International Journal of Ethics and Society
International Journal of Ethics and Society, Vol 1, No 1, (5-2019) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Academic Ethics: Moral Luck of University Students in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: Over the past several years, a lot of talks have been produced and published in Iran about the controversial and disputed position of academic ethics. Some evidence shows normative weaknesses or even anomalies in the universities. This means worrying signs of an anomic situation, at least in the range of academics and students. In this discussion, I will concentrate on those parts of the claims and speeches that declare about the shaking position in the academic ethics of students, such as the prevalence of academic credentials, a rare passion for learning, trifling courses, plagiarism and academic fraud, black market dealing thesis (Enghelab avenue phenomenon), the so-called "copy and paste" behaviors in the preparation of articles, negligence in academic norms and academic assignments, fake numbers and forging articles, lack of sense of responsibility, self-centered individualism, and low motivation for group work, the lack of serious acceptance from learning communities and so on. Conclusion: We are less concerned about what the "conditions of possibility" are for the ethics of student in this country. Some important conceptual and critical researches have been taken into account in ethical research topics on world collaboration for human morality. The question of the current study is as follows: how much is the cooperation of the current Iranian society, higher education system, and management of university and class with our students for the ethics of their studying and their proper socialization. In this study, moral luck theory is used, which is a part of the major issues of modern science and moral philosophy. Nelkin, Nagel and Williams have discussed it. At the end, reflection on "student as victim" is also viewed from the perspective of ethics.
Professional Ethics and Workplace Safety Behaviors(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: Perceived organizational policy, considered as one of the most important variables in the organizational behavior and an effective factor in the social and organizational context of every society, has stimulated many studies. One important issue in the literature of organizational policy is examining its relation with job quit and ethics. These politics may be perceived either positive or negative. However, many researchers have focused their studies on the negative perception of organizational policies and its consequences at work for the communication power of policies in the organization and intensity of negative consequences resulting from negative policies at individual and organizational levels. Political behavior can affect job productivity. The employees who perceive organizational environment as political recognize it stressful, disappointing and disproportionate with their psychological features. The goal of this study is examining the role of professional ethics as the mediator of negative consequence of perceived organizational policy i.e. intention of job quit. Conclusion: Most Organizations believe that if the intervening policies decrease in the organization, their psychological features will increase and they will consider professional ethics′ criteria in that job more. They will also have lower intention to quit their jobs. Thus, organizations should provide the conditions for decreasing job quit and increasing professional ethics in case of the existence of organizational policy.
The Role of Environmental Ethics in Sustainable Tourism Development(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: Today, tourism is recognized as one of the largest and fastest growing industries which has been highly regarded by governments for its diverse benefits, including job creation, increasing local and national revenues, expanding entrepreneurial opportunities, making optimal economic investment, and improving the security by reducing political tensions. Nevertheless, tourism can have various economic, social, and cultural consequences on the environment and local communities. Therefore, there are serious ethical considerations in terms of environmental degradation and negative social and cultural impacts of tourism that need to be taken into account in tourism development programs. The aim of this research is to study the role of environmental ethics in sustainable tourism development and provide ethical environmental solutions in the development of tourism. Conclusion: Considering the fact that, in most cases, few may benefit from tourism development, while its adverse effects influence the society and the environment, ethical solutions such as understanding the real values of nature, assessing the environmental and social impacts of tourism development plans, estimating the carrying capacity of the destination, focusing on sustainable forms and alternative tourism, and establishment of effective laws and regulations are required for a more sustainable and ethical tourism development.
