International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society

International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 5, No 4, (2-2024) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Explaining Suicide from the Viewpoint of Ethics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۷
Introduction: Suicide occurs in people of any age and background, which negatively affects families and communities. According to the statistics provided by the World Health Organization, suicide is the cause of death of more than 700,000 people in the world, seventy-seven percent of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, suicide has become an international problem in global health. There is a main moral issue regarding suicide, and that is whether suicide is morally permissible or not, and if so, under what circumstances? Therefore, the authors of the present study decided to examine suicide through the view point of ethics. Materials and Methods: The research was a review method, in order to achieve the goal of the research, in addition to electronic education books and virtual education in this field, articles related to the research keywords from 2004 to 2022 from the databases of Elsevier, Proquest, Pubmed, Researchgate, Science direct, was reviewed. Conclusion: According to ethical codes, each person has independence and autonomy. An autonomous and independent person has the possibility to make any decision, provided that his decision does not lead to harm to others or damage to the natural environment. Therefore, according to ethical codes, a person can decide for his life, he can even commit suicide.

Examining the Moral Values in Shanfara’s Lamiyat al-Arab using Thomas Nagel’s Ethical Theory(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۶
Introduction: Shanfara is one of the most prominent Arab poetries. His poems, especially his ode Lamiyyeh, along with the poems of other notable pre-Islamic Arab poetries, have a specific literary and sociological reputation. He was living during the Jahili era. However, his writings are full of strong moral principles and foundations, indicating the existence of excellent human thoughts and ideas, as he has mentioned some of the most important values and principles in his poetry. This descriptive-analytical article uses Thomas Nagel’s ethical theory to investigate the ethical principles and values presented in Shanfara’s Lamiyat al-Arab. Materials and Methods: This article uses a library and review method. In order to achieve the research objective, we explored the books relating to the subject and searched articles matching the research keywords in ISC and Science Direct databases from 1990 to 2023. Conclusion: According to Thomas Nagel’s theory, Shanfara, as an Arab poet, is a freedom-loving human and a high-minded fighter whose character does not reflect racial or class discrimination and injustices used to rule society. Shanfara, to remove such inhuman customs, chose to fight. In addition, he was courageous, brave, and at the same time, forgiving and generous. He appreciates his friends, and while being able to exercise power and control, he does not prefer himself to others and respects their rights. Evidence of outstanding and valuable human and moral principles is extracted from the Lamiyah al-Arab poem.

Ethics and Law: The Place of Fairness in Fair Proceedings(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۹
Introduction: Justice and fairness are two basic moral concepts in law. All judges, in the performance of their judicial duties, have faced the demands of issuing "just" and "fair" verdicts many times, without perhaps paying attention to the meanings of justice and fairness. Therefore, in the present study, the place of fairness in fair proceedings has been examined. Materials and Methods: The current review is descriptive and analytical and based on a library study. Conclusion: The rule of fairness, which is the purpose of this research, means considering the circumstances and conditions of the case and involving them in giving the appropriate decision. In the Roman, Germanic and Common law legal systems, fairness is a concept that entered these systems from the past and means a decision based on the judge's conscience. In the common law system, equity is one of the sources of rights; However, fairness is not stated as a rule in Iranian law, and some jurists have proposed it as a source of law that is not written. On the other hand, this concept also has the characteristics of a legal rule and has many applications in law, so it can also be a legal rule

Ethical and Legal Dimensions of Abusing the Emergency Circumstances of People in Marriage In Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱
Introduction: Article 206 of the Civil Code considers a forced transaction with defective consent valid. However, Article 190 of the Civil Code states that consent is a condition for the validity of a marriage. In addition, the emergency circumstance in jurisprudence led to a series of rulings and duties. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive-analytical and uses the library technique. Conclusion: When one of the parties to the marriage, who is aware of the emergency circumstance of the other party, abuses this circumstance with the motive of profit-seeking and brings the other party into the marriage due to an emergency, the marriage is unfair and legally invalid. Iranian law has several opinions on abusing the emergency circumstance of people and imposing an unfair contract on them, including the theory of validity, non-intrusion, termination, and validity with the condition of adjustment or annulment, out of which the theory of non-interference has been chosen because it is fairer and more compatible with justice and preserves the distressed person's rights. In Iranian law, comparing the general rules of contracts with the marriage contract indicates that exclusiveness does not guarantee invalidity and termination of the marriage contract. On the other hand, the validity theory supports distressed people's rights. Therefore, the latter theory, i.e., non-intrusion, that guarantees fair execution when abusing distressed people and is accepted in the general rules of contracts, can be extended to the marriage contract as well.

