International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 2, No 4, (2-2021)



Social and Ethical Requisites of the Legal System to Enforce Foreign Judgments for Family Lawsuits

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Background: Identifying and enforcing the rulings and judgments on family lawsuits is so significant due to the relationship of many of them with public order and good domestic morality. Judges should regard factors such as the nationality of each of the litigants, their marital relationship, or their parental relationship in dealing with rulings in family litigation, in addition to applying a limited control system; this issue has been challenging in some cases; therefore, it is required to eliminate the ambiguity of the current laws and increase the judgeschr('39') level of awareness on how to deal with such rulings and judgments. Consequently, this study was conducted in order to examine the social and moral requisites of the legal system to enforce family lawsuits. Conclusion: Elements such as citizenship, marital residence, marital and parental relationship, and religion of the litigants play a significant role in identifying and enforcing family rulings in addition to the conditions specified in the Civil Code and laws related to the Civil Judgment Enforcement. Analyzes show that the legislature has caused significant ambiguities in this respect by delegating the enforcement of these rulings to the general enforcement of civil rulings, as well as the requirement for the judiciary to examine conflict resolution rules. Notwithstanding, the Family Protection Law of 2011, has examined only a very small dimension of the identification and implementation of these sentences only for the crime committed by the registrar without the presence of enforceable sentences.

Effectiveness of Kohlberg’s Dilemmas and Inducing Positive Emotion in Emotional Expectation and Moral Decision Making

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Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kohlberg’s dilemmas teaching methods and induction of positive emotion on emotional expectations and moral decision making of adolescent girls. Method: The research method was quasi-experimental (pre-test and post-test) with a control group. The statistical population was all female students in the first grade of high school (second year) in Yasuj province who were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling and randomly assigned to three groups (n=30). The experimental and control groups completed the scenarios of emotional expectations and daily ethical decision-making tasks as pre-test and post-test. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results: The data showed that Kohlberg’s hypothetical dilemmas methods and induction of positive emotion in the post-test stage were effective in improving emotional expectations and moral decision making (p <0.001). The results of post hoc test showed that there was a significant difference between the intervention groups (Kohlberg’s hypothetical dilemmas and induction of positive emotion) with the control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Kohlberg’s hypothetical dilemmas teaching method and induction of positive emotion are effective on emotional expectations and moral decision making of first grade high school female students.

Bank Ethical Responsibility to Compensate for Services Failure and Its Revival

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Background: Unlike banking development in country, banks have not been able to satisfy customers yet. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating banks ethical responsibility to compensate for services failure and reviving it. Method: This study is applied in purpose, exploratory in approach and mixed (qualitative-quantitative) in data analysis. In qualitative phase and in order to design a model based on grounded theory, a group of experts in banking management and services marketing (including university professors, bank CEOs and banking industry marketing counselors) selected as society and 11 have been selected through snowball sampling and until reaching theoretical saturation. In-depth-interview was research instrument in this phase and data analyzed through coding. In quantitative phase, banking industry customers in Tehran considered as statistical society and 400 of them selected through cluster sampling with equal volume as statistical sample. In quantitative phase also the research instrument was researcher-made and closed questionnaire and path analysis and SPSS and Lisrel used to analyze data. Results: 134 primary concepts extracted in this study that 51 ultimate concepts classified in 31 main categories. This results lead to designing failure procedural pattern and reviving services in Iran’s banking industry (based on paradigmatic model structure) and model hypothetical relationships tested and approved in a wide society. Conclusion: Customer satisfaction and loyalty depends on organization adherence to professional ethics and responsibility that the most important sign of an organization responsibility is organized activity to compensate for services failure and reviving it.

Predicting Self-Efficacy According to Professional Ethics and Development

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Background: The aim of this study was to predict self-efficacy based on professional ethics and development. Methodology: The research was descriptive-correlational with structural equation modeling in terms of method, and applied in purpose. The population included all Isfahan Province Farhangian Universitychr(chr('39')39chr('39'))s student teachers in the academic year 2019-2020, 150 of whom were randomly selected according to the Morgan-Krejcie table (1990). The research instruments were Martin’s teacher self-efficacy (2003), Gregorychr(chr('39')39chr('39'))s professional ethics (1990), and the New Jersey Institute of Professional Standards for Teachers’ professional development (2014) questionnaires, whose reliability according to the Cronbach test was 0.86. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics were analyzed in Spss26 and the structural equations were analyzed in Amos24. Results: Data analysis results showed a professional development and self-efficacy path coefficient of 0.54 and a professional ethics and self-efficacy path coefficient of 0.69 (P<0.05) About 0.76 of the criterion variablechr(chr('39')39chr('39'))s changes (self-efficacy) can be explained with the “professional development” and “professional ethics” independent variables. Conclusion: Therefore, professional ethics and development have a significant correlation with physical education teachers’ self-efficacy, and their professional ethics and development should receive more attention.

Mapping Customers’ Mind Value to Avoid Pseudo Needs in Consuming Drinks during Flight based on Ethical Marketing Approach

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Background: One of the important aspects of ethical marketing is avoiding making or reinforcing pseudo need in customers. Therefore, marketing studies may use methods which identify customers’ fundamental mind values in consuming commodity and services to provide products without stimulating, harmful and extra effects which satisfy customers. Therefore, the current study aims at investigating and drawing the mind value map of Iran Airlines customers in relation to consuming drinks during flight to achieve a basis to conceptually design a product without alcohol but fulfilling the maximum satisfaction of customers. Method: The present study is qualitative which uses Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) projection method. The statistical population includes customers with 20 year old and higher age range of Iran Airlines that 15 participants involved in this matter selected based on saturation point logic through judgmental sampling. Then, data collected from questionnaires and interviews with semi-structured approach which was done on each sample and the content of data analyzed based on one of the customized models of means-end chain. Thus, key elements and the structures with the most repetition were extracted. Using Atlas T software, a consensus map of customerschr(chr('39')39chr('39')) minds was drawn. Results: 4 elements at characteristics level, 13 elements at criteria level, and 14 elements at advantages and finally 3 elements at values level have been identified and they were prioritized for the target population. Conclusion: This map helps achieving major variables in consuming target commodity in customers to clarify their consideration and decision making mental process. The results of this study are able to improve the expansion of products according to cultural ethical norms which satisfy customers and also future plans in serving air transportation market.

Predicting Employee Productivity based on Work Ethics and Organizational Learning

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Background: Today, employee productivity is an important issue for organizations and the role of work ethics and learning in productivity is considered important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to predict employee productivity based on work ethics and organizational learning. Method: The method of the present study was descriptive-correlation. The statistical population included the employees of the Social Security Organization (404 people) whose sample size was selected based on Cochranchr('39')s formula and random sampling method (n=205). The research instruments were Hersey and Blanchard (1983) employee productivity questionnaire, Gregory (1990) work ethic and Nife (2001) organizational learning questionnaire, the reliability of which was obtained by Cronbachchr('39')s alpha test (0.84). Descriptive statistics were analyzed with SPSS26 software and inferential statistics were analyzed with Amos24. Results: Data analysis showed that the variables of work ethic and organizational learning can predict 0.45 variance of the criterion variable (employee productivity). Also, work ethic and organizational learning had an impact factor of 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, on employee productivity (p <0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, it can be said that work ethic and organizational learning are effective on employee productivity. Therefore, to increase organizational productivity, more attention should be paid to work ethic and organizational learning.