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نمایش ۱ تا ۱۰ مورد از کل ۱۰ مورد.
Knowledge representation, defined as the way individuals structure their knowledge and cognitive processing of events and the associated sense-making processes, is believed to influence teachers’ reasoning/thinking skills. While extensively researched in mainstream teacher education, this line of inquiry is essentially lacking in the L2 teacher education literature. To fill some of the void, the present study explored 36 – 18 novice and 18 experienced – EFL teachers’ representations of classroom management events. The teachers were presented with 8 fragments involving management problems in a novice teacher’s performance and were asked to provide their representations of the scenes. To explore likely differences between the two groups’ representations, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Data analyses indicated that experienced teachers provided a significantly higher number of representations across majority of the categories of the coding scheme, except for disciplinary issues which were of prime concern to novice teachers. The implications of the study for pre-service and in-service teacher education are discussed.
A Mixed-Method Inquiry into Three Techniques of Data-gathering in Language Teacher Supervision: Video-taping, Audio-taping and Field notes
Teacher supervision has been one of the most researched, though debated, topics in education over the past several decades (Baily, 2009). Conducting a high quality supervision can be of substantial assistance in improving teachers’ instructional performance. This study was conducted to investigate the comparative effects of using three supervision techniques of data gathering including field note, audio-taping and video-taping on instructional performances of teachers and investigate the engaged parties’ (teachers’ and supervisors’) attitudes towards utilizing them in language teacher supervision. To this end, 12 novice teachers with less than one year of teaching experience and two experienced supervisors with 12 years of teaching and supervising experience participated in the study. The teachers were divided into three groups each supervised through one of the aforementioned techniques. The results revealed that video-taping technique of teacher supervision has the most significant effects on teachers’ instructional performance. Besides, teachers and supervisors have positive attitudes towards applying this technique for the data-gathering phase of supervision.
Conceptions of Research Publication among Iranian Doctoral Students of Applied Linguistics: Cherish the Wish to Publish or Rush to Perish
The competitive academic atmosphere of the higher education worldwide along with the current trend in producing research-oriented knowledge by universities has made research publication the first priority for doctoral students. In this study, we addressed the conceptions of purpose, process, and product of publishing research articles among Iranian doctoral students of applied linguistics. To this end, thirty students were interviewed and the data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The findings demonstrated that doctoral students publish papers to prepare a competition-winning resume, significantly contribute to the ELT community, turn into life-long learners and problem-solvers, and fulfill their course requirements. Furthermore, with regard to the research publication process, they highlighted the role of mixed-methods in spotting real problems in context and getting their papers published in prestigious journals. Additionally, the students believed that publishing in international journals grants them the opportunity to gain international recognition, attract an international audience, receive expert quality feedback from professional reviewers, publish in journals specific in focus and scope, and avoid publishing in cheap predatory journals. Finally, the findings suggest that the doctoral students need more systematic coaching to successfully conduct and publish their research.
Accountability concerns in language education call for the development of more valid and authentic measures of assessment. In light of these concerns, performance assessment has received increasing interest in the context of teacher education programs and teacher licensing over the last decade. In Iran, a recent policy adopted by Farhangian University aims at assessing the professional competencies of its ELT graduates by requiring them to go through a performance assessment as part of the licensing requirements. Mounting concerns regarding the validity of traditional tests used for teacher certification (Mitchell, Robinson, Plake, & Knowles, 2001) have motivated Farhangian University to develop its own performance assessment. Therefore, the present study explored the components of the performance assessment through detailed analysis of the Curriculum Document of the English Major, review of literature, and investigation of the stakeholders' perspectives. To this end, in this exploratory study, convenience, purposive, and cluster sampling procedures were used for the selection of the teacher educators, student-teachers, and mentor teachers. Then, in-depth interviews were conducted with the stakeholders. Finally, based on the content analysis of the above-mentioned sources which resulted in a strong agreement, a performance assessment scheme with seventeen items was developed. However, results of the factor analysis yielded a thirteen-factor performance assessment scheme to be used as the criterion for assessing the professional competencies of student-teachers.