Investigating the Factors Affecting the Ethical Decision-making of Sports Consumers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: The issue of ethics in commercial relations between the buyer and the seller is highly significant and if there are no solutions to ethical problems in these areas, the continuation of this process will lead to a shake-up in trade and commercial communications from the lower layers that are consumers up to the upper layers that are major traders. The first articles on ethical issues were published in the 1960s and were mostly philosophical articles. In such an atmosphere, having a good understanding of consumerschr('39') ethical behaviors and the process of consumption includes several advantages. These benefits include helping managers in their decision making, providing a cognitive basis through analyzing consumer behavior, helping legislators, and regulators to lay down rules for the purchase and sale of goods and services, and ultimately for consumers in the decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to investigate ethics in the of sports consumer behavior. In fact, researchers have found that observing ethical issues in transactions not only from the seller and the marketerchr('39')s side, but also, from the consumerchr('39')s side is important. Conclusion: The results of the review of the research done on the relationship between individual factors such as age, gender, religion, and moral intensity show that in most cases, these variables have had an impact on ethical decision making. Therefore, further research in this area should be made to clarify the certainty of these effects.
The Relationship of Organizational Trauma with Reducing Organizational Ethics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: “Organizational trauma" and "organizational ethics” are the key variables of interest to researchers in the field of organizational management. Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between organizational trauma and organizational ethics of staff in Urmia University and sought to determine whether organizational trauma has a significant relationship with organizational ethics. Method: This study is applied, from the perspective of purpose; and descriptive-correlational, from that of research design. A sample of 230 employees was randomly drawn out of 630 employees of Urmia University as the statistical population. The data was collected using two standard questionnaires of organizational trauma and organizational ethics, and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Results: The results showed that organizational trauma can overshadow organizational ethics up to 33 percent. The path coefficient of organizational trauma and organizational ethics variables was measured to be 2.52, which is more than 1/96 at the error rate of 0.05. Conclusions: According to the statistical results, research hypothesis was confirmed, and it was concluded that organizational trauma has a significantly negative impact on organizational ethics.
Predicting Decision-Making Strategies of Managers with Regard to Professional Ethics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: Decision-making strategies of managers can modify the behavior of an organization’s personnel in a direction that is desired by the organization and cause their goals to be realized more quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate decision-making strategies in Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. The present article seeks to predict decision-making strategies of managers with regard to professional ethics. Method: The present study adopts a descriptive-correlational approach. Statistical population in this study includes managers of faculties of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, of which 86 managers were selected as the sample, using stratified random sampling method. To gather data, two standard questionnaires: ‘decision-making strategy’ and ‘professional ethics’ were used. The data were analyzed using SPSS and Smart PLS software and structural equation model method. Results: The findings showed that professional ethics is significantly predicted by decision-making strategies of managers. Moreover, the results specifically indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between dimensions of professional ethics (individualistic ethics, task oriented ethics, and legal ethics) and decision-making strategies of managers. Conclusion: Observing professional ethics is necessary to realize organizational goals of Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. Furthermore, decision-making strategies of organization managers can direct organizational behavior and performance towards more congruence with the organizational goals. Thus, observing professional ethics can lead managers of faculties of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch to enhance their decision-making strategies to realize the goals of the university.
Students’ Quality Failure and Pressure on Instructors for Participating in Immoral Academic Activities(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background: Students’ academic quality failure has facilitated education situation in some cases by instructors over the last few years in order to gain students’ satisfaction and hence it becomes an immoral action. This paper was written with an aim to investigate the link between students’ academic quality failure and pressure on instructors for participating in immoral activities in the field of accounting. Method: This study is a descriptive-correlation study and its population consisted of all accounting instructors at Iran universities. The sample consisted of 111 individuals, which was obtained by a random sampling. To measure the research variables, a standard questionnaire was used. Moreover, the study period was 2017. For analysis of the findings in the form of two main hypotheses, a structural equation modelling with Smart PLS 3.2.7 edition was used, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed in LISREL 8.8 edition. Results: The findings of the research indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between students’ academic quality failure and pressure on instructors for participating in immoral activities in accounting. Conclusion: The findings of the research indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between students’ academic quality failure and pressure on instructors for participating in immoral activities in accounting. In addition to this, pressure on instructors for participating in immoral academic activities remained at a level higher than average, which calls for more thorough investigation.