Background: Basically, in any contract, the parties estimate their potential profit and loss and then enter into a contract. However, sometimes the circumstances and circumstances of the time of the contract change so much and make the implementation of the contract heavy and costly. In these circumstances, the implementation of the contract is difficult. This study aimed to investigate the difficulty of contract implementation in Iranian Civil code and commerce from an ethical perspective. Conclusion : In jurisprudence, there is a special rule called "invalidity of the whole contract with the excuse of fulfillment in content", which has become one of the general rules of contracts in jurisprudence. This rule implies the concept that if after the conclusion of the contract, the fulfillment of the obligations arising from the contract becomes impossible forever, the implementation of the content of the contract and its obligations is not necessary and the transaction is void. Iranian law deals with this issue in Articles 227 and 229 of the Civil Code, and conditions such as foreignness and the inevitability and unpredictability of the excuse are considered for the realization of the title of excuse for the execution of the contract. The realized excuse, as the case, will cause the contract to be dissolved or its execution to be suspended until the obstacle is removed.
Background: In addition to governments, the activities of international organizations such as a large multinational corporation may be detrimental and hazardous to international public order. For example, companies that produce microbial and chemical bombs and organizations that traffic women, children, opiates in addition to buying and selling human organs, or that carry out sexual terrorism and international prostitution. The objective of the present study is on the criminal responsibility of international organizations in the international law system as well as whether international law has ever attempted to identify the criminal responsibility of such persons? Conclusion: At the turn of twentieth century, followed by the expansion of international exchanges and outbreak of ravaging wars, the advancement of science and technology, esp. military equipment technology, emergence of natural disasters or spread of dangerous infectious diseases, and stimulating humanitarian sensations and ... international organizations, including governmental or non-governmental, regional or global ones, with specific political, economic, cultural and social topics or a combination of them, were formed. Presence, activity and influence of these organizations in international relations arena was so epitomized that the international institutions are mentioned as the most important players of international relations after governments. Unfortunately, taking a glance at the international penal system structure, we find out that the international criminal regime drawn out in the 1990s is basically a system established based on the trial of real persons, and not legal entities. The regime of the International Criminal Court has explicitly excluded the trial of legal persons via this path. From this outlook, the situation of international organizations in terms of criminal law develops a gap in international criminal law that entails the action of the said key players in the international arena.
Background : Today, societies pay attention to ethics and moral values, emphasizing that moral values should be preserved and kept alive in educational organizations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the ethical challenges of school principals in the Corona period . Methods : The present study was applied in terms of purpose and qualitative in terms of method. Its statistical population included educational management professors and school principals of West Azerbaijan Province. Sampling was done systematically through snowball technique and based on theoretical saturation criterion. Research data was collected by reviewing 21 articles related to the ethics of educational management or educational leadership in the COVID 19 period and then through semi-structured interviews (17 people) based on the model of qualitative interviews and its criteria, in an approximate time between 25 to 45 min, collected in person, electronically, and by telephone. Data were categorized using thematic analysis method in the form of basic, organized and comprehensive themes . Results : The results showed that the ethical challenges of school principals in Corona period as a comprehensive theme included 98 basic themes. According to the classification of basic themes, 7 organizing themes, including professional ethics, social-communicative ethics, individual ethics, technical-educational ethics, spiritual ethics, behavioral ethics, and decision-making ethics were obtained . Conclusion : The results showed that the closure of schools under COVID exacerbated 19 ethical problems in the education policies and practices, creating moral challenges in them. In this regard, principals are expected to use their knowledge and ethical skills to improve their scientific knowledge to address the problem of students at school during the Corona epidemic.
Background: As societies have become more complicated to manage, it is already unavoidable for governments to evaluate public policies. Moreover, adherence to professional ethics is an important criterion in evaluations. Therefore, the present research sought to provide a model for public policy evaluation based on the aspects of professional ethics. Method: The approach of the present study was mixed (qualitative- quantitative) and in terms of purpose it was applicable research. In the qualitative section, participants included academic experts and governorate experts of Golestan province, 14 of whom were selected by purposive sampling. The research tool was semi-structured interviews and coding method was used to analyze the data. In the quantitative part, the statistical population was the managers and experts of the governorate and governorates (630 people) that the sample size was 248 people and the sampling method was random. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire based on qualitative findings. Friedman statistical test with Spss26 software was used to analyze the data. Cronbach's alpha test was used for the validity of the questionnaire from the perspective of experts and its reliability (0.91). Results : The results showed that from the experts' point of view, 6 main themes (quality of effective evaluators in policy, ethical nature of policy, how policy is implemented, factors related to economic planning, openness and accountability and attention to structural issues) and 19 components in public policy evaluation model emphasizing the quality of the dimensions of professional ethics in the governorates of the country. Quantitative results showed that the ethical nature of the policy was the most important component of the general policy evaluation model with emphasis on professional ethics (M = 5.23). Conclusion : It can be concluded that the public policy evaluation model with an emphasis on professional ethics has different cultural, economic, social, and professional elements, which for better governance of provincial governments, they must be considered by executive authorities at the country’s macro and micro levels.
