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent samples t-tests. Descriptive statistics for both groups (mean and SD) were calculated. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare the means between the experimental group and the control group and to examine possible significant differences in the effect of SDLMI on autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived locus of causality. The study contributes to instructional practices, advocating for autonomy-supportive strategies in fostering holistic language. 
۴.

Distributed Leadership and Teacher Professional Learning: The Mediating Role of Teacher Agency in Iranian EFL Context(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: teacher professional learning distributed leadership Teacher Agency

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۷
A sustained, school-based approach that offers in-service EFL teachers opportunities for collaboration in creating an environment that promotes their capacity-building and instructional growth is necessary for their professional growth. This study aimed to contribute to the growing body of research on the effect of distributed leadership in teacher professional learning. Specifically, this study scrutinized the connection between distributed leadership and professional learning of teachers, focusing on the mediating role of teacher agency. A cross-sectional survey design was applied, collecting data from 458 teachers in Iran. Teacher Professional Learning Scale, Teacher Agency Scale, and Distributed Leadership Scale were completed by them. Structural equation modelling was run to analyze the relationship between variables. The findings revealed a minimal direct relationship between distributed leadership and the professional learning of teachers, with teacher agency acting as a major mediating factor. These results contribute to existing research by suggesting that distributed leadership may not have a substantial direct effect on teacher learning, but rather indirectly improves teacher agency.
۵.

Incremental Theory of Intelligence and Writing Performance of Iranian IELTS Candidates

کلید واژه ها: IELTS Implicit theory of writing Incremental theory of intelligence Self-regulatory writing strategies Writing Performance

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲
Incremental intelligence plays an important role in self-regulating and enhancing writing performance among language learners. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among variables of the incremental theory of intelligence, self-regulatory writing strategies, implicit theory of writing, and writing performance in EFL learners. To do so, 320 Iranian IELTS candidates were invited to participate in the study. Three questionnaires, namely incremental intelligence, self-regulatory writing strategy, and implicit theory of writing, were utilized. The participants included male and female IELTS candidates aged 19-27 years with a minimum band score of 6.5 in their writing skill. Furthermore, their educational qualifications included BA and MA degrees. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and structural equation modeling (SEM). The correlation analysis showed that the incremental theory of intelligence had a significant relationship with self-regulatory writing strategy, implicit theory of writing, and writing performance. Moreover, the obtained results of SEM confirmed the findings of the correlational analysis, indicating statistically significant positive correlations among the variables of the study. The findings revealed that a growth-oriented mindset could affect students’ use of four types of self-regulatory writing strategies. Self-regulatory writing strategies also played a pivotal role in guiding, stimulating, motivating, and sustaining learners’ efforts, thus predicting writing performance. The results of this study can help EFL learners learn how to regulate and manage themselves in writing skills. Learners can assess the extent of their professionalism and endeavor to identify their weaknesses in the learning process.
۶.

Overrepresentation and underrepresentation of cohesive devices in EFL learners’ translated and free narrative writings(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Cohesion Cohesive devices textuality Narrative Writing free writing

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۹
This study aimed at investigating the L2 rhetorical organization of translation and free writing tasks in terms of cohesive devices used by Iraqi intermediate EFL learners in the narrative genre. To do so, 30 Iraqi intermediate EFL learners at Kufa university took part in the study. The participants were asked to translate three narrative texts from Arabic to English and write three narratives related to the general topics given to them as prompts. The narratives were coded and rated by two experts based on Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) framework. The data obtained from translation narratives were compared with a standard translation for each text. Results of the one-sample t-test performed on the scores of translation narratives indicated that Iraqi leaners produce shorter passages in the target language than in the source language; however, they used significantly more times than expected for certain types of cohesive devices. Moreover, comparisons between translated narratives and free narratives indicated no significant difference between the translated and composed narratives. It is argued that patterns of cohesive devices used in English output of the Iraqi EFL learners are compatible with properties of their first language. The findings also show that, unlike English grammatical properties, cohesive devices are not a problematic area and would not lead to fossilized errors in the performance of Iraqi EFL learners.
۷.

