From a legal point of view today, although food as a human right is recognized by the international law and domestic law of many societies, like other welfare rights in practice and opinion are still in dispute. Especially with the change in the face of government in recent years and the abandonment of the views of welfare states and the tendency of governments to regulate and avoid direct intervention and undisputed influence of transnational corporations in all social spheres, as well as the pessimism of developing governments It is challenging, and thousands of similar cases have created parallel discourses alongside the right to food discourse. One of these discourses that has a historical flaw is the food paradigm as a leading commodity that sees food not as a right but as a valuable commodity. This market-oriented approach believes that the duty of governments is not a legal obligation to provide healthy and sufficient food, but governments are obliged to create the necessary conditions for the economic development of society, which will improve the food security of society.
Background: Paying attention to personalization of learning process in educational systems is of special importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the role of commitment and professional ethics on teacherschr('39') attitudes toward personalizing the learning process. Method: The method of the present study was descriptive and correlational that was performed on 195 primary school teachers in Ghaen. Samples were selected by cluster sampling. To collect data from three standard questionnaires; Professional commitment, professional ethics and teacherschr('39') attitudes toward personalizing the learning process were used and the data were analyzed using SPSS_18 software and coefficient statistical tests. Multiple regression and Pearson correlation coefficient were analyzed. Results: The results showed that professional commitment with an average of 3.97 ± 0.098, professional ethics with an average of 5.26 ± 0.082 and teacherschr('39') attitudes toward personalizing the learning process with an average of 4.13 ± 0.064 above average. Professional ethics explains 15% of the variance of professional commitment and 25% of the variance of teacherschr('39') attitudes toward personalizing the learning process; Professional commitment also explains 37% of the variance changes in teacherschr('39') attitudes toward personalizing the learning process. Conclusion: Commitment and professional ethics improve teacherschr('39') attitudes toward personalizing the learning process. On the other hand, professional ethics provides the basis for improving the professional commitment of teachers. Therefore, organizational managers can improve their attitude towards personalization of the learning process by promoting the commitment and ethics of teacherschr('39') professions, and thus provide the basis for improving the efficiency of the educational system.
Background: Organizational culture is the social identity of any organization. Professional ethics can be an effective indicator and an important motivational tool in the organizations to create excellence, sustainable development, and desirable competition, reduce conflicts, increase commitment and social responsibility and pave the path for having a desired organizational culture. In this regard, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of professional ethics on organizational culture. Method: The present applied research uses descriptive-survey method and the correlation approach. The statistical population of this study is 5000 employees from Mashhad Municipality and based on Morganchr('39')s table, 357 employees were selected as the sample size by stratified random sampling. The data collection instruments of the present study are questionnaires of organizational culture and professional ethics and their validity was of the content type approved by the experts. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbachchr('39')s alpha coefficient test was used. In order to analyze the data, inferential analysis methods of nonlinear regression test using SPSS and structural model method using LISREL were used. Results: The findings show that there is a positive and significant relationship between the independent variable of professional ethics and the dependent variable of organizational culture. Conclusion: The results indicate that the growth of the organization as a planned process is equal to the transformation of organizational culture and professional ethics and attention to ethical indicators as a tool affecting organizational culture create a strategic advantage in identifying and creating new opportunities and achieving organizational goals.
Background: This research intended to explore the effect of teacherschr('39') job satisfaction on their performance with focus on ethical consideration in some the high schools of Keman. More specifically, the present paper explored Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes towards job satisfaction and ethical issues. It also assessed their performance and ethical matters in the EFL classes. Moreover, the study investigated relationship between teacherschr('39') job satisfaction and their performance with regard to ethical consideration. Method: To do this, 30 Iranian EFL teachers from both genders were selected as the participants of the study that were chosen based on available sampling. Two related questionnaires, Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ) and Characteristics of Successful EFL Teachers Questionnaire (CSETQ) were employed for gathering data. The questionnaires were published among the EFL teachers of three high schools, and they had to answer them without time limitation. After that, the questionnaires were collected by the researcher and the data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The obtained results indicated that the teachers had positive attitude on job satisfaction and their performance in the EFL classes. Also, the findings of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the mentioned variables. Conclusion: It can be said that teacherschr('39') job satisfaction had impact on their performance in the EFL classes.
Background: One of the concepts that has been proposed in order to increase human resources is to pay attention to the factors affecting employee motivation. The purpose of this study is to "investigate the relationship between ethical factors and job motivation in the employees of North Khorasan Power Distribution Company". Method: The present study was applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of type of research. The statistical population includes all employees of 191 North Khorasan Power Distribution Company and the sample according to Cochranchr('39')s formula is 127 people and the stratified random sampling method. Research data were collected by two researcher-made questionnaires of effective factors for job motivation and job motivation questionnaire. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression tests were used to analyze the data and generalize the results using SPSS21 statistical software. Results: The results showed that ethical factors have a significant relationship with job motivation and job motivation of employees of North Khorasan Power Distribution Company and the highest relationship with the factors of ethical relationship between manager and employees (0.430), non-abuse of authority (respectively). 0.340), had a sense of responsibility (0.163), moral empowerment (0.131) with job motivation of employees. Conclusion: The main achievement of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between ethical factors (empowerment, managerchr('39')s relationship, delegation, job appreciation, and feeling of ownership) and job motivation.
Background: The present study has investigated the relationship between spiritual and religious orientation and positive feelings toward the spouse. Method: Method of this research, is descriptive of correlation type, and in terms of purpose, is a part of applied research. A sample with volume of 200 (98 females, 102 males) were selected randomly among the employees of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. The data were collected using a positive feelings toward the spouse questionnaire and spiritual orientation questionnaire and has been analyzed using Pearson Correlation (R) and SPSS 22 software. Results: results showed that there is positive and significant relationship between emotional and sexual feelings to spouse with internal spiritual orientation and there is a negative and significant relationship between emotional and sexual feelings to spouse with external spiritual orientation (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that spiritual and religious orientation, plays an important role in the positive feelings to the spouse.