Abstract Background: The present study aims to reveal the important role of subjective knowledge and perceived reliability for information in transforming purchasing intentions into a practical purchase in the consumer marketing literature and suggests that improving consumer knowledge and trust in corporate claims (based on On ethics), with the disclosure and public dissemination of quality information such as the participation of retailers and manufacturers in fair trade and related activities, especially in strengthening the sale of fair trade products. Method: The present study is applied and descriptive-correlational. The statistical population included buyers of convenience store stores in Urmia metropolis, from which 385 people were randomly selected. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Finally, the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (Minimum Squares (PLS)) in SPSS software version 24 and SMARTPLS. Results: The results show that without strengthening the basic knowledge of consumers or improving their literacy, lack of knowledge probably prevents the growth of ethical consumption, so one of the most important factors to strengthen fair consumption is not the amount of information but especially the content and quality of information. Companies must enable consumers to obtain sufficiently reliable information to compare products based on ethical considerations (ie, fair trade). Conclusion: Subjective knowledge modulates the positive relationship between purchasing intentions and ethical purchasing behavior, but the moderating role of perceived reliability for information was not significant.
Background: Corporate governance is one of the most important business issues that depends on business ethics and rationality. Therefore, in this research, the model of corporate governance in the context of ethics and rationality was designed . Method: The present study was qualitative and based on the grounded theory. The study population consisted of faculty members and PhD students, experts and specialists, and managers and staff of Tehran Water and Sewerage Company who have a good view in the field of corporate governance. 24 people from the population by sampling method Snowballs were selected as the sample until they reached theoretical saturation. The analysis tool was a semi-structured interview and finally the data were analyzed by triple coding method (open, axial and selective) in MAXQDA software. Results: A total of 1032 significant phrases were identified in the interviews, from which 99 codes were extracted and classified into 29 main concepts, and with the axial coding method, they were placed in a suitable position and formed the research model . Conclusion: If this model of corporate governance is applied in the context of ethics and rationality, it can create consequences such as improving the operational performance of the organization, improving business ethics, trust and value creation for shareholders, etc. for the organization and stakeholders .
Background: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between participatory ethical culture and evaluating the performance of knowledge employees and its outputs in knowledge-based companies in Tehran. Method: This study was applicable in terms of purpose and research method was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was senior managers and deputies of knowledge-based companies in Tehran. By simple random sampling method, 400 people were selected as the sample with a return rate of 388 people. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. To test the research hypotheses, structural equation tests and partial least squares method have been used. Results: The results of this study showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between evaluating the performance of knowledge staff with individual outputs and organizational outputs. Also, the moderating effect of participatory ethical culture on the relationship between performance appraisal of knowledge employees and individual outputs as well as the relationship between performance appraisal of knowledge staff and organizational outputs has been confirmed. Conclusion: When there is a culture of participatory ethics in an organization, performance appraisal, although it increases organizational outcomes, further leads to improved individual outcomes.
Background: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of organizational silence and mobbing on turnover intention. Method: The statistical population of this study was 386 employees of Payam-e-Noor University of Kermanshah. In order to determine the sample size we have applied Morgan table and consequently 191 employees have were selected as sample members by random sampling method for the first half of 2018. The data collection tool was a standard questionnaire in this area. Validity (content, convergent, divergent) and reliability (loading factor, composite reliability, Cronbach's alpha) of questionnaire indicate that measuring instruments have good reliability and validity. The results of hypotheses test by SMART-PLS software and using t-test statistics. Results : Path coefficients (β) indicate that organizational silence have strong, direct and significant influence on mobbing. Mobbing have strong, direct and significant effects on turnover intention and organizational silence have weak, indirect and significant effects on turnover intention. On the other hand, mobbing can play moderator role in influence on organizational silence and turnover intention. Conclusion : Despite the design model, it can be expected that the university can reduce the level of job leave due to the variables of organizational silence and organizational mobility.