Implementing group dynamic assessment to enhance Iranian high school students’ grammar ability(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Grammar ability Group Dynamic Assessment High School Students Sociocultural theory

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۹
Theoretically drawing on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of mind (SCT) and following a sequential exploratory mixed method design, this study probed into the impact of Group Dynamic Assessment (GDA) on the short and long-term Iranian high school students’ grammar ability. Also, a focus group interview was conducted to explore students’ attitudes toward concurrent GDA. This study used a convenient sample of 42 Iranian third-grade students in a private high school who prepared to participate in the Iranian University Entrance Exam (IUEE). The students of the two groups (i.e., GDA and Non-GDA) followed the same procedure (i.e., DIALANG test, pre-test, three conventional teaching sessions and one enrichment session, focus group interview (for GDA group), post-test and transcendence test). Quantitative findings using three independent sample t-tests and two repeated measure ANOVAs revealed that the GDA group significantly outperformed the non-GDA group regarding grammar ability and could apply them in more demanding circumstances. Besides, the thematic analysis of qualitative data showed that the concurrent GDA assisted students to improve their grammar ability. The study's findings highlight the importance of applying GDA as a mediational procedure that assists students in developing their grammar ability in L2 contexts. The findings of the study may assist L2 teachers to apply GDA procedure in their classrooms to save time for teaching and assessing grammatical structures.
۸.

بازخوانی مفهوم ترکیب در ساخت واژۀ کردی سورانی: بررسی اسم های مرکب درون مرکز با رویکرد صرف ساختی(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: صرف ساختی طرح واره ریزطرح واره مرکب اسمی جایگاه هسته کردی سورانی

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
هدف از جستار حاضر واکاوی اسم های مرکب درون مرکز کردی سورانی در چارچوب صرف ساختی بوی (2010) و با بهره گیری از روش توصیفی - تحلیلی است. به عبارت دیگر، این پژوهش در تلاش است تا با شناسایی و ترسیم کلان طرح واره، طرح واره های میانی و ریزطرح واره های حاکم، صورت بندی این ساخت ها و روابط معنایی میان سازه های مشارکت کننده در آن ها را بازنمایی کند. دراین خصوص، تعداد 1400 ترکیب اسمی از فرهنگ کردی -فارسیِ هه نبانه بورینه (شرفکندی، 1369) و فرهنگ فارسی - کردی دانشگاه کردستان (1392) به صورت تمام شمار استخراج و تحلیل و بررسی شد. ازاین بین، 559 ترکیب یعنی 39 درصد از کل داده ها، درون مرکز تشخیص داده شد. یافته ها نشان داد براساس مبانی نظری صرف ساختی، ترکیب های درون مرکز کردی سورانی از یک طرح واره اصلی، سه طرح واره میانی و پنج ریزطرح واره منشعب می گردند. بنابراین، می توان نتیجه گرفت که دلیل عمده این تنوع طرح واره ای از جایگاه آزاد هسته در ترکیب های اسمی ناشی می شود. معنای کلی ساخت های موردنظر نیز علاوه بر طرح واره ها، تحت تأثیر عوامل دیگری همچون جایگاه هسته، طبقه واژگانی و توالی سازه های مشارکت کننده در ساخت است.
۹.

An Analysis of Interactive and Interactional Metadiscourse: Native vs. Non-native Author Dichotomy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: authorial stance Metadiscourse Applied linguistics interactional and interactive resources

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
Mounting attention has recently been paid to authorial stance in academic writing due to its important role in the interpersonal aspect of writing, encompassing the ways in which authors establish connections, convey attitudes, and engage with an audience. This study was an attempt to explore how native and non-native authors of Applied Linguistics deploy linguistic features to project their authorial stance. To this end, a corpus of 100 research articles authored by native and non-native researchers was collected from journals in the field of ELT. Hyland's Interpersonal Model of Metadiscourse (2005) was employed to differentiate the features produced and figure out how authors navigate the complexities of expressing their meaning while considering the ELT community expectations, and SPSS was used to analyze the data. Based on the results, the proportion of interactive resources was found to surpass that of interactional resources in both native and non-native writings, with transitions being the leading feature, followed by evidentials; and regarding the interactional resources, boosters, and hedges were the most dominant features employed by native and non-native authors, respectively. Overall, no tendency was found towards textuality through which authors consider the target audience (engagement markers), signal their confidence through the portrayal of authors' feelings (attitude markers), and take credit for their findings (self-mentions) throughout the whole corpus, particularly non-native writings. It seems that writing courses offered in non-native contexts require improvements to meet the standards of academic writing. Therefore, the study has important implications for both non-native and novice researchers and course designers.
۱۰.

