Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching English as a Second Language

Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), Volume 42, Issue 1, Winter 2023 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



EFL Teachers’ Individual Development Planning Model: A Data-Driven Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: EFL Teachers Individual Development Planning grounded theory contextual conditions intervening conditions

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Despite a strong background in education and human resources, teachers’ Individual Development Planning (IDP), as a reflective tool for further learning, has remained untouched in the domain of ELT. Therefore, the current study is an attempt to investigate EFL teachers’ IDP in light of the grounded theory approach in an Iranian context. To do so, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 17 expert participants selected through purposive sampling in the field of IDP from all over Iran. Interviews were transcribed and labeled as open, axial, and selective codes. The results led to 9 main categories of EFL teachers’ IDP: identifying EFL teachers’ current status, identifying EFL teachers’ duties, tasks, and educational needs, school and teachers’ mutual agreement, setting goals, providing resources, planning for an IDP, implementing an IDP, self-evaluation, and reformative acts. Data also unveiled the causal, contextual, and intervening conditions in the way of developing and implementing an IDP. The findings of the study can have theoretical and practical implications for EFL teachers, school principals, and educational policymakers.

Gender Identity in Verb Type Occurrences: A Study of ‘Active’ Series(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Gender Identity gender role Reading Verb types

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The present research was an attempt to investigate gender portrayal represented in EFL reading textbooks. Using Johnson and Young’s (2002) verb taxonomy , the reading passages of the four books of the Active Skills for Reading series were selected as the corpus. Qualitative content analysis was employed to identify the type and frequency of verb categories including, action , competition/destruction , agency/control , limited, state, feeling and nurturing , and negative verbs. Based on the results of statistical analysis, no significant difference was demonstrated in frequencies of verb types assigned to each gender other than in Action and Limited verb elements which were biased toward males. Moreover, it was revealed that males were assigned to some social roles which were traditionally attributed to female characters. In addition, the findings revealed that there was no significant difference between doer vs. receiver roles allocated to male and female characters. The results of the study can shed more light on micro and macro policymaking in the area of education, language teaching, curriculum development, and materials preparation for EFL courses.

The Influence of Lexically-Based Language Teaching on Task Response and Coherence and Cohesion Aspects of Writing Proficiency of Iranian University EFL Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Coherence and cohesion Lexically-based language teaching Task response writing proficiency

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The current quasi-experimental research aimed at exploring the influence of Lexically-Based Language Teaching (LBLT) on task response and coherence and cohesion aspects of the writing proficiency of Iranian university EFL learners. The research sample of the study included sixty male and female university students (N = 60) attending two university classes. They were selected by using a convenient sampling procedure and were assigned to experimental and control groups. To ascertain the groups' homogeneity at the beginning of the study, the researchers gave two groups the Key English Test (KET). Prior to starting treatment, two groups took the pretest writing task. While the participants comprising the experimental group were instructed consistent with the lexical approach's underlying practices and activities, those constituting the control group were instructed based on conventional techniques applied to present essay writing in universities. At the end of the experiment, the posttest writing, identical to the pretest, was given to both groups. To compare the two groups' mean scores with respect to coherence and cohesion and task response aspects of post-test writing, One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and independent T-test were drawn upon. Version 20 th of the SPSS software was applied for this end. The attained results were indicative of a significantly positive influence of the lexically-based language teaching on both coherence and cohesion and task response aspects of writing proficiency. However, the attained improvement was greater in the task response aspect. The findings suggest some implications for English language teachers and university instructors.

Iranian English Learners' Perception of Native and Non-native English Teachers in New Zealand and Iran: A Multilingual Identity Perspective(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Cross-actional influence of context multilingual identity thematic analysis

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This study is a longitudinal mixed method design investigating Iranian English learners' perception of native-speaker English teachers (NSETS) and non-native-speaker English teachers (NNSETS) in New Zealand and Iran within the conceptual framework of Kumaravadivelu (2003), Rudolf (2018), and Benson el al. (2013).  A semi-structured interview and a questionnaire (consisting of 21 Likert items and 3 open-ended questions) were used twice ten months apart in each context. An online narrative interview was employed in 2022 to supplement the data. Non-parametric data analyses were run on the Likert items. Several coding schemes were developed and a thematic analysis was employed. Findings revealed that NNSETS in New Zealand and NSETS in Iran were perceived by the learners as more effective in guiding their students toward developing a multilingual identity. This is interpreted as the "cross-actional influence of context in language learners' perception of teachers regarding L2 identity development in students" in this research. The findings also showed a shift in students' perception from NSETS to NNSETS in both contexts over time due to the better instructional strategies of NNSETS for teaching reading, listening, grammar, and their deeper understanding of the student's needs. This study informs language teachers, teacher educators, and education authorities on 1) the cross-actional influence of context on students' perception of teachers regarding L2 identity development as a normal procedure, 2) the pattern of a shift from NSETS to NNSETS due to the qualifications of NNSETS should be considered in teacher training programs to make the most proficient language teachers accordingly.

A Video Game-based Paragraph Writing Instruction vs. Teacher-based Writing Instruction: Examining L2 Learners’ Perceptions through Dynamic Assessment(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: writing Process-based Approach dynamic assessment Video game Artificial Intelligence

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Game-based learning and the use of Artificial Intelligence in education is a powerful way to enhance learning and provide content that has been underrated in the Iranian context. This study designed an educational video game under the name of Lost p to improve learners’ writing ability based on a process based-approach within Dynamic Assessment context. Thus, the researcher employed experimental design and used the designed video game as a medium of instruction for the experimental group. The control group received a teacher-oriented method and both groups received feedback and corrections based on the Aljaafreh & Lantolf (1994) self-regulatory scale. The result of the study shows that the experimental group outperformed learners in the control class. We found that teaching paragraph writing rules, such as drafting, getting idea techniques, topic sentence development, and integrating them with the elements of the game were entertaining for the gamified group. To explore players’ attitudes toward the game, a semi-structured interview was conducted that showed differences between gamified and non-gamified writing tasks in the post-test phase of the research since the experimental group’s writing scores were enhanced in the second phase of the study. Moreover, this study suggests L2 learners and teachers can adapt game thinking and elements of games to their educational practice.

Classroom Interaction, Learner Autonomy, Pedagogical Scaffolding, and Learner Identity: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Classroom interaction learner autonomy Learner Identity Learner Needs Pedagogical Scaffolding

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The newly demanded language learning methodologies can exhibit their maximum efficiency if they are monitored meticulously and regularly in their particular contexts of application. The prerequisite would be putting educational programs in the spotlight and identifying the decisive elements of each learning context. Accordingly, based on the solicited responses from 638 students, in this study, a scale was developed and validated to inquire into the participants’ perceptions about the extent to which classroom interaction, learner needs, learner autonomy, pedagogical scaffolding, and learner identity could regulate learning activities in Iranian academic contexts. Importing the survey results to AMOS 22, we tested and validated a hypothetical model of the addressed variables. The validated model supported the interwoven relationships of the study variables and the pivotal role of interaction in regulating, predicting, shaping, and explaining the behaviors of other variables. The results can raise awareness of the sociocultural manifestations of classroom interaction, learner needs, learner autonomy, pedagogical scaffolding, and learner identity in Iranian TEFL programs and encourage highly positive developments and generally accepted practices to improve the status quo. Decision-makers and stakeholders can also gain a detailed insight into how sociocultural variables interrelate and accordingly coordinate their social and educational policies and measures.


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