مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Middle East "
This paper examines convergence of real GDP per capita in the selected East Asian countries and this relationship with selected Middle East countries during the period 1950-2009. The reason behind this refers to the fact that East Asia countries (including China، Hong Kong، Singapore، Malaysia، Indonesia، Thailand، Japan and South Korea) have been involved in achieving success arising from regional cooperation. On the other hand، the Middle East region has been well-known in producing and exporting oil (Iran، Iraq، Kuwait، Qatar، Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates). However، these countries have had strong relationship whit East Asian countries through trade and investment relations. Overall، the question is whether such strong relationship has led to a reduction in the real per capita gap between the selected countries of the both regions. To find the answer، income departures across countries are evaluated from several panel data unit root tests. We and no evidence supporting the existence of convergence process for the income in the East Asian and Middle East countries. But in each region، convergence within countries can not reject.
Transboundary Water Management Improvements, the Way Forward in the Middle East; Case Study: Transboundary Water Management of Iran and Neighbors
Human civilizations have been created and developed adjacent water resources such as rivers. The old Mesopotamia Civilization near Euphrates - Tigris Rivers, The Egypt Civilization near Nile River, The India Civilization near Indus River and The Burned City Civilization near Hirmand (Helmand) River and Hamoon lakes are samples of aforementioned civilizations. Demise of old Civilizations occurred according to wars, dangerous disasters and illness, droughts and deficiency of water. Today, with regards to limitation of ancient empires, kingdoms and governments and creation of new small and big countries, new boundaries have been established and the importance of fresh water resources and transboundary rivers has been increased much more and after that several challenges and disputes have been occurred between countries for accessing fresh water over these resources and even some serious disputes and wars between countries have been occurred in 20th century. According to aforementioned, government's consideration and attempts of countries are toward compiling new methods for water resources management specially based on principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Also for decreasing challenges and disputes and prevention of new challenges, water treaties based on international laws, and previous historic water rights and or the necessity to friendship relations between countries could help us achieving to unique and more suitable solutions in Transboundary Waters. Iran and its neighbors have several Transboundary Rivers Basins such as Aras (with Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan), Atrak (with Turkmenistan), Arvanad (Shat-Al-Arab) (with Iraq), Hirmand and Harirud (with Afghanistan) and others. In this paper, after a brief survey on Transboundary Rivers of Middle East Countries, it is presented the experiences of Transboundary Water Management of Iran and its neighbors in several fields of implementations, challenges, successful and new required process for implementation of IWRM in the Transboundary Rivers.
The short run and long run causality between financial development and economic growth in the Middle East
حوزه های تخصصی:
Using panel data error correction models, we investigate the short- and long-run causality between financial development and economic growth in the Middle East. Three different indicators are used to measure financial developments. Generalized Least Square (GLS) method with cross-section Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) and fixed effecst in cross dimension is used to estimate the models. Our estimation results suggest that there is bidirectional causality between financial development and economic growth in both the short- and long run. The result underscores the feedback between finance and growth and hence advocates the third view that emphasizes on mutual causality between financial development and economic growth. In other words, finance can promote growth and in turn output growth will enhance financial development in the Middle East. This results can have important policy implications for both policymakers and international institutions.
Throughout the history, cities, from city states of the ancient Greece to the Islamic cities and the cities of the middle ages have been related to each other and have always been the origin of the changes of human societies. The main instances of communications and transformations can be witnessed in Islamic cities, such as Mecca, Baghdad, Basra, Isfahan, Cordova, and Cairo during the eighth to tenth centuries A.D. when they were involved in major, and mostly, global processes. The Middle East, after a long period of decline, is now the arena of globalization, and its cities are entering into the process of globalization and are increasingly connecting to the network of global cities.The aim of the present study is to explain the range of globalization in the Middle Eastern mega cities, and the position of such cities in the network of global cities. This study was conducted through descriptive-analytical method. The findings indicate that although Islamic cities have been, for a long time, the main actors at global level, they were unable to play a significant role in the process of globalization due to lack of civil institutions, colonization and the rentier nature of most regional governments. However, today, some of these cities, due to their geographical position, and friendly approach to world economy and capital have been able to gain a good position in the network of global cities.
حوزه های تخصصی:
For over two decades, the ‘information revolution’ in the Middle East has been framed overwhelmingly in terms of media, more of it, and in comparisons to mass media – from the advent of any-to-any communication to ad hoc conceptualizations such as ‘crowd-sourcing’ or ‘citizen journalism’ – that register the multiplication of voices, channels and eroding boundaries in spheres of communication. The record has expanded more than conceptualizations of its sociologies in media and communications studies. It’s time for other questions that elicit additional and more basic features of Internet practices from choices that shape individual repertoires and participation to continuities between users and producers to how actual practices scale up, which actually link micro and macro processes. To elicit these broader sociologies, and move beyond the limited social physics of ‘impact’ of the Internet on culture and lifestyles, I draw on the related sociologies of reference group and network theory, on Science-Technology-Society studies and sociolinguistics to bring disruption of existing institutions, on the one hand, and cooptation by them, on the other, into more unified theory of the play of information revolution in culture and lifestyles on the Internet.