Designing and Validating a Brainling Model: A Case of High School and Language School Textbooks(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Textbook analysis Sense Emotion Cognition culture

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۲ تعداد دانلود : ۸
Textbook evaluation is of paramount importance in ensuring that textbooks are of high quality and aligned with educational goals. This study evaluated two common English language textbooks in Iran (i.e., American English File [private schools] and Vision series [state schools]) based on the brainling (brain+ language) model, heeding EFL learners’ cognition, senses, emotions, and culture. To this end, a brainling-based scale was validated based on “cogling”, “emoling”, “sensoling”, and “cultuling” components of the brainling model and distributed among Iranian teachers (N=218) and EFL learners (N=236). It was found that there were significant differences in the brainling components present in English textbooks used in state and private schools. Moreover, the independent samples t-tests revealed that there were significant differences in mean scores for brainling components between the two types of textbooks for students. However, it is worth noting that such differences were not observed among teachers’ ratings of these components.  The results could assist content developers in incorporating brainling as a worthwhile scale for evaluating English language textbooks.
۱۱.

ChatGPT-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching: A Scoping Review of Research on ChatGPT Use in L2 Pedagogy and Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Artificial Intelligence ChatGPT ChatGPT-assisted language learning scoping review Technology-aided language instruction

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۲ تعداد دانلود : ۹
ChatGPT-assisted language instruction is gathering irresistible momentum in today’s fast-moving, AI-governed world of educational enterprises. The current scoping review article sought to analyze and synthesize the existing literature on the complementary use of ChatGPT in second/foreign language (L2/FL) education and pedagogy. Aligned with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA‑ScR), the study adopted a systematic approach to evidential data search and analysis. A total of 28 peer-reviewed articles retrieved from well-established databases, such as Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), were reviewed to map the scope and consequences of the growing body of literature on using ChatGPT as an L2/FL learning/teaching tool. Centering around five predetermined variables, including setting, design, focus area, objective, and concluding remarks, the content or thematic analysis results helped to shape a clear picture of the literature under review. The literature-derived evidential data also referred to the fruits of ChatGPT-assisted instruction under three distinct headings: learning outcomes, pedagogical outcomes, and cognitive-affective impetus for language learning and teaching. The review results also revealed the repercussions of the instruction mainly concerned with ethical and technical concerns. Given the immature but fast-paced nature of the literature on the instructional model, this early attempt, though provided a brief sketch of the research scope and chief outcomes of the model, needs to be complemented with future systematic reviews to fully unlock the potential of language pedagogy well suited to the demands of today’s technology-governed education.
۱۲.

Iranian EFL Academics’ and PhD Candidates’ Perceptions toward the Infusion of Critical Thinking into EFL Curriculum(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Academics EFL Curriculum Critical thinking perceptions PhD Candidates

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۸
Critical thinking (CT) abilities have failed to receive the necessary consideration in applied linguistics. Thus, this study was intended to explore English as a Foreign Language (EFL) academics and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) candidates’ perceptions of embedding CT into the EFL curricula in Iran. Moreover, it aimed to identify the primary obstacles teachers may have while employing CT skills, and suggest some necessary strategies to strengthen students' CT abilities. To do so, a total of 50 male and female EFL academics as well as 50 male and female PhD candidates specializing in Applied Linguistics, Linguistics and Literature, as well as Translation at different universities in Iran participated in this study. The present investigation employed a mixed-methods design. To this end, an adapted version of Stapleton's (2011) CT questionnaire was used. Moreover, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a cohort of 5 EFL academics and 5 PhD candidates. The outcomes underscore the need for educational policymakers and curriculum developers to recognize the significance of CT in language learning and to infuse more systematic and explicit approaches to teaching CT in Iranian EFL context. The pedagogical implications of the study were accordingly discussed. 
۱۳.

A Systematic Review of Instagram as a Mobile Assisted Language Learning Tool in English as a Second/Foreign Language(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Systematic review Instagram Mall meta-analysis

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۹
In recent years, Instagram has gained considerable attention in scientific research because of its popularity among English language learners. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of empirical studies that investigated the use of Instagram as a mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) tool in ESL/EFL and attempted to perform a scientific mapping of the literature. To this end, a corpus of studies since 2010 was retrieved in January 2023 from six academic databases and reviewed through the stages of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). A critical appraisal of 48 experimental studies included in this review was carried out and a meta-analysis of 11 eligible studies was conducted. The results of the meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect size of the use of Instagram in ESL/EFL. The bibliometric analysis revealed that the research productivity is up and found writing and vocabulary skills as the main focus in most of the studies. This study could have implications for teachers and researchers to gain a broad overview of the integration of Instagram in English language teaching and to know the current research trends in the field for future research.
۱۴.

