Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), Volume 41, Issue 1, Winter 2022 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Validation of Spiritual and Emotional Intelligence questionnaire and Predictability Power of the Former for EFL Learners’ Performance(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Spiritual Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Exploratory Factor Analysis multiple regression analysis confirmatory factor analysis EFL Learners

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While the bulk of literature repletes with studies on emotional intelligence and its effect on teachers' performance and students' academic achievement, few have been released as to the potency of the factors that can foster emotional intelligence inside classrooms. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the extent to which spiritual intelligence could be a predictor of emotional intelligence. The data were collected through a merger of the Brief Emotional Intelligence Scale (BEIS-10) and Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI).  The evolved 34-item questionnaire was translated into Persian to ensure maximum comprehension of participants. The sample of this study consisted of 847 undergraduate Iranian EFL learners from two provinces in Iran. Three phases were in this study. First, an exploratory factor analysis of SISRI-24 was performed. Second, confirmatory factor analysis of both inventories, individually, was done by IBM SPSS AMOS. This was followed by CFA of the 34-item questionnaire. Last, multiple regression analysis was modeled to find the predictive relationships. The results of PCA revealed a three-factor model of SISRI (18 statements). CFA also verified both inventories under investigation. The model fit estimated of the 34-item questionnaire was sufficiently adequate to approve the model. Multiple regression analysis also indicated that critical existential thinking could predict both appraisal and regulation of own emotions as well as utilization of emotions. Likewise, conscious state expansion could predict the utilization of emotions. It was also found that personal meaning production could predict the appraisal of other emotions. 

A Comparative Intercultural Analysis of Two English School Textbooks from Iran and Egypt(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Intercultural Analysis Textbook analysis Vision I Hello I EFL Curriculum

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The present study aimed to analyze two secondary English school textbooks from Iran and Egypt to see to what extent these two middle-eastern countries with similar religious, historical, and social backgrounds include culture in their official textbooks.  For this purpose, Vision I , the Iranian secondary school textbook, and Hello I, the Egyptian English school textbook, were chosen. Four aspects of culture (topics, cultural dimensions, international/intercultural issues, and cultural references) were investigated in these two textbooks. The results show that Vision I has a more limited number of cultural content compared to Hello I . However, a lack of in-depth cultural information could be observed in both textbooks. Thus, it is necessary to take special measures concerning Vision I by including a greater array of cultural content and giving this content depth and detail. For Hello I , the cultural content needs to exceed in quality. The present study's findings might be insightful for syllabus designers, textbook publishers, and teachers to reconsider the essential role of culture qualitatively and quantitatively.

The Effect of Mindfulness-Cultivation Intervention on EFL Learners’ Reflective Thinking, Positive Orientation, and Language Achievement(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: EFL Learners Mindfulness mindfulness-cultivating intervention positive orientation reflective thinking

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The present article experimentally studied the impact of mindfulness-cultivating intervention on various dimensions of learning. The mindfulness-cultivation techniques employed in the experimental group involved observance of all experience, analyzing, planning, judging, reasoning, and fantasizing (van Vreeswijk, et al., 2014). Furthermore, Pirson et al.’s (2012) contention that mindfulness encompasses four facets of attributes:; novelty producing, novelty seeking, engagement, and flexibility informed the selection of techniques. Learners’ level of proficiency was checked before the treatment. Before and after the treatment, three questionnaires were employed: 1) Langer Mindfulness Scale 2) Reflective thinking questionnaire 3) Positivity Scale. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results demonstrated, approximately 50 percent of variance in reflective thinking was predicted by these techniques. Furthermore, the results via independent samples t -test demonstrated that positive orientation and language achievement promoted in the experimental group, thus implying that the intervention executed in the experimental group was effective in enhancing these two factors as well.

The Effect of Augmented Reality on Adult EFL Learners’ Attitudes and Motivation: A Mixed Methods Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: augmented reality Attitudes motivation CALL Mall

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Language education, among most other aspects of life, has been affected by the ever-advancing technology. To be most efficient, educators need to know the affordances technology brings to the teaching and learning process. Augmented Reality is a recent technology that can be accessed through the Internet and mobile phones and brings several advantages to the language classroom. This mixed-methods study aims to examine the effect of Augmented Reality on adult language learners’ attitudes and motivation. To this end, data were obtained through a questionnaire administered to 40 adult EFL learners in Iran of different ages and educational levels who participated in a pre-test post-test design, followed by a semi-structured interview. Results confirmed that adult learners, disregarding their age and educational background, benefit from AR in the sense that it enhances their attitudes and motivation towards learning the language. The themes revealed in the interviews clarified that this enhancement is because AR is exciting to learners since it gets them engaged in the learning process and attracts them through gamification. Results of the current study have implications for language specialists and teachers to design and incorporate AR-infused materials in teaching to increase learners’ motivation, and consequently, their learning.

Iranian EFL Teachers’ and Policymakers’ Perceptions of Success in High-school Classes: A Critical Exploratory Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: ELT Education Policy Iranian High School EFL Teachers Perceptions Successful English Teaching

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This study intended to explore the perceptions of Iranian high-school English teachers and the perspectives of policymakers on success in teaching English. Data were collected through questionnaires and curriculum documents. To this end, one-hundred-twenty Iranian high-school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers contributed to the research. National Lesson Plan and Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE) were used to explore policymakers’ perspectives on success in teaching English at the high school level. The data were analyzed using both the Constant Comparative Method (Charmaz, 2006) and template coding to realize similarities and differences between the answers. General themes and patterns were recognized and discussed. The results of this study showed that while the teachers tended to improve students’ communication skills, policymakers must also be aware of the fact that change is an all-inclusive phenomenon demanding full cooperation and commitment from a host of policy workers. In conclusion, teachers’ perceptions of success in teaching English and expectations of educational change should be modified in such a way that the teachers see the importance and relevance of educational change to their professional success. In this respect, most Iranian high school EFL teachers are needed to modernize, i.e., to provide them with valuable pre-service and in-service courses with communicative frameworks that they can operate in their classrooms. The findings can be helpful for EFL teachers to reflect on their perceptions and accord them with their practices, use communicative activities that are more constructive in their classrooms.

English Language Teachers’ Autonomy for Professional Development: A Narrative Account of Self-direction, Capacity, and Freedom(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: English language teachers teacher autonomy professional development self-directed professional development Narrative

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Despite many studies on the concept of learner autonomy and the relationship between teacher autonomy (TA) and learner autonomy, scant attention has been devoted to TA on its own. To bridge this gap, the present study used narrative accounts to discover language teachers’ autonomy in terms of self-directed professional development (PD), capacity for self-directed PD, and freedom from control over PD. To this end, eight English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers narrated their past stories regarding these three dimensions. The thematic analysis of their narratives showed that their main activities for self-directed PD included peer observation, peer coaching, making use of technology, continuing education, action research, interacting with professionals, and attending workshops. Regarding capacity for their self-directed PD, the teachers claimed they had the capacity and willingness to self-direct their teacher learning. External support, experience, motivational factors, and reading books and articles were instrumental in teachers’ capacity development. Moreover, the findings revealed that although teachers viewed financial problems, conference attendance, lack of time to do PD activities, and rules of the institutes as obstacles to their freedom over PD, they employed strategies to change them into opportunities. The findings suggest implications for teachers and teacher educators to acquaint themselves with different PD strategies and to raise teachers’ awareness about the value of PD, respectively. The findings might bear implications for institute managers as well.


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