International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 4, No 4, (2-2023) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

The Role of Ethics in the Development of Arbitration Clauses Towards Third Parties in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۲
Introduction : The issue of developing arbitration on persons other than parties to the arbitration is one of the issues that are disputed by legal scholars. In the arbitration agreement, no person, except the parties to the agreement, is bound to arbitration and has no right to invoke it. Prohibiting the extension of the effects of the arbitration agreement to persons outside the contract is accepted, but it should be noted that the persons who sign a contract are not always its real parties. Therefore, the current study was formed with the aim of investigating the role of ethics in the development of arbitration clauses towards third parties in Iran. Material and Methods : In order to achieve the goal of the research, in addition to legal books in this field, articles related to the research keywords from 2011 to 2021 were examined from the databases of Magiran, Civilica, Sid, and Ensani. Conclusion : A creditable nature is not limited to external signs such as correspondence or names included in the contract, but it is a creditable fact that may prove that the works of the contract belong to a person who was not present when the contract was concluded and his name has not even been mentioned. The real original theory, which has found a special place in contract law today, is the result of the challenge faced by lawyers in this field. In fact, the ethical basis requires that every person accepts the obligation or action that is related to the rights and obligations of the arbitration parties and does not shy away from responsibility. On the other hand, no one should be held responsible for the obligations of others, and the development of the arbitration clause should not cause losses to third parties. Therefore, the development of the arbitration clause must be done within the bounds of the obligations.
۲.

Brand Ethical Personality Model in Iran's Consumer Products Market(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۷۶
Introduction : What is referred to as a trade name is something far more than a name. Some psychological research on ethics suggests that information about specific ethical characteristics of brands can be considered as the ethical "character" of the brand. The present study tries to draw the model of ethical personality of the brand in Iran's consumer products market. Material and Methods: The current study was developmental-applied research and was conducted using a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative). In the qualitative part, the statistical population included all experts in management and marketing sciences, 29 of whom were selected by purposeful sampling. The tool was semi-structured interviews and the results were extracted with content analysis method and NVivo software. In the quantitative part, the statistical population included all the consumers of the selected brands of the national festival of the top popular Iranian brands in the second half of 2016 in Tehran. From this society, a sample of 1670 people was selected by stratified sampling method with proportional allocation. The questionnaire tool was researcher-made and the data were analyzed by performing exploratory factor analysis and then confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The findings of this study included 74 ethical indicators in the qualitative part, and in the quantitative part of the research, among the 74 personality traits identified for the brands of consumer products in the Iranian market, only 22 ethical indicators have a sufficient factor load and the necessary sufficiency to explain. They had a confirmed model that was categorized into 5 personality factors. Conclusion: The factors and indicators that make up the brand's ethical personality model include five factors; 1) Pleasurable (dignified, distinguished, hardworking, always helpful, powerful and strong, skilled, attractive, creative); 2) Qualified businessman (efficient, worthy and worthy, competitive); 3) Efficient (friend of the little ones, old friend, funny); 4) Intimacy agent (inefficient, uncommitted, duplicitous, unkind); 5) Narcissistic agent (forceful, tyrannical, mischievous, narcissistic).
۳.

Investigating the Obstacles to Achieving Good Governance in the Public Sector with an Emphasis on Civic Ethics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۸۸
Introduction : Civil society can lead to good governance by relying on civil ethics and legality. Civil ethics is the core and essence of civil society. The realization of good governance as one of the development models is not possible without the participation and presence of the civil sector. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to analyze the obstacles to achieving good governance in the public sector with an emphasis on civil ethics in the city of Yazd. Material and Method s : The qualitative research method was using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The participants were active activists in the public (civil) sector in Yazd. 10 interviews were conducted using the purposeful theoretical sampling method, the data collection tool was a semi-structured interview. The validity and reliability of the research data collection tools were confirmed, and the theme analysis method based on open coding was used to analyze the data. Results : The results showed that the main obstacles to not realizing good governance in the civil sector are: intra-group distrust and the challenge of becoming a circle of civil organizations, the challenge of creating tools from civil organizations and the emergence of extra-group distrust, inter-group distrust and the challenge Self-destruction, promotion of passive participation and emergence of individualistic spirit, structural inefficiency and emergence of structural problems. Strengthening the public sector and increasing social capital and civic ethics can facilitate the achievement of good governance. Conclusion : Civil ethics is one of the most important variables in the realization of good governance and can be effective in the direction of moral excellence of society and desirable perfection.
۴.