بررسی ساخت چپ نشانی واژه بستی در زبان فارسی از دیدگاه برنامۀ کمینگی(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: چپ نشانی واژه بستی حرکت غیر موضوع جزایر نحوی ارتباط نحوی گروه مطابقه

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
پژوهش حاضر به چگونگی اشتقاق ساخت چپ نشانی واژه بستی زبان فارسی در چارچوب برنامه زایشی کمینه گرا می پردازد. در ساخت چپ نشانی واژه بستی بخش دوم یک ترکیب اضافی و یا متمم حرف اضافه برای خوانش های کاربردی ویژه، به جای قرار گرفتن در جایگاه اصلی خود، در آغاز بند قرار می گیرد و جایگاه اصلی آن را در جمله الزاماً یک ضمیر واژه بستی پُر می کند. در بررسی این ساخت در زبان های مختلف، پژوهشگران همواره می کوشند به این پرسش پاسخ دهند که آیا در این ساخت، سازه آغازین از ابتدا در جایگاه نهایی خود تولید شده است یا این جایگاه حاصل حرکت است. پژوهش حاضر با تکیه بر آرای لی (Lee, 2016) نشان می دهد که جایگاه آغازین ساخت چپ نشانی واژه بستی در زبان فارسی محصول حرکت غیر موضوع سازه چپ نشان است و دلیل اجبار استفاده از واژه بست در این ساخت بر مبنای دیدگاه اسکوبار (Escobar, 1997) عبور سازه چپ نشان از یک جایگاه موضوع در مسیر حرکت غیر موضوع خود به آغاز بند است. بر مبنای این تحلیل، واژه بست موجود در این ساخت در نتیجه بازبینی موضعی مشخصه فای سازه آغازین توسط هسته مطابقه به ساخت افزوده می شود.
۱۵.

Global Citizenship Education (GCE): A Study on the Philosophical Foundations and Educational Norms of the Iranian National and Educational Documents with respect to the Promotion of the GCE Goals in Formal English Language Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Curriculum Globalization global citizenship education Language Planning Language Policy

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
As a controversial subject, globalization has affected various aspects of our lives. Today, the intertwined world is run through complicated relationships and the education of competent human capitals has gained more significance than before. Recently, there has been a movement, known as Global Citizenship Education (GCE), toward a pervasive orientation to education in which issues such as Quality Education are the critical goals. The main aim of this study was to explore the extent to which The Iranian National Curriculum, The Doctrine of General Formal Education System and The Fundamental Reform Document of Education promote the GCE goals in formal English language education. Using a multi-concept model based on the GCE goals, the documents were the subject of scrutiny through document analysis. A survey questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were also utilized. Among 198 participants, 12 individuals accepted to be interviewed. The results of the document analysis and the questionnaire approved the documents’ theoretical promotion of the GCE goals. However, they were criticized for being idealistic and incoherent in the interviews and literature review. Also, their appropriate implementation, practical efficiency and convincing educational achievement were disapproved. The study emphasizes global-oriented approaches in the country’s formal education. 
۱۶.

Patiently-Drafted Titles: Focusing on Form and Content of Research Article Titles in Iranian Applied Linguistics Journals(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Encoded information lexical diversity linguistic research articles Syntactic structures titles

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
Research article (RA) titles are one of the most important elements of a manuscript, influencing the reviewers’ decision and editors’ judgment, attracting the readers, and conveying the main idea of the article. Investigating 3197 RA titles published in 16 approved Iranian linguistic journals, this study aimed to map their pattern and portray their features of form and content. To this end, all the RA titles of the 16 Iranian journals publishing articles in applied linguistics up to 2022 (3197 titles) were collected. Then, they were analyzed for their length, presence of non-alphanumeric characters, syntactic structure, lexical diversity, as well as type and trend of information encoded.  Results show that RA titles in Iranian linguistic journals tend to be pretty long (average of 13.88) but mostly consist of non-repetitive words with high lexical diversity (.94). Authors mainly used colons (average of 82), hyphens (average of 79), and commas (average of 37) to form titles by nominal (average of 94) and compound (average of 82) grammatical structures. These titles mostly tended to embed information about the method, data, and results of the works and appeared to be highly informative. Interrelationships between features resulted in a checklist for RA title features that can be used by prospective researchers, academic writing instructors, and reviewers.
۱۷.

