International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 4, No 3, (12-2022) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



A Comparative Look at the Ethics of Gods and Paladins in Iliad and Shahnameh(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۸۸
Background: Iliad and Shahnameh are two transnational works which are precious treasures for studying the customs and culture of two ancient nations of Iran and Greece. In this research some of the ethical specifications of the mythological gods and paladins of Iran in Shahnameh and Olympus gods and paladins of Iliad have been studied and the basic differences between two nations which stem from the differences of their culture and beliefs have been shown. The essay plans to show the Iran ancient cultural highlights and a closer look at the immensity of this ancient land. Method: The method of this research is analytical descriptive and based upon comparison of two ancient culture from the views of beliefs and ceremonies. Conclusion: The studies show that there are some differences between the human and divinely behaviors of Iliad and Shahnameh. In Iliad we see that the unethical conducts, discrimination, inclination to the front of oppression and promise breaking towards the devoted people by the Achaeans on the one hand and on the other corruption, lying and rivalries between the Olympus gods terminated to the vast carnage of Achaeans and Trojan tribes. The paladins and the heroes of Iliad in compare with the Olympus gods are more noble and are more promise leal. The Iranian gods are the symbol of ethics and the punisher of promise breakers and those who violates the others’ right. Such ethical solidarity and stability make the heroes of Shahnameh incline to cavalier. The Iranian gods hatred towards war and violation. But seriously believe in revenge and defense of their lands while the Olympus gods support the violators and they themselves are the main factor of war and massacre.

The Role of Ethics in Economic Diplomacy and Its Impact on the Relations Between Iran and China in Recent Years(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۷۶
Background: Diverse and wide-ranging capacities have led to a special dynamic in bilateral relations between Iran and China in recent years. So that in different areas, these bilateral relations have been constantly expanding and deepening. From this point of view, the present article aimed to examine the role of ethics in economic diplomacy and its impact on the relations between Iran and China in recent years. Method: The present study was conducted in a descriptive-analytical manner. The present study investigated the subject by studying, classifying and analyzing scientific articles in the relevant field that were published between 2005 and 2021 in the citation databases of Magiran, Science Direct, PubMed, and ISC. Conclusion: Based on the studies, it was concluded that the role of ethics in economic diplomacy is considered important due to the interdependencies and mutual economic needs of the two countries, especially in recent years. The Islamic Republic of Iran for reasons such as the goals of the vision document, the need for energy markets, reducing and mitigating Western pressures, the need to have a relationship with China and its investment to achieve development, and reciprocally China due to development-oriented foreign policy The growing need for energy and security in its supply, the need to launch a Silk Road strategy to access global markets, tends to the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Commitment and People-Centeredness in the Poetic Elements of Ballads (Aref, Bahar, Rahi Mo’ayyeri and Moeini Kermanshahi)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۶ تعداد دانلود : ۷۶
Background: since ballads and songs make the art of music eloquent and expressive, they are considered as the connection ring and junction between these two branches of literature and art. The main objective of songs is transferring message and speech to audience, concentrating and penetrating into emotions and thoughts and imagination in the form of concepts to melody that this study has investigated commitment and people-centeredness in two illustrating elements of thought and imagination of the four poetic forms in the songs by Aref and Bahar from Constitutional Era and Rahi Mo’ayyeri and Moeini Kermanshahi. This study aims at understanding the importance of the type of purposeful and people-centered insight and thought of ballads and the poetry power of sing-writers to compose more original and more creative and more literary songs. Method: the descriptive-analytical research method based on comparing ballad works of song-writers with each other and with scientific-poetic standards has been used. Conclusion: according to scientific-literary measurement among the songs of four ballad-writers; poets had mastery over literary and poetic standards and poetic elements and their function, have composed more emotional and more pleasant songs. As far as melody has not been decorated with speech, is free from the element of thought and doesn’t enjoy poetry and literature criteria. The purpose and commitment of poet and song-writer reinforces the cultural and scientific dimensions and literary and emotional soul of ballads. The song of all four song-writers have had commitment and people-centeredness dimensions in the current study.

The Impact of Galatea Components on Auditors' Ethical Judgment(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۹ تعداد دانلود : ۶۳
Background: The category of ethics and practicing professional ethics is one of the serious and important topics in the field of accounting and auditing. As the level of bankruptcy increased, corporations and international institutions revised the rules and standards of professional conduct, and accounting institutions developed guidelines through professional conduct to enhance ethical conduct. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Galatea components on the ethical judgment of auditors. Method: The present study was applied and among descriptive-survey-correlational researches. The target population of this study was auditors who are members of the auditing organization and private sector auditing firms. Through random sampling, 250 people were selected as the sample, of which 192 people completed the questionnaires. The research tool was a standard questionnaire and the structural equation modeling method and PLS software were used to fit and test the research hypotheses. Results: The results of this study showed that the effect of Galatea on the content of the profession, knowledge of the insights and philosophies of the profession and behavioral virtues as three dimensions of ethical judgment of auditors has a positive and significant effect. Conclusion: In any profession, awareness of motivation is an important and fundamental issue, because motivation is a stimulus to perform actions. Job expectations as a motivating factor can play a significant role in individual performance. Regarding the impact of Galatea's effect on the auditor's ethical judgment, the type of expectation created in this area is crucial, because if negative expectations are reinforced, it can reduce the quality of the auditor's ethical performance. But if expectations are based on perceptions of the auditor's position and nature, the quality of the auditor's ethical judgment is enhanced.

