Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), Volume 42, Issue 4, fall 2023 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Intelligent Scoring in an English Reading Comprehension Course Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-fuzzy Systems(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Educational Data Mining ANN NFS Subjective scoring Intelligent scoring Reading Comprehension

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳
Predicting students’ performance in a course is one of the major aims of educational data mining systems. In the present study, two and three-layer artificial neural networks (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy systems (NFS) were used to predict Iranian EFL learners’ final scores and compare them with scores given by their instructor. Sixty-six students’ scores in an English reading comprehension course comprising of five sub-scores of midterm (out of 40), quiz (out of 60), final (out of 50), class participation (out of 5) and bonus (out of 2) were used for training the systems. Two and three-layer ANNs and an NFS were trained to predict students’ final scores using training data. Researchers compared the students’ final scores given by their instructor and those achieved through the ANNs and NFS. The results showed that the NFS could predict and deliver scores that were closer to the linear sum of students’ scores. Moreover, three-layer ANN had a better performance than the two-layer ANN. According to these results, data mining techniques could deliver an accurate estimate of students' abilities in a particular course.

Exploring the Role of Reflective Practice in Activating Novice EFL Teachers’ Noticing(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Novice EFL teachers noticing reflective practice teacher education

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Reflective practice and noticing can be regarded as two essential concerns for novice teachers’ survival and development in their first practices. Therefore, this study was an attempt to explore how reflective practices activate novice English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ noticing. To that end, we conducted an instrumental case study to explore the role of reflective practice among Iranian novice EFL teachers in activating their noticing. An inductive-deductive thematic analysis of the data collected through teachers’ portfolios and semi-structured interviews indicated that novice teachers’ noticing could be activated and sharpened through teachers’ personal, cognitive, and professional developments addressed by reflective practice. Furthermore, the findings showed that there are relationships among novice teachers’ personal, cognitive, and professional developments and the components of teacher noticing, including framing, perceptual activities and exploration, and interaction, leading to sharpening novice EFL teachers’ noticing. Hence, it can be concluded reflective practice can activate novice EFL teachers' noticing, impacting their professional development through framing, interaction, perceptual activities, and exploration. The study has implications for EFL teacher education programs, where teacher educators can help teachers develop critical reflection skills to address problems in their classrooms.

Unpacking EFL Teachers’ Understandings and Strategies of Self-Awareness Competence in the Classroom(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: CASEL EFL Classrooms EFL Teachers’ Understandings and Strategies Self-Awareness Competence

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The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) defines self-awareness competence as the ability to assess one's emotions, values, and skills realistically. Utilizing this definition as a theoretical framework, this qualitative study aimed to explore EFL teachers' perceptions and strategies regarding self-awareness competence in the classroom. To accomplish this goal, 19 EFL teachers from Iran were recruited through convenience sampling and took part in one semi-structured written interview and four focus group interviews to exchange their perspectives and strategies for developing their self-awareness competence. Adopting the routine analytical steps in grounded theory, i.e., open, axial, and selective coding, the study identified three key components for the participants’ self-awareness perceptions: knowing one’s emotions, having a growth mindset, and having a realistic sense of self-perception. The participants also outlined two primary categories of self-reflection strategies - practical and cognitive - to enhance their self-awareness competence. It was found that reflective practices were essential tools for cultivating the self-awareness competence of EFL teachers. Additionally, the study unveiled that EFL teachers' attitudes and strategies toward self-awareness competence were harmonious. Ultimately, the findings demonstrated promising prospects for future EFL teachers to enhance their personalized reflective strategies.

Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on EFL Learners’ Gains in Implicit Grammar Knowledge(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Aptitude-Treatment Interaction implicit grammar knowledge working memory instructional conditions

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The area of Individual Differences (IDs) and their interactions with instructional conditions have recently been a point of interest in second language acquisition. However, the effect of such interaction on aural implicit grammar knowledge has not been researched exhaustively. This study thus examined the interactive effects of aptitude and treatment conditions on implicit grammar knowledge as elicited aurally. Grammar knowledge was operationalized as the ability to comprehend past/present simple passive verbs. To this end, 120 EFL learners were randomly assigned to four groups: three teacher-generated experimental (Isolated Form-Focused Instruction, henceforth FFI, Integrated FFI, and Incidental) conditions, each lasting for six treatment sessions, and a control group receiving the same content with no instruction. Initially, learners took a pre-test and cognitive tests (LLAMA-D, LLAMA-F, and LSPAN). They then received the treatments, and three days after the treatments, they took an Aural Timed Grammaticality Judgment Test as a measure of implicit grammar knowledge. Results of a general linear model revealed a significant effect for treatment. Additionally, LSPAN was found to mediate the effectiveness of instruction, with the highest effect on implicit grammar knowledge under the Isolated FFI condition. Post-hoc analyses also demonstrated that instruction made a significant difference compared with no instruction, though, in comparison with other conditions, Integrated FFI proved to be more effective. Results provide EFL teachers and curriculum developers with awareness concerning the interaction between instruction and cognitive differences. For improving the effectiveness of instruction and acquiring implicit knowledge, cognitive tasks, especially those boosting working memory, are suggested.

The Role of Situational Interest and Personality Traits in Language Learners’ Transformative Engagement in Academic Reading(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Transformative Engagement Situational Interest personality traits Disciplines

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The current study primarily explored the link between EAP students’ L2 situational interest (SI) and academic reading transformative engagement (TE). Moreover, it explored SI and its subcomponents, triggered SI and maintained SI as predictors of TE. We also sought the role of different disciplines as moderators of the relationship between SI and TE. Finally, we investigated the big five personality traits as predictors of TE. The participants of this study were 160 undergraduate EAP students recruited through quota sampling. A quantitative research method with a correlational design was employed to conduct the study. Two questionnaires were adopted to measure academic reading TE and personality traits, and a questionnaire was adapted from math SI to English learning SI to assess the students’ L2 SI. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship between students’ L2 SI and their academic reading TE. SI significantly predicted TE, and between its subcomponents, only maintained SI strongly and significantly predicted TE. Neither the difference between the disciplinary groups in terms of students’ TE nor the interaction of the comparative disciplinary groups by SI was significant. The result indicated the agreeableness trait as the sole predictor of TE. Our findings have fruitful pedagogical implications discussed in the conclusion section.

Modeling the Relationship between Revised L2 Motivational Self System, L2 Emotions, Motivated Learning Behavior, and L2 Proficiency(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Boredom Eager L2 Use L2 motivational self-system L2 proficiency Regulatory Focus Theory

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L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005, 2009) holds a remarkable potency in explaining the long-term routes to L2 acquisition. Meanwhile, due to the prevalence of dynamic systems perspective, the theory has been awaited to account for the affective and cognitive aspects of L2 learning. The present study attempted to test an integrated model to examine the correlations between components of the revised L2MSS, L2 emotions of Enjoyment and Boredom, Intended Learning Effort, Vigilant and Eager L2 Use, and L2 Proficiency utilizing structural equation modeling. The data was obtained from 350 TOEFL test takers in ETS official centers in Iran. The results demonstrated the strongest prediction of Intended Learning Effort by Ought L2 Self/Own, coming next to the Ideal L2 Self/Own and Ideal L2 Self/Other. Ideal L2 Self/Own and L2 Learning Experience were positive predictors of L2 Enjoyment, whereas Ought L2 Self/Other and L2 Learning Experience had a positive and negative impact on L2 Boredom, respectively; L2 Enjoyment predicted Intended Learning Effort and Eager L2 Use positively, whereas L2 Intended Learning Effort Vigilant L2 Use were predicted negatively and positively by Boredom, respectively. Moreover, Eager L2 Use and Intended Learning Effort were positive predictors of L2 Proficiency; however, Vigilant L2 Use was conversely related to L2 Proficiency. Overall, the findings illustrate the superiority of a promotion orientation to L2 learning and the equal importance of quality and quantity of the Motivated Learning Behavior, which has significant pedagogical implications in terms of motivational and self-regulatory learning strategies in designing and managing L2 classroom tasks.


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