Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), Volume 41, Issue 2, Spring 2022 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



The Effect of Online Interaction on the Use of Discourse Markers: A Comparison of Two Flipped Classes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: online interaction flipped learning written discourse Discourse Markers EFL Learners

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Discourse Markers (DMs) are pragmatic ties representing the relationship between different concepts in a discourse. As Fraser (2009) puts it, these lexical expressions are free morphemes that signal a special message about or in addition to the basic message. Given the importance of DMs in the written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL) learners, this study investigated the effectiveness of two methods of interaction in improving Iranian EFL learners’ use of discourse markers (DMs) in writing compositions. The data were drawn from comparing the compositions of two virtual groups of EFL learners who were exposed to two types of online interactions within which different flipped instructional activities were assigned. The data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results showed that the learners who engaged in online discussions used higher numbers of DM in terms of both type and token. The results also showed an increase in the length of compositions in the case of those groups who embarked on online interactions and discussions of flipped content. The findings suggest that once supported by the provision of flipped content, online interactions help create authentic opportunities for learner-centered discussions, which lead to an increased authenticity level of the EFL learners’ language production. The findings might also underscore the significance of flipped content and online interactions in developing other aspects of EFL learners’ pragmatic competence.

Types and Tokens of Lexical Bundles in Civil Engineering Students' Genre-Specific English Articles(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: AntConc EAP Genre Analysis Lexical Bundles

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The present study sought to find the most frequent lexical bundles, particularly the token of the bundles, in the introduction and discussion sections of Civil Engineering research articles. It also aimed to examine the forms or types of lexical bundles found in the introduction and discussion sections of the articles. To this end, a quantitative analysis was performed on the use of two-to-five-word lexical bundles, followed by a qualitative analysis of their functions and structures based on the structural taxonomy of lexical bundles proposed by Biber, Conrad, and Cortes (2004). AntConc, as a corpus analysis tool, was employed for the extraction of lexical bundles as well as the examination of their types and tokens. Likewise, concordancers and word and keyword frequency generators were used for the analysis of word clusters and lexical bundles.   A total of 790 lexical bundles in the introduction section and 279 lexical bundles in the discussion section were analyzed based on a set of pre-established criteria (e.g., the frequency cut-off of 20 per million words) . The findings revealed that the lexical bundles consisted largely of two-word strings, and the five-word strings were the fewest. Regarding the structural classification of bundles, phrasals were the most frequent ones, whereas clausal on es were the least frequent ones. The study carries important implications, especially for materials developers and course designers who may hopefully benefit from the results in designing EAP materials finely tailored to the linguistic needs of Civil Engineering students.

The Comparative Effect of Rehearsal, Strategic, and Online Planning on the Fluency, Accuracy, Complexity, Lexical Variety, and Attentional Allocation of EFL Learners’ Argumentative Writing(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: Accuracy Attentional Allocation Complexity fluency Lexical variety online planning Rehearsal planning Strategic Planning writing skill

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This study examined the effect of rehearsal, strategic, and online planning on the intermediate undergraduate EFL learners’ writing complexity, accuracy, fluency (CAF), lexical variety, and the cognitive psychological performance of attentional allocation to linguistic aspects during planning . To this end, 80 intermediate university students were randomly divided into three experimental groups and one control group. The participants’ performance was compared based on measures of Wigglesworth and Storch’s (2009) fluency, Storch and Wigglesworth’s (2007) accuracy, Foster and Skehan’s (1999) complexity, McKee , Malvern, and Richards’ (2000) vocd-D model of lexical diversity. The study focused on rehearsal, strategic, and online planning in argumentative writing tasks. Retrospective interviews were conducted right after task performance to examine the participants' attentional allocation under three planning-time conditions. It was revealed that rehearsal task planning resulted in higher CAF and lexical variety in comparison to the other groups. Noticeable variation was also evidenced in the participants’ attentional allocation in terms of CAF across different time planning conditions. It was also shown that the learners paid more attention to the conceptualization of ideas during pre-task planning through sentences or clauses while performing a task. Little attention was paid to formulizing complex or accurate utterances. The findings have numerous pedagogical implications for EFL teachers, university instructors, and EFL students.

Investigating Investment for Teaching English in Iranian Upper Secondary Schools: A Critical Needs Analysis Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: investment model Identity Ideology Capital critical needs analysis Social Class

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This study applied a critical needs analysis approach to investigate investment (language learning commitment) needs and challenges of EFL upper secondary school learners from different socioeconomic backgrounds and school settings (privileged, middle-privileged, and less-privileged schools). To this end, Darvin and Norton`s (2015) model of investment was used as our analytic framework. The study took advantage of a mixed-methods approach. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire with 53 items and one open-ended question was administered to 759 learners from different school settings in Mashhad. Also, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 24 learners for triangulation. The findings of the questionnaire and interviews revealed that speaking accurately, fluently, and professionally was the main priority for learners` investing in EFL learning. However, privileged, middle-privileged, and less-privileged upper secondary school learners perceived their needs differently regarding investment in English language learning. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between privileged, middle-privileged, and less-privileged school learners in terms of identity, they perceived their needs significantly different in terms of ideology and capital.The findings can bring high school learners` investment needs into focus and help the educational setting improve.

Developmental Potential of Self-Assessment Reports for High School Students' Writing Skills: A Qualitative Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Microgenetic Development Analysis Self-assessment Report Thematic Coding Analysis Writing skills

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Though many studies have been conducted on the effects of self-assessment on L2 learning over the last decade, none has investigated how self-assessment reports lead to improving L2 learning. Thus, this study aims to disclose how self-assessment reports improve Iranian high school students' writing skills and their perceptions of the effectiveness of self-assessment reports in cultivating writing skills. For this purpose, the researchers selected o ne intact grade 11 class (n = 21) at Shahed public high school in Borujerd, Iran. During the instruction lasting 15 sessions held twice a week, a self-assessment report was designed based on Nunan's (2004) template and given to the students to assess their writings weekly. Then, a focus group interview was run with six students. Findings documented a significant improvement in the students' writing skills in terms of content, language, organization, and task requirements. Additionally, the focus group interview results yielded four themes: raising students' awareness of evaluation criteria, making students more self-regulated, letting students have a voice in their academic destiny, and increasing students' motivation to write. In light of the findings, a number of conclusions are drawn, and several implications are put forward.

A Model of EFL Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Data-Driven Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: EFL Teachers Pedagogical Content Knowledge grounded theory contextual conditions intervening conditions

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Since its introduction in 1980, the concept of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) has attracted much attention. Although many studies have been conducted in science and mathematics, there are insufficient studies to capture the PCK of EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers. Accordingly, the present study aimed to unearth EFL teachers' PCK through a grounded theory approach in the Iranian context. To this end, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 English teachers at senior high schools in three provinces of Ilam, Lorestan, and Kermanshah. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using coding procedures. The results yielded five main dimensions of EFL teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: English language proficiency knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, student knowledge, curriculum knowledge, and assessment knowledge. Data analysis also revealed the sources of EFL teachers' PCK construction and demonstrated that contextual and intervening conditions influence EFL teachers' PCK enactment. The findings may have theoretical and practical implications for high school EFL teachers, educators, and education programs.


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