Background: Dogmatism is a global challenge in recent years. Terrorist groups such as Taliban, Al Qaeda, Al-shabab, ISIS, Jondollah and so on are some example in recent century. Hence, what is more attended today is the religious dogmatism. It doesn’t mean that there are no other forms of dogmatism. Various kinds of dogmatism in political, racial and ethnical forms are developed in modern societies. Because of forming close mind manner, dogmatism in each form is in opposite of ethics. Therefore, this study tries to consider the ethical and social consequences of dogmatism in societies. Conclusion: With prevalence of dogmatism, ethical foundations are weakened and wellbeing will be replaced with violence and autarchy. In such societies, trust, adjustment and social cooperation will be decreased.
Professional Ethics and Knowledge Sharing within Supply Chain: the Role of Trust(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: The paper aims to provide an integrative review of empirical literature on factors affecting knowledge sharing in supply chain, analyzing the various results of the published articles about the topic to find out critical factors. Method: A quality-quantitative mixed method has been adopted in our exploratory study. Delphi method, a qualitative approach, has been initially applied to design a conceptual model for knowledge sharing within supply chain. After this, through a review of literature, 21 articles have been analyzed based on the resulted model to present the critical factors. Finally, the resulting model has been examined and evaluated in the case study, by a quantitative approach. The main instrument of the study is a researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical population comprises all the managers of Khorasan Electricity Supply Chain in Iran (461 people). 215 of them have been selected as samples, using Stratified Random Sampling. Data analyzed by using SPSS 21 software, Z-test, Friedman test, and Studentchr('39')s t-test. Results: According to the results, a model for knowledge sharing in supply chain has been developed based on 5 dimensions and 38 factors. In addition, Communication, trust, and absorptive capacity of knowledge receiver are primary factors in a majority of articles. Also, inter-organizational trust is at average level in Khorasan Electricity Supply Chain, Iran. Conclusion: This paper will contribute to improve understanding on the role of trust as one of the most important components of professional ethics in promoting the culture of knowledge sharing among members
How is Nurses' Awareness of Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Caring for Older Adults?(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: Nursing is an ethical profession and nurses are responsible for patient care. Caring for older adults requires special attention to ethical and legal issues. Nurseschr('39') unawareness in this regard would reduce patient autonomy, the quality of nursing care and finally world reduce nursing professional credentials. The aim of this study was assessing nurseschr('39') awareness of ethical and legal issues related to caring for older adults. Method: This study was cross-sectional descriptive. Participants were 200 nurses that worked in Hospitals in Kashan (2014-2015).Data was collected by the researcher-made questionnaire including three part, personal information, questions about ethical and legal issues related to caring for older adults and a question about factors related to nurseschr('39') ethical mistakes. Statistical analysis was conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics via SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The level of nurseschr('39') awareness of ethical and legal issues related to caring for older adults was undesirable. Kruskal- Wallis test showed a significant relationship between the score of nurseschr('39') awareness of ethical and legal issues related to caring for older adults and their academic degree (P=0.001). Mann- Whitney U test also showed a significant relationship between the score and previous training about aging (P=0.001) but there was no significant relationship between the score of nurseschr('39') awareness and their gender, marital status, work experience, working unit and employment status. Conclusion: The level of nurseschr('39') awareness of ethical and legal issues related to caring for older adults was not satisfactory. This condition should bring attention to the retraining programs and strengthening the supervisory system.
Background: Each of ethical dimensions of leadership which influence employee behavior and organizational trends has a unique importance. Hence, in this research, we aim at studying the characteristics of leaders as potential predictors of an ethical leaderchr('39')s behavior. Method: The present study was descriptive and a correlational one. The total statistical population of this research was 660 managers of industrial centers and production centers of industrial towns in Hamadan, of which, using simple random sampling based on the Morgan table, the sample size of 248 people were selected. For collecting data, two standard questionnaires of personality traits and ethical leadership were used. And the proposed model was analyzed using structural equation modeling with Smart PLS 2 software. Results: The results of the research showed that the relationships between conscientiousness and agreeableness variables with ethical leadership were meaningful and positive. And the relationship between neuroticism and ethical leadership is significant, but this is a negative one. And the relationship between extraversion and openness with ethical leadership is not meaningful. Also, the results of structural equation modeling indicated that using conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism, 67%, 45%, and -47% of ethical leadership can be predicted, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, by identifying and determining practical measures related to those personality characteristics of the leader which are in tandem with the ethical behavior of the leaders, it is possible to identify and select the potential ethical leaders to improve the performance of the organizations. Organizations can also choose leaders who are more likely to behave fairly, share power, and clarify roles based on employee personality abilities. The selection and development of managers who have ethical behavior is very important, because ethical misconduct can be costly and damaging to the reputation of leaders and organizations.
Background: Nowadays, one of the aspects of power and distinction of organizations is the enjoyment of desirable organizational culture. The organizational culture of each complex is the full representation of the organization, which shows the inner and outer face of the commitment of the employees to principles of ethics. Professional ethic is related to values and norms and is one of the most important issues that have been considered in different areas of the modern world. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to predict professional ethics with respect to organizational culture. Method: The research method is descriptive-correlation. The statistical population consists of 230 people who are the employees of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch and the sample size was determined 103 people using Cochran formula with 95% confidence level and a Stratified Random Sampling method. Standard questionnaires were used to collect data. The obtained data were analyzed using Smart PLS and SPSS structural equation modeling. Results: Findings of the research indicate that the components of perceived organizational culture have a significant effect on the dimensions of professional ethic including accountability, honesty, justice, fairness, loyalty, respect for others, competition, sympathy, respect for values. Also, based on the multiple regression analysis, components of organizational culture predict all dimensions of employee ethic and finally, it can be concluded that the professional ethic of the employees are at a favorable level. Conclusion: The results of the present research illustrate that the components of organizational culture predict the dimensions of professional ethics of the employees.
Relationship between Social Responsibility, as an Ethical Factor and Corporate Image(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: The purpose of this research is survey about the relationship between social responsibility of a company and corporate image in banking industry. Method: This is a descriptive-correlation study. The population of the study includes all staffs of banks in Iran. Among all staffs, 240 subjects (in access group) filled the questionnaire completely. Data were gathered by questionnaire and were analyzed by SPSS through multiple regression Results: Findings show that customers understand company social responsibilities activities as a main element when dealing with banks. When banks accept these activities, the positive figure of company reinforces and it creates positive relations and noticeable relations between activities of social responsibility and corporate image. Conclusion: Many studies are spoken about company social responsibility, but a little were found in banking part. This subject needs more research for better understanding of corporate social responsibility activities and their effects on corporate image.