Human rights situation in the Middle East (ME) is a central concern in contemporary political as well as academic discourses. There is a considerable amount of literature on the subject, both academic and journalistic, in the Western world. A large part of that literature blames the ME in different ways for its ‘terrible’ conception and treatment of human rights norms. They typically, do not hesitate to contextualise it as ‘Middle Eastern’ phenomenon. It is fascinating, though, that such contextualization is proposed predominantly without a substantial and appropriate context analysis. In this article, a context analysis is conducted, adopting an Area Studies Approach to identify the major features of a Middle Eastern context where human rights norms experience the region’s realities. As a result, four particular items, Islam, oil, Islamic-Western relations, and Israel are proposed as the main factors that form the real context of human rights in the Middle East. This analysis demonstrates that the influential causes of human rights violations in the ME are from both internal and external sources. The internal sources are highlighted in the dominant works of the field. It is interesting, however, that these works largely ignore the external ones. The nature of external factors, Western or attached to Western treatment of the Middle East might reveal the real motivations behind such remarkable overlooking.
The Islamic awakening evolutions in the Middle East have changed the regional discipline in different aspects and affected the policies of regional and trans-regional actors since 2011. Meanwhile, the USA, which defined widespread interest in the region since the Second World War, encountered with the worst crisis than any other state. The present study investigated the USA interests in the Middle East and tested the effects of Islamic awakening on these interests. The main question of this study was the interaction and strategy of the USA in the Middle East for Islamic awakening. The result of this study indicated that the USA has put the measures such as direct military intervention and apparent changes in the ruling elite on its agenda to manage the military presence in the region and target countries, avoid reliance on one union, promote the secular Islamist model, have proximity to civil society and Islamists in the region, strengthen the human rights discourse and advance the process of reconciliation, and manage the challenges posed by the rise of Islamic awakening in the region in the long term.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIS, gained considerable power over a short period of time and at the height of its power, Al-Baghdadi controlled more broadly than Britain And it was thought that for many years it could survive. But by the Iraqi and Syrian armies and the popular forces of these two countries and with the help of the IRGC, this terrorist group lost all of its occupied territories in Iraq and Syria. So, its collapse is important and will have significant effects on the geopolitics of the Middle East. The main subject of this article is the same. The main question of the paper is how would the ISIS collapse affect Middle Eastern politics? The answer to this question will be presented in six sections, all of which relate to the probabilities following the fall of ISIS in the Middle East. The research method of article is based on explanation method.
Abstract: Terrorism is a phenomenon that has spread to almost all parts of the world in the late 20th century and the beginning of the 21th century to the extent that many Middle East-ern countries have been subjected to such violence and unrest; in fact, with the advent of science and technology, particularly the global spread of the Internet and social net-works, the face of terrorism has been changed and in sum, not only facilitated terrorist attacks, but also introduced new lands of opportunities in the field of means and instru-ments for terrorists. Thus, the application of biological, chemical, radiological as well as cyber attacks proves that terrorist groups benefited from modernized science and ad-vanced tools root in the potentials of the globalization age. Clearly, they do so in order to improve the only process of goal attainment. The main issue of this descriptive-analytic paper concerns how new science and technology appealed in line with the de-velopment of terrorist groups actions in the Middle East? Accordingly, the hypothesis is that terrorist groups in the Middle East are constantly using modern facilities and tech-nologies in the globalization space to represent themselves and to create massive terror-ist networks. This will bring more and more propaganda for broader terrorist activities and significantly promote recruitment as well.
منبع: World Sociopolitical Studies, Winter ۲۰۱۹, Volume ۳, Issue ۱ 199 - 232
Iran and Saudi Arabia have long been engaged in heated rivalry and conflict in the Middle East. These two regional powers are both major oil-exporting countries; in major foreign policy issues, therefore, oil is used as an important tool to pursue goals. Iran and Saudi Arabia have a long history of differences on oil policies, but one of the most severe differences emerged in 2011-2016, along with escalating tensions between the two countries in the region, which heavily shaped oil market trends in this period. In an attempt to analyze these oil market trends, the main question addressed in this article concerns Saudi Arabia’s decisions to use oil as a weapon against Iran in 2011-2016. The article reveals that the perception of expanding Iranian influence in the Middle East drove Saudis to resort to oil as weapon against Iran in 2011-2016. However, restrictions on the use of this tool led Saudi Arabia to withdraw from most part of this policy, especially in the oil market. The article uses neoclassical realism approach and illustrates Saudis’ direct and indirect use of oil weapon against Iran, and analyzes the outcomes of this offensive oil policy for the two countries in particular, and for the international oil market in general.
Despite Iran’s critical relations with USA since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Canada had often played the role of an honest broker and maintained relations with Iran, con-trary to the US. Although the Canadian Government has not viewed the Iranian regime as democratic actor, it was interested in pursuing diplomacy for moderating the Iranian Policies too. Iran and Canada relations have passed the numerous ups and downs in the diplomatic, political and economic affairs. As our major question, this study aims at in-vestigating the main factors, which affect the structure of bilateral relations. Canada has controlled engagement policy limits talks with Iran down to four main subjects: Iran’s human rights situation, its regional role, notably towards Israel and the Middle East Peace Process, its nuclear program and an unfair accusation claiming a supportive role for Iran in world terrorism. Insisting on the principles of its foreign policy with its own reasonable justifications, Iran has tried to test various ways for conserving some levels of cooperation particularity economic and for keeping so the limited links with North America. Relaying on discourse analysis, the article tries to elaborate the related issues by looking at the perspectives of both parties.