Constructing the Impact of Social Commerce on Customers' Electronic Loyalty with an Emphasis on the Ethical Values of the Organization(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۵
Introduction : Considering that it is necessary to pay attention to ethical values ​​in marketing and also limited research has been done in this field in our country. The present research aims to study the impact of social commerce on the electronic loyalty of customers with an emphasis on ethical values ​​among customers of Shahre Ketab in Iran. Material and Methods : This research includes two qualitative and quantitative phases. In the qualitative phase, the community included all managers of Shahre Ketab Institute and the statistical sample included 12 managers of Shahre Ketab. The method used in the qualitative phase was the meta-synthesis. In the quantitative phase of the research, the statistical population included experts selected in the qualitative phase. The techniques used included fuzzy Delphi and interpretive structural modeling. Excel and MATLAB software were used to analyze the data of this section. Results : The findings of the qualitative section indicated the extraction of 196 primary codes and 23 components for the variable of social commerce and 64 primary codes and 15 components for the electronic customer loyalty variable. Based on the findings of the quantitative phase, among the 23 components of social commerce, 6 components were approved, and among the 15 components of electronic ethical loyalty of customers, 5 components were approved. Based on the results of interpretative structural modeling, the components of social business were placed in three levels. Conclusion : Considering the importance of the role of moral values ​​of customers in creating electronic loyalty in the context of social commerce, it is necessary to pay attention to the role of ethical values ​​and the effects of this variable on creating electronic loyalty of customers.
۵.

Predicting Organizational Ethics and Justice based on Managers’ Narcissism according to the Behavioral Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۸۰
Introduction: Managers' narcissism as one of the most important personality dimensions can affect the decisions and behaviors of managers. The purpose of this study is to predict organizational ethics and justice based on managers' narcissism according to the behaviorist approach. Material and Methods: Based on the purpose of the research, this is an applied research. The method of this research is descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of the present study is the managers and employees of all companies under the National Pension Fund. Using Morgan table and simple random method, 384 people were selected as the final sample of the study. In order to measure the narcissism of managers, organizational justice and organizational ethics, the standard questionnaires of Ames narcissistic personality (2006), Niehoff and Moorman questionnaire (1993) and the questionnaire of Chyekoh et al. (2004) were used, respectively. In order to evaluate the validity, the construct validity method was used and also the reliability of the research tool was evaluated through Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Analytical methods using SPSS software were used to analyze the research hypotheses. Results: The results showed that managers' narcissism has a negative and significant relationship with organizational ethics and justice. Conclusion: With increasing narcissism in managers, organizational ethics and justice decreases significantly. The tendency to self-grandiose makes power and management an attractive occupation for the narcissist, and this leads to the break of ethics and justice in order to obtain and maintain this position.
۶.

