International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 1, No 4, (2-2020) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Ethical Codes and Psychotherapy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۱
Background: Ethics is considered in detail in medicine, and it is needed to be respected carefully in psychology and psychotherapy. Ethics code provides a common set of principles and standards upon which psychologists build their professional and scientific work. This ethics code is intended to provide specific standards to cover most situations encountered by psychologists. This study aims to consider general principles and specific ethical issues in psychotherapy and consulting. Conclusion: General principles that should be respected by all psychologist and therapist are as followed; beneficence and nonmaleficence, fidelity and responsibility, integrity, justice, respect for people’s right and dignity. Specific ethical issues in psychotherapy; informed consent in therapy, privacy and confidentiality, avoiding harm, unfair discrimination, sexual harassment.

Moral Eco-theism; A Study and Explanation of the Impact of Ethics on Nature(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۹
Background: Eco-theism is a science that studies the relationship between natural phenomena and problems of religious knowledge, e.g. “infidelity and belief”. The current study has been conducted in order to assay the relationship between the religious problems like “belief and infidelity” and nature and is a subcategory of environmental ethics. We intend to answer the question that whether there is a negative or positive relationship between belief and nature or not? According to Islam, some of natural and material events or in other words, natural actions and reactions are the result of individual vision and action. While materialistic perspective opposes this view and interprets this type of action and reactions in materialistic terms. Studying Quranic verses and prophetic traditions one reaches the conclusion that there is a relationship between people’s vision and degree of belief, on the one hand, natural problems, on the other hand. Conclusion: The present study is composed of two parts: first, we provide an explanation of the concepts of infidelity and faith and then in the second part we proceed to explain and analyze the relationship between the type of action of people and nature as well as the impact of the type of people’s belief. The method is descriptive-analytic. Thus, first religious texts will be discussed and next we will analyze its relationship with natural phenomena. The results suggest that although natural developments take place through their natural course, these natural developments do not have merely material color rather natural events evolve within a metaphysical context.

Investigating the Impact of Ethical Ideology and the Threat ‎of Self-Interest on Ethical Decision-Making of Auditors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۹
Background: Ethical ideology as an individual factor and the ‎threat of self-interest as an environmental factor can affect ‎the ethical conduct of the individual. Therefore, the purpose ‎of this study was to examine the impact of ethical ideology ‎and the threat of self-interest on the ethical decision-making ‎process of auditors.‎ Method: This is a quasi-experimental study. The statistical ‎population includes auditors who working in the private sector ‎audit firms and statistical sample include 186 members of the ‎community. Data were collected through a questionnaire and ‎analyzed using structural equation model.‎ Results: Findings show that idealist ethical ideology and the ‎threat of self-interest have a direct and significant impact on ‎the ethical decision-making process of auditors. But the ‎relative ethical ideology has an indirect impact on the ethical ‎decision-making process of auditors.‎ Conclusion: The results of this research show the impact of ‎ethical ideology and the threat of self-interest in the ethical ‎decision-making skills of auditors. Therefore, it is imperative ‎that audit firms provide ethical training courses to inform ‎auditors of ethical issues.‎

Investigating the Ethical Factors Justifying and Inhibiting Academic Cheating among the Students of Accounting(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۷
Background: Cheating in universities is an instance of violation of ethics and breaking the rules, that has become so common among the students. If this phenomenon is considered as a usual matter, it can affect the person’s life and become a habit. Method: This research has investigated students of accounting. 308 accounting students were selected as the sample by using simple random sampling. The tool used for measuring the variables was a questionnaire designed based on the questionnaire used by Dikov et al (1999). Data analysis was done by using SPSS software, multivariate regression analysis, t-test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Results: According to the findings, there is a significance difference between cheaters and non-cheaters in terms of adopting cheating neutralization. Also, there is a significant difference between cheaters and non-cheaters in terms of understanding the effectiveness of cheating inhibitors. There is no significant difference between male and female cheaters and between male and female non-cheaters in terms of adopting cheating neutralization. Also, there is no significant difference between male and female cheaters and between male and female non-cheaters in terms of understanding the effectiveness of cheating inhibitors. Conclusion: Cheaters and non-cheaters have different attitudes towards adoption of cheating neutralization. They are also different in terms of understating the effectiveness of cheating inhibitors. Gender is not effective in people’s attitude towards cheating neutralization and understanding of the effectiveness of cheating inhibitors.

The Traumatic Effect of Instrumental Ethical climate on Contextual Performance of Bank Personnel(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۳
Background: Instrumental ethical climate can affect human resources both physically and mentally in the workplace. This trauma may affect contextual performance or behavior of personnel. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of instrumental ethical climate on contextual performance of human resources in banks and financial institutions. Method: Research method was mixed. In qualitative section; Theme analysis and Delphi methods have been used. Statistical population was bank’s expert. The sample size included 11 people who were chosen purposefully and then interviewed by a semi-structured questionnaire. The correlational descriptive method was used for quantitative section. The statistical population consisted of bank’s staff and the sample was 384 people based on Morgan table, who were selected randomly. A researcher-made questionnaire was used. Results: According to library studies, 4 indicators for measuring ethical climate and 18 indicators for contextual performance of human resources were identified. Two additional indicators have also been added after interviewing the experts. In the quantitative section, the instrumental climate had the greatest impact on the bankchr('39')s working environment and its effect on the staffchr('39')s behavior was negative and significantly negative? Conclusion: Instrumental ethical climate has a direct and traumatic effect on human resource performance. In order to increase the level of mental health of employees and the development of the organization, it is necessary to prevent the growth of instrumental ethical climate through educational programs.

Human Resource Productivity Indicators Factor Analysis: Emphasizing Scientific and Ethical Factors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۷
Background: This study was an attempted to identify human resource productivity indices by emphasizing scientific and ethical factors in service organizations. Method: the research method was mixed method (qualitative - quantitative). In terms of the qualitative research, the indicators were extracted via analyzing studies conducted both inside the country and outside the country, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 university professors and experts using purposeful sampling method. The categories and propositions were identified by 26 indices and categorized into two dimensions of ethics-commitment and technical-technological under the general scientific-ethical factor set. In terms of quantitative research, a researcher-made questionnaire with Cronbachchr('39')s alpha of 0.988 was administered to 250 managers and staff experts of Ardebil Education Department with the aim of validating the qualitative results. Results: Based on confirmatory factor analysis results of both dimensions, the correlation coefficients indices between all variables and the present variables (dimensions) are significant since their T-values is significance at the alpha level of 0.05 and the fit indices of NFI, CFI, IFI in both dimensions are greater than 0.9. Conclusion: The results revealed that the measurement model of research variables on dimensions of ethical-commitment and technical and technological is appropriate. Also, the results of the present research can be applied in measuring and evaluating human resources productivity of service organizations in order to improve productivity and development of the organization.


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