Autonomy-Supportive Teaching, Willingness to Communicate in English, Motivation, and English Speaking Self-Efficacy among EFL Learners: A Structural Equation Modelling Study
This study examines the potential connections among learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in English, their perceptions of autonomy-supportive teaching and two individual difference variables, i.e. motivation and English speaking self-efficacy. Two hundred and five Iranian EFL learners responded to four questionnaires. The data obtained from the collected instruments were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings revealed significant positive paths from autonomy-supportive teaching to motivation, WTC in English, and English speaking self-efficacy. Further significant paths were found leading from motivation to WTC and from English speaking self-efficacy to motivation. The findings also indicated that autonomy-supportive teaching style and English speaking self-efficacy could indirectly affect learners’ WTC through the mediation of motivation. Furthermore, autonomy-supportive teaching was found to indirectly predict learners’ motivation through the mediating role of self-efficacy. The implications of the study for teachers and teacher educators are discussed.
این مطالعه به بررسی نگرش معلمان زبان انگلیسی نسبت به بازخورد اصلاحی شفاهی، بکارگیری آنها در دو سطح مبتدی و متوسط، و میزان تناسب نگرشها و بکارگیری آنان در این زمینه پرداخته است. بدین منظور، با معلمان مصاحبه شد و 40 ساعت مشاهده کلاسی در دو سطح انجام شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که معلم ها در به کارگیری راهبردهای بازخوردی شفاهی در دو سطح تفاوت قابل توجهی داشتند، به طوری که راهبردهای ""اصلاح صریح""، ""فراخوانی""، ""سرنخ فرا زبانی""، ""درخواست توضیح"" و ""تکرار"" در سطح مبتدی بسامد بیشتری داشتند. علاوه بر این، تفاوت چندانی در تصحیح اشکالات دستوری، تلفظی و لغوی در دو سطح مشاهده نشد. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که در برخی موارد، نگرش و بکارگیری معلمان با هم مغایرت داشت که از جمله آن میتوان به حساسیت معلمان نسبت به اشکالات زبان آموزان، به کارگیری روشهای مختلف بازخورد اصلاحی، استفاده از بازخورد اصلاحی صریح و غیر صریح، اصلاح سریع و یا با تاخیر اشکالات زبان آموزان، اصلاح اشکالات کلی و جزیی، تمرکز بر روی اهداف زبانی متفاوت و توجه به تصحیح اشکالات توسط خود فرد، همکلاس و معلم اشاره کرد. در پایان این مقاله، به برخی از مفاهیم آموزشی مرتبط با این موضوع اشاره شده است.
مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: راهبردهای فراگفتمانی و الگوهای نقل قولی: عناصر هویت نویسنده در مقالات پژوهشی بین المللی و داخلی و زیرمجموعه رشته های زبان شناسی کاربردی به زبان انگلیسی (Metadiscourse Strategies and Citation Patterns as Resources of Authorial Identity in Research Articles across International/Local Journals and Applied Linguistics Subdisciplines)
این مقاله ابعاد بلاغی هویت نویسنده را در غالب راهبردهای فراگفتمانی راهنمایی/ تعاملی و الگوهای نقل قول پیوندی/غیر پیوندی در مقالات انگلیسی ایرانی و بین المللی بررسی کرده است. علاوه بر این، تغییر عناصر فراگفتمانی و نقل قولی در بخش ""بحث"" مقالات پژوهشی بین المللی در زیرمجموعه رشته های آزمون سازی، تدریس زبان انگلیسی و تحلیل گفتمان مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. به همین منظور، نمونه ای متشکل از بخش ""بحث"" 60 مقاله معتبر داخلی و بین المللی جمع آوری شد. مقایسه این متن ها نشان داد که مقالات داخلی از راهبردهای فراگفتمانی راهنمایی استفاده می کنند، حال آنکه نویسندگان مقالات بین المللی تمایل بیشتری برای به کارگیری نشانه های فراگفتمانی تعاملی دارند. در زمینه رابطه میان هویت نویسنده و الگوهای نقل قولی، مشخص شد که نویسندگان ایرانی از الگوهای نقل قولی پیوندی و نویسندگان مقالات بین المللی از الگوهای نقل قولی غیرپیوندی استفاده می کنند. این تفاوت ها شاید به علت کم توجهی نویسندگان ایرانی به استانداردهای متداول نگارش علمی، کمبود آموزش یا ارتقا آگاهی متناسب در این زمینه، عدم پذیرش آشکارسازی هویت نویسنده در متن و نفوذ هنجارهای اجتماعی-فرهنگی داخلی است. همچنین، نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که تغییرات زیرمجموعه ای نیز در راستای عناصر فراگفتمانی تعاملی و الگوهای نقل قولی غیرپیوندی بوده است. این امر شاید به علت وجود اهداف ارتباطی معین، مخاطبان متن های علمی، محدوده پژوهش و دستاوردهای نهایی آن باشد. نتیجه این پژوهش با کاربردهایی برای دانشجویان مقاطع تحصیلات تکمیلی همراه است به نحوی که با ابعاد کلان ژانر و خرد گفتمانی برای نگارش بخش ""بحث"" مقالات آشنا شوند و دریابند که نمایش هویت نویسنده در متن امری ضروری است.
L2 Learners' Vocabulary Learning: Differential Effect(s) of Comprehension-Based vs. Production-Based Proactive/Reactive Focus on Form
This study aims to compare the effects of four types of FFI on second language vocabulary learning. To do so, the study adopted a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design, including five groups, each receiving a distinct treatment. The participants were 80 fourth-grade male students ranging in age from 17 to 19. Before the treatment phase, the participants took a researcher-made test of vocabulary as a pretest which was meant to measure the participants’ prior knowledge about the target words. After the treatment phase, the participants took a researcher-made test of vocabulary as posttest to measure the students' achievement of the target words. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the scores from the pretest and the posttest. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between proactive and reactive FonF in the comprehension mode in terms of promoting vocabulary learning. There was also no statistically significant difference between these two forms of FonF in the production mode in terms of promoting vocabulary learning. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the comprehension-based and production-based FonF in enhancing vocabulary learning. These results extend the positive effect of FFI to L2 vocabulary teaching/learning.
Learners’ Engagement in Meaning Negotiation and Classroom Interaction as a Function of Their Perceptions of Teachers’ Instructional Communicative Behaviors
A significant share of classroom interaction occurs between teachers and language learners. Therefore, the individual characteristics of teachers could play facilitative or impeding roles thus encouraging or discouraging learners from getting engaged in interaction and meaning negotiation attempts when interacting with their teachers. Surprisingly however, this area has attracted scant attention. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring students’ perceptions of their teachers’ socio-communicative style and nonverbal immediacy in relation to their engagement in classroom teacher-learner interaction and frequency of meaning negotiation attempts in their interactions. To this aim, 72 students were randomly assigned to six classes of 12 taught by six teachers. Richmond, McCroskey and Johnson’s (2003) nonverbal immediacy scale and McCroskey and Richmond’s (1996) socio-communicative style scale were administered to students to tap into their perceptions of these two qualities of their teachers. Then the total amount of time the students were engaged in active interaction with the teachers and the number of meaning negotiation attempts employed by them were computed. The results of Correlations and Regression Analyses revealed significant relationships between teacher nonverbal immediacy, the two dimensions of socio-communicative style (Assertiveness and Responsiveness) and the students’ willingness to engage in interaction and meaning negotiation with their teachers.