International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 5, No 3, (11-2023) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

The Position of Professional Ethics of Teachers in Virtual Education of Schools(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 658 تعداد دانلود : 345
Introduction: Increasing the quality of virtual education is one of the main concerns of the education system in most countries of the world. In educational centers, virtual education has a special place, and to improve it, the professional ethics of teachers should be taken into consideration. Considering this importance, the aim of the present study was to investigate the position of professional ethics of teachers in virtual education of schools. Materials and Methods: The research was a review method, in order to achieve the goal of the research, in addition to electronic education books and virtual education in this field, articles related to the research keywords from 2004 to 2022 from the databases of Civilica, Magiran, Sid, Researchgate, Science direct, was reviewed. Conclusion: The results showed that the improvement of virtual education in schools, in addition to the need for information and communication technology infrastructure, the ability of teachers and students to use new technologies and the interaction between teachers and students, requires the professional ethics of teachers and the observance of ethics. is teaching Therefore, one of the factors that can affect the virtual education of schools is the professional ethics of teachers. Based on this, the ethical topics of teaching and its concepts should be included in the educational courses of students of cultural universities and in-service training for teachers. At the time of application, new technologies in education should be given serious attention and emphasis, and efforts should be made to institutionalize teaching ethics among teachers.
۲.

The Concept of Justice as a Moral Virtue of Societies in the Discourse of Liberal Democracy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 932 تعداد دانلود : 352
Introduction: Philosophers consider justice to be the moral virtue of society; That is, just as honesty, truthfulness and trustworthiness can be considered the virtues of individual ethics, justice is also the virtue of a society; Therefore, both morality and justice can be considered as the characteristics of an individual or society, especially justice has a special and distinct social aspect and is considered the society's morality. Justice is one of the concepts about which various theories have been proposed and people have presented various programs to realize it. Liberal democracy, which after the renaissance, religious reformism, and the enlightenment era, gradually opened its foothold in the theories of human sciences and historical developments, is the source of a kind of intellectual tradition known as humanism, and with this approach, it promotes a special discourse of justice. Considering this, the article was formed with the aim of investigating the concept of justice as a moral virtue of societies in the discourse of liberal democracy. Material & Methods: In this research, data collection was done in document-library form and data analysis was done with the "discourse analysis" method and based on the theoretical framework of " Laclau and Mouffe's discourse analysis". Conclusion: Theorizing about justice in the discourse of liberal democracy is influenced by the approach that places individual freedom, private property and humanism as the basis. The concept of justice in this discourse is based on ontological and epistemological foundations. Liberal democracy believes in instrumental rationality, absolute profit, individualism, welfare, individual inequality.
۳.

Developing a Framework for Evaluating the Skills and Morals of Digital Humanities Scholars(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 340 تعداد دانلود : 783
Introduction: Humanities studies aspects related to human civilizational, social and cultural characteristics. The present study was conducted with the aim of developing a framework for evaluating the skills of digital humanities scholars. Material & Methods: This research is an exploratory research that has a qualitative nature. The research community included published and accessible books, theses and articles related to digital skills competencies. Therefore, in order to identify themes and draw a network of digital humanities skills themes based on the theme analysis method, 17 Persian sources published (2013-2021) and 37 English sources published between (2012 to 2022) It was achieved that all of them were related to the skill competencies of digital scholars, which included valid scientific research articles and theses of master's and doctoral degrees, online and registered in official scientific research websites and references. Data analysis was done by thematic analysis method. Results: In the final analysis of the theme network, 8 organizing themes and 77 final basic themes were extracted for the comprehensive theme of digital humanities skill competencies. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was determined that the following factors play a role in the skills and morals of humanities scholars; Features and characteristics, technical and technological skills, digital study and learning skills, social-communication skills, ethical-legal skills, knowledge skills, executive skills and digital mindset skills
۴.

A Perceived Causal Relations Model for Social Control of Academic Transgressions Among Faculty Members(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 134 تعداد دانلود : 643
Introduction: Academic transgression (AT), as any behavior, belief, or condition that violates a social and academic norm, is a serious problem threatening academic integrity, especially when committed by faculty members, who are supposed to be educational role models. Societies employ social control means to respond to, prevent or reduce transgressive acts, to maintain social order and morality. The current study aimed to examine the perceived effects of self-control, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction, as social control means, on five types of interpersonal, educational, research, organizational, and sexual ATs among faculty members, and also to measure perceived prevalence of these transgressions in Iranian higher education. Material & Methods: A modified version of “perceived causal relations” methodology was adopted to study the perceived relations between reciprocal pairs of the variables. Network analysis was employed to analyze the data gathered from faculty members via an online questionnaire. Results: The results demonstrated that faculty member participants perceived high effects of their self-control, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction on decreasing ATs, particularly interpersonal, organizational, and educational ATs. Conclusion: As faculty member participants perceived high prevalence of all types of ATs in Iranian academia, there is an urge to consider new policies to employ effective social control means suggested in this research, especially self-control, to reduce, and even restrain the perpetration of these transgressions. We also suggest perceived causal relations as a useful and strong methodology to conduct research on sensitive topics, especially, transgression and crime
۵.