Trust the Ethical Principle of Virtual Interactions: Designing a Dynamic Model of Factors Affecting the Trust of Social Network Users(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۶۹
Introduction: User trust is one of the main ethical principles that affect the success or failure of a social network platform. The multiplicity and interaction of users in social networks leads to the risks of data breach or disclosure of users' information. Therefore, the importance of correct decision-making by the managers of this social network and the prediction of events is of great importance. Therefore, the main goal of this research is to identify the main factors affecting users' trust and solutions to compensate the lost trust among the users of this social network. Material and Methods: The current research was applied and among post-event researches. The statistical population of this research was media and communication experts who were selected using a random sample of 52 people. The questionnaire tool was made by the researcher. Data analysis was done with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test and dynamic systems analysis, and SPSS and Vensim simulation software were used. Results: In this research, 34 factors affecting trust in social networks were investigated. The most important of which were internet fraud, the release of malicious software, the disclosure of personal information, the type of social networks and adherence to ethical principles, etc., and things such as cooperation and coordination between people, responsibility and commitment, benevolence, excessive use of social media in priority. There is an end. The validity of this model was proved by evaluating the appropriateness of the model boundary based on the purpose of the model and ensuring the realistic behavior of the model under limit conditions. Conclusion: It is possible to increase the trust of users as well as the solutions for breaching data and privacy of users through the construction of cause and effect loops and finding the root of their main causes. Also, the effective factors and its solutions in the form of three balance circles were investigated and rooted.
۷.

Evaluation of professional ethics relations and the level of implementation of the policies of the Organization of Natural Resources, Forests, Ranges and Watershed Management of the country(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۹ تعداد دانلود : ۷۹
Introduction: The purpose of this research is to design and explain the model of professional ethics relations and the level of implementation of the policies of the Natural Resources and Watershed Management Organization of the country (a case study of the General Directorate of Natural Resources and Watershed Management in the North of Kerman Province). Material and Methods: In terms of the purpose of this research, it was developmental and applied, which was done in a mixed way. In the qualitative part of the society, there were university professors and experts in the field of human resources management, from among whom 30 people were selected by a judgment method. The tool was exploratory interviews and finally the data was analyzed with Delphi technique. In the quantitative part, the descriptive method was of the correlation type. The statistical population included all the managers and employees of the General Directorate of Natural Resources and Watershed Management of Kerman province and the sub-departments of the cities. The sample consisted of 358 people who were selected based on the available sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the required data. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (one-sample t-test and structural equation modeling) using SPSS23 and AMOS23 software. Results: In the qualitative section, 70 sub-dimensions (indices) related to professional ethics were summarized in 5 factors and 79 sub-dimensions (indices) related to the implementation of the organization's policies were summarized in 4 factors. The analysis of the data in the quantitative part showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the variable of professional ethics and the level of implementation of the organization's policies. Extra-organizational and individual (extra-personal) on the implementation of the organization's policies is significant at the 5% level, and the positive path coefficients show that these structures have had an increasing (direct) effect on the implementation of the organization's policies. Conclusion: Based on the present research, it was found that professional ethics has a significant effect on the level of implementation of the organization's policies.
۸.

Analyzing the Relationship between Competitive Intelligence Activities and Ethics with Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Capabilities of Technology Commercialization(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۱
Introduction: Today, competitive intelligence and ethics play a valuable role in promoting sustainable competitive advantage and technology commercialization capabilities of companies. According to the current competitive environment, companies are looking for a suitable solution for survival and durability. Therefore, the present research was conducted with the aim of analyzing the relationship between competitive intelligence activities and ethics and sustainable competitive advantage and technology commercialization capabilities. Material and Methods: This research was applied and among descriptive-correlation researches. The statistical population was managers and experts in the fields of research and development, quality, marketing, commerce, sales, production, training, human resources and information technology of 11 large dairy companies in Tehran and Fars provinces. The sample size of the research was 306 people, and they were selected by cluster sampling method. The questionnaire tool was made by the researcher and finally the data were analyzed through SPSS 26 and Smart PLS 3 with structural equation modeling method. Results: The results showed that the proposed model has a good fit for Iran's dairy industry. Competitive intelligence and ethics activities have a significant effect on sustainable competitive advantage and technology commercialization capabilities. Also, technology commercialization capabilities have a significant effect on the sustainable competitive advantage of companies. Conclusion: Using the current research model in the dairy industry improves sustainable competitive advantage. Companies can help improve sustainable competitive advantage by considering competitive intelligence and ethics and technology commercialization capabilities.

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