Provide a Model of Investors' Financial Behavior based on Psychological and Ethical Factors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۸۹
Background: Many investment decisions are not only affected by economic indicators and rationality, but also categories such as work experience, social responsibility, risk, investor self-confidence, etc. affect investor’s behavior and their decisions. The main purpose of this study is to present a financial behavior model based on psychological and moral factors. Method: The present study was mixed. In the qualitative part, the Delphi technique was used. The statistical population of all experts and managers of brokerages, investment funds, investment portfolios, traders and analysts had professional qualifications and high experience, of which 12 people were considered as snowball technique as a sample. It was an interview tool and finally the data were analyzed by fuzzy Delphi method. In a small part, the descriptive-survey method was used. 287 members of the investor community were considered as a sample. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Finally, using AMOS software, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation design were investigated. Results: Finally, the analysis model in this study was approved. Based on the importance of investors' behavior and the importance of moral and psychological characteristics in the capital market, it was shown that the expected return formed has a direct effect on the psychological characteristics of optimism, distrust, risk aversion and emotion, as well as ethics. It was also shown that psychological and moral characteristics affected turnover, trading volume, risk sharing, risk appetite. In addition, one of the most important results is a combination of behavioral factors (optimism, overconfidence, emotion, risk aversion and ethics) and market efficiency (trading volume, turnover, risk appetite and risk sharing). Conclusion: The obtained results indicate the effect of emotional and psychological and moral characteristics and characteristics on the behavior of investors and is important to drive the market towards rationality and on the other hand as a basis for designing investment strategies for investment managers.

The Role of Factors Influencing Organizational Purchasing Behavior with Emphasis on Ethical Components(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۷۵
Background: Identifying the factors affecting buying behavior has always been one of the important priorities of marketers, because in order to create a sustainable competitive advantage, identifying buyers and their behavior and factors affecting their decision-making is essential and increases sales. Therefore, the present study has been conducted with the aim of identifying the factors affecting organizational purchasing behavior and the effective ethical components in this regard have also been examined. Method: The present study was applied and among descriptive-correlational researches. The statistical population of this study consists of 149 managers and experts of Gachsaran Oil and Gas Exploitation Company who were excluded from sampling due to the limitations of the population. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire. Finally, the conceptual model of the research was tested using the structural equation model. Results: The research findings confirm that 5 categories of factors including environmental factors, marketing mix factors, organizational factors, individual factors and shortcuts affect the purchasing behavior of organizational buyers and all relationships in the research model were positive and significant. Conclusion: Although corporate buyers follow formal mechanisms, they cannot be considered a model of rationality, because they sometimes buy based on brand loyalty or long-term relationship with a supplier. Individual, organizational, ethical, environmental and marketing factors can affect the buying behavior of organizational buyers.

The Role of Ethical Ideologies and Economic Conservatism on Corporate Social Responsibility Attitudes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۷۷ تعداد دانلود : ۸۲
Background: Managers manage the corporate social responsibility path and as a result, their personal beliefs, beliefs and values ​​are very effective on the company's response to social responsibility. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ethical ideology and economic conservatism of managers of companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange with their attitudes toward corporate social responsibility. Method: This research is an applied and descriptive-correlational research. The statistical population includes financial managers of companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. In 2020, a sample of 204 people from this community was randomly selected. The measurement of variables is based on a questionnaire and structural equation modeling and factor analysis have been used to analyze the data. Results: The results of data analysis show that moral idealism and economic conservatism have a significant and positive relationship with corporate social responsibility. The results also show that there is no significant relationship between relativism and corporate social responsibility attitudes. Conclusion: Based on the results, idealistic and economically conservative people are more inclined to corporate social responsibility and are more likely to participate in corporate social responsibility activities. Accordingly, it is better to take effective action in accepting and promoting corporate social responsibility activities by raising awareness and strengthening ideas such as idealism and economic conservatism in the field of university education and while serving accountants and financial managers.

Validation of the Professional Competency Model of the Faculty Members According to the Ethical Components(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۱
Background: In today's evolving world, employees of organizations must have professional and ethical skills and competencies to perform their jobs and professions. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of developing a model of professional competence of faculty members according to the ethical components in the Islamic Azad University. Method: The combined research approach (qualitative and quantitative) was exploratory and confirmatory. In the qualitative part, the foundation data approach was used. Society, professional qualification experts, professors of Islamic Azad University, evaluation experts in higher education and policy makers in the field of higher education were selected by snowball sampling of 16 people. The interview tool was semi-structured. For data analysis, the open and pivotal and selective coding process was used. In a small part of the community, there were teachers, teaching assistants, specialized personnel and specialists in the field of professional competence of Islamic Azad University, from which 385 samples were randomly selected. The questionnaire was made by a researcher. For data analysis, the second type of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis method and Pearson correlation coefficient matrix and structural equation model were used using SPSS 22 software and AMOS 24 software. Results: The results showed that in general, the professional competence of the faculty members can be classified into three areas: knowledge (general, individual, internal and external), ability (cognitive, sensory and motor) and skill (basic, management and social). Conclusion: The present study identified three main categories of competence that were related to the work of Azad University teachers. Therefore, the information provided in this study can be used to assess the qualifications of newly hired teachers in different stages of their teaching and activities and to develop a curriculum accordingly.


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