Effect of Market Orientation and Technological Innovation on Business Performance: Moderating Role of Ethical Leadership(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 351 تعداد دانلود : 829
Introduction: The purpose of the current study is analyzing the moderating role of ethical leadership in relation to the effect of market orientation and technological innovation on business performance of companies producing saffron in Iran. Material & Methods: The current study is of descriptive-correlational type, in terms of nature, and it is at the level of applied-developmental studies, in terms of objectives. The statistical population of the study includes the managers and employees of 58 companies which are members of the union, out of which 232 individuals who had the ability to answer the questions were selected, and by referring to the Morgan Table, the sample size was determined to be 144 individuals. Considering the higher number of questionnaires distributed, 147 questionnaires were taken into consideration for analysis, and the hypotheses of the study were analyzed by employing the statistical test of partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results: The findings of the study showed that the market orientation and technological innovation significantly affect the business performance. Moreover, the moderating role of ethical leadership in relation to the effect of market orientation on the business performance was proved; however, the moderating role of ethical leadership in relation to the effect of technological innovations on the business performance was not proved. Conclusion: Considering the statistical results, the variables of market orientation and technological innovation, and also the moderating role of ethical leadership in market orientation positively affect the business performance of companies, but the moderating role of ethical leadership in relation to the effect of technological innovations on the business performance was not proved
۶.

Evaluation of the Professional Ethics Model of Physical Education Teachers in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 318 تعداد دانلود : 389
Introduction: Professional ethics among teachers is considered very important, and therefore the purpose of this research is to present the model of professional ethics of physical education teachers in Iran. Material & Methods: In terms of purpose, the research is applied, and in terms of research method, it is descriptive-survey and cross-sectional. The statistical population of the research included all the professors, managers of the physical education department of the provinces, educational assistants of the departments and physical education teachers of the schools in the academic year 2022-2023, of which 483 people were selected based on the Cochran formula with the proportional sampling method. The required information was collected using a questionnaire. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-sample t-test, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and SPSS and LISREL software were used for data analysis. Results: The findings of the research show that the components proposed in the research model are effective in explaining professional ethics in physical education teachers and the presented model has a suitable fit. Conclusion: The final model of professional ethics among physical education teachers consists of eight components: social responsibility, belonging to the scientific community, self-efficacy, scientific responsibility, respect for fairness and justice, legal ethics, environmental superiority and competitiveness, adherence to values and norms of the higher education system.
۷.

The Relationship between Auditors’ Moral Disengagement and Audit Quality(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 42 تعداد دانلود : 334
Introduction: Audit quality is one of the most important issues in the field of auditing and capital market. In order to know the factors that determine the audit quality, the conducted researches confirm that compliance with ethics by auditors is one of the important and influencing variables on audit quality. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between auditors' ethical disengagement and audit quality. Material & Methods: According to its nature, the present research is applied research, and in terms of method, it is among descriptive-correlational research. Its statistical population consists of auditors working in audit institutions, and 185 people have been selected among them as an in access sample. The data collection tool is a questionnaire. The collected data were summarized by Excel software and analyzed using SPSS software through multivariate regression. Results: The results of this research show that there is moral disengagement among auditors and it has a significant and negative relationship with the auditor's understanding of audit quality. In other words, with the increase of moral disengagement in the auditors, the audit quality also decreases. Conclusion: Audit quality is affected by factors and behavioral characteristics, including auditor's moral disengagement. The rule of ethics in the auditing profession can strengthen individual ethics in auditors, and this ultimately increases the quality of auditing.
۸.

The Role of Social Conservatism in the Slippage of Professional Ethics: A Comparative Comparison of the Public and Private Sectors of the Auditing Profession(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : 194 تعداد دانلود : 67
Introduction: Commitment to the code of professional conduct is necessary for the audit profession. Failure to comply with it will reduce the trust of the society and the credibility of the audit profession. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the relationship between social conservatism and the slippage of the auditor's professional ethics. Material & Methods: The research method is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlational in terms of nature. The studied statistical population includes auditors working in audit institutions, members of the public accountants' society and audit organization. 320 people were selected as a sample using the random cluster sampling method from auditors working in audit institutions, members of the public accountants' society and the audit organization. The research tool is a questionnaire. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The results show that only in the private sector, social conservatism has a significant and negative relationship with auditors' slippage in professional ethics. Also, in the private sector, gender, education, work experience and job rank variables have no significant relationship with slippage in professional ethics at the 95% confidence level. But in the public sector, among the mentioned variables, only gender and work experience have a significant relationship with slippage in professional ethics. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this research, traditional and conservative values can increase independence and audit quality as a tool to strengthen ethics in this profession. In this case, the policy makers of the audit profession can encourage auditors to comply with ethics as much as possible, through training and also monitoring the implementation of ethical codes.

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