Ethical and Legal Challenges Facing Academic Start-Ups in Using Social Media(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰
Introduction: In Iran, during the past few years, start-up activities have been seriously pursued in the academic sector and recently it has been mixed with media technologies. Due to the nascent nature of this field, there are many challenges in the path of their growth and development, which require more research and more practical solutions to solve them. In this research, considering the importance of ethical issues in any profession, the main goal is to identify the ethical and legal challenges faced by academic entrepreneurs' start-ups in using social media. Material & Methods: The qualitative research method is based on classical data theory. The statistical population of the research is made up of university entrepreneurs who were selected using the purposeful sampling method and until reaching theoretical saturation, a sample of 12 people. The data collection tool was semi-structured interviews with 7 general questions. Data analysis was done in three stages of open, axial and theoretical coding. Results: Data analysis and coding led to the extraction of 34 concepts, 7 subcategories and finally 2 main categories from the integration and classification of concepts. Conclusion: Based on the proposed model, internal challenge (management issues, ethical relationship with customers, branding, professional ethics) and external challenge (unethical competition, technology infrastructure, policies, laws and regulations) were identified as the dimensions of ethical and legal challenges faced by university start-ups in using social media.

The Effect of Social Undermining and Unethical Interactions in the Organization on Employee Procrastination: The Moderating Role of Positive Psychological Capital(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵
Introduction: Social undermining is a crime that is committed by a person to reduce the good reputation of others and prevents the establishment of positive relations with them in the organization. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of social undermining and unethical interactions in the organization on employee procrastination with regard to the moderating role of positive psychological capital in North Kerman Electric Power Company (NKEPC). Material & Methods: This research is applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of the nature and form of implementation, it is descriptive of the correlation type. The statistical population of this research is 1384 employees of NKEPC in 2022, out of which a sample of 300 people was selected using Cochran's formula. The main data collection tool consisted of four questionnaires, including social impairment questionnaire, emotional fatigue questionnaire, work procrastination questionnaire and psychological capital questionnaire. Also, the analysis has been done using structural equation analysis, Sobel test, SPSS and AMOS software. Results: The results showed that social undermining has a positive and significant effect on emotional exhaustion and procrastination. Emotional exhaustion has a positive and significant effect on procrastination. Also, the moderation of psychological capital was confirmed in the relationship between social undermining and emotional exhaustion, and social undermining and work procrastination. Also, the mediating role of emotional exhaustion in the relationship between social impairment and procrastination was confirmed. Conclusion: It is clear that social undermining both directly and indirectly contributes to the increase of employees' procrastinating behaviors. The findings of this study shed light on the organic mechanism that may encourage employees' procrastination behaviors, as perceived social undermining during the socialization process increases employees' emotional exhaustion.

The Relationship between Components of Ethical Governance and Social Capital(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۵
Introduction: Ethical governance means the exercise of power and sovereignty along with moral values and adherence to divine and human virtues. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the model of ethical governance components based on social capital. Material & Methods: The current research is one of the quantitative researches that was conducted by descriptive and correlation method. The statistical population of this research included employees and personnel and internal managers of gas industries in South Pars region, 384 people were selected as a sample. The research tool was a standard questionnaire. Data analysis was done using Pearson correlation. Results: Based on correlation coefficients, it was determined that the components of ethical governance include efficiency and effectiveness, impartiality and fairness, public satisfaction, accountability, rule of law, strategic perspective, accountability, role promotion, justice, distributive policy, capacity building, professional ethics, economic management, social development, government-centeredness, citizens' participation, legal reforms, anti-corruption, transparency, participation, predictability, accountability have a positive and significant relationship with social capital. Conclusion: The main core of governance, especially in the Islamic perspective, is to observe the strong role of ethics in the governance of society. It is through ethical governance that the social capital of the organization becomes efficient and plays its constructive role in the welfare of the society.

Investigating Ideals of Professional Ethics in Islamic banking(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۹
Introduction: Islamic banking is a type of banking or banking activity that is consistent with the rules of Islam and naturally emphasizes moral issues. The purpose of this study is to examine the ideals of professional ethics in Islamic banking in Iran. Material & Methods: According to the purpose of the present research, it is an applied research type and according to the method of data collection, it is a non-experimental research type of correlation research and structural equation modeling. The statistical population included the managers of the Agricultural Bank, who were selected by a complete sampling of 430 people. The instrument was a questionnaire. Finally, the data were analyzed by structural equation method. Results: The results show that there is a significant and positive relationship between the two dimensions of organizational structure and the ideas of professional ethics, as well as between the legal, public, free and royal thinking styles of managers and the ideas of professional ethics. While there is a significant and negative relationship between conservative thinking style and ideals of professional ethics. Conclusion: The presence of moral values in the banking industry means the elimination of all criminal operations including fraud, bribery and corruption, and it is undoubtedly influenced by the thinking styles of employees and managers and organizational variables.


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