DVL-integrated Instructions to Enhance EFL Learners' Speaking Proficiency: The Digital Image Guide Method(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Digital visual literacy Digital Image Guide Method speaking proficiency EFL Learners

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۹
The rapid development of technology and its impact on the creation of images have made it essential to provide students with digital visual literacy (DVL) practices to help them explore and understand the images. More importantly, images have valuable connections to language learning and hold the potential for teaching English effectively. Accordingly, the present study investigated the impact of the DVL-integrated instructions in an English-speaking course on EFL learners' speaking proficiency. The Digital Image Guide (DIG) method was conducted for the DVL instructions. A total of 18 female Iranian EFL learners aged 18-27 from a national university participated in the study, undergoing ten instructional sessions. Various components, such as visual elements in several images, flyers, brochures, memes, and book covers, were introduced to the learners throughout the treatment phase. Using mixed-methods research, quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The quantitative phase employed a pretest-posttest one-group design, and data was collected through the speaking section of the Cambridge English Qualification Test. The qualitative phase collected data on the learners' attitudes toward the course. The data were analyzed using SPSS and content analysis. The findings of a paired-sample t-test examining oral proficiency test data revealed the effectiveness of the course on the speaking proficiency of the learners. The analysis of the interview data revealed that the students held positive attitudes toward the course and the instructions. The findings of this study demonstrated that teaching digital visual literacy through the Digital Visual Literacy (DVL) approach and Digital Image Guide (DIG) Method could help learners with their speaking proficiency.
۱۸.

EFL Learners’ Training on IELTS Writing Skills and Their Possible Self Construction(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Expected Possible Selves Feared Possible Selves Identity IELTS Writing Skills Responsible Possible Selves

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
There is research paucity concerning EFL learners’ self-formation, taking the role of IELTS writing skills into account. With a view to this, the present study aimed to see what a model of possible self-construction before and after training on IELTS writing skills emerges and what the psychometric properties of the emerged model are. To this end, a grounded theory approach was used. Of the IELTS candidates taking part in five IELTS preparation centers in Kerman, 90 (55 males and 35 females) candidates were selected as the participants of the present study through cluster sampling. A semi-structured interview was used to identify the possible selfof the participants. Coding procedures (i.e., open, axial, and selective coding) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. According to the results, a model of possible selfconstruction before and after training on IELTS writing skills emerged wherein before training on IELTS writing skills, feared possible selfwere more dominant than expected and responsible possible selves. Furthermore, after training on IELTS writing skills, expected and responsible possible selfwere constructed more dominantly than feared possible selves. Implications of the results for EFL curriculum planners, teachers, and learners have been discussed.
۱۹.

A Comparative Study of the Teaching Challenges Faced by Newly-hired and Experienced Teachers Teaching at Different Age Levels(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Age levels Classroom observation ILI institute Teaching challenges teaching experience

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
Iran Language Institute (ILI) plays a crucial role in teaching English in Iran and offers a comprehensive Teacher Training Course (TTC) for the teachers before their being employed. Still, these teachers encounter difficulties in different areas, but there are few studies investigating the teaching challenges of EFL teachers teaching at ILI. Thus, this study investigated the teaching challenges of newly-hired and experienced teachers, teaching at different age levels. The data were gathered data through 100 classroom observation forms belonging to 18 kids’ teachers, 47 young-adults’ teachers, and 35 adults’ teachers (69 experienced and 31 newly-hired). We also interviewed with 5 kids’ teachers, 5 young-adults’ teachers, and 6 adults’ teachers. It was revealed that young-adults’ teachers faced fewer challenges than kids’ and adults’ teachers. Besides, experienced teachers encountered fewer problems than newly-hired teachers. The results of the observation forms were different from the interviews. However, time management was the only problem which was mentioned in the interviews, observation forms, and different age levels. According to the teachers, the reason behind these challenges was the intensive syllabus, old books and videos, and teachers’ having to follow a series of fixed teaching steps.
۲۰.

Contributions of the Keyword Method, Thematic Clustering and Developing Morphological Awareness to the Iranian EFL learners’ Mastery of Low Frequency English Words(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: EFL Learners Vocabulary development strategy Keyword Method Thematic Clustering Morphological Awareness

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
This study investigated the effects of three vocabulary development strategies of keyword method, thematic clustering and developing morphological awareness on the Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary repertoire. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, sixty high-intermediate to advanced Iranian EFL learners were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and partook six online sessions of vocabulary instruction during a week. Using a pre-test and three post-tests, the vocabulary repertoire of the subjects was measured. The pre-test was administered a week before the commencement of the treatment sessions; the first post-test was administered immediately after each treatment; the second post-test was held 24 hours after each treatment and the third post-test was held one week after the end of the treatment sessions. Paribakht and Wesche (1993) model of measuring vocabulary enhancement was used to quantify the vocabulary repertoire of the subjects. Split-plot ANOVA test revealed that the subjects in the keyword group outperformed the subjects in the other two groups in all the three post-tests. Moreover, it was revealed that the thematic clustering group outperformed the developing morphological awareness group. The findings of this research may have pedagogical implications for English teachers, learners and material developers.

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