Background: The history of the war shows the effective presence of women in different stages of the war. Experiences from the Iran-Iraq war and women's narratives from different angles of the war in the post-war years provide valuable information about the role of women in wars for future generations. Therefore, the present study was formed with the aim of studying the anthropology of women's narratives during the war and the angles of this war event were examined with an ethical approach. Method: The present study was conducted in a descriptive-analytical manner. This research was conducted by studying and analyzing the sources and articles published in connection with the war in ISC, Magiran, Civilica and ScienceDirect between 1990 and 2020. Conclusion: Research findings show that war has many negative effects on women's lives and they are one of the main victims of war. However, the presence of women in war in various forms, whether as a combat force or in the form of relief and support, strengthens the morale of soldiers and increases attention to moral components such as: promoting justice and equality, oppression and strengthening the spirit of resistance and endurance.
Background: Given the rapid development of social networks and advances in electronic devices, many businesses have emerged in the context of sharing economy. Since the sharing economy is a peer-to-peer business model, ethical issues and creating value play a significant role. Most research on value creation in the sharing economy has not addressed how value is created for all actors in the sharing economy. This paper aims to examine all participants in the sharing economy to develop a value creation framework. This research also investigates the role of ethical concepts, including customer empathy, customer and service provider citizenship behaviour, and extra-role value behaviour in this framework. Method: The method includes a qualitative study with a grounded theory approach. The statistical population consists of three different stakeholders (managers, providers, and customers) in the tourism industry of Iran. This study employed purposive and theoretical sampling. The sample consists of 34 in-depth interviews. The data is analysed with a grounded theory approach using MAXQDA software. Results: The research findings lead to a value creation model in the sharing economy with respect to ethical issues such as customer empathy, citizenship behaviour, and extra-role behaviour considering all participants in the sharing economy. Conclusion: Findings have helped to bridge the gaps in the theory. They have supported developing a theoretical framework for value creation concepts in sharing economy, including antecedents and consequences of perceived value. Findings also reveal that customer empathy and customer citizenship behaviour positively affects how customers and service providers perceived value.
Background: Academic faculty members of universities are the main element of science transfer and development of societies whose empowerment is an inevitable necessity. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to predict the psychological empowerment of employees based on the model of spiritual leadership. Method: The method of the present study was descriptive-correlational in terms of implementation method and applied in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study was 162 professors and lecturers of Farhangian University of Isfahan in 2009-2010. Based on Morgan and Krejcie (1970) table, 110 of them were selected by simple random sampling method. The research instruments were the standard questionnaires of Fry Spiritual Leadership (2005) and Spreitzer Job Empowerment (1995), the reliability of which was obtained by Cronbach's alpha test of 0.89. Pearson correlation test with SPSS23 software and structural equation approach with Amos20 software were used to analyze the data. Results: Data analysis showed that spiritual leadership has a significant relationship with psychological empowerment of employees (r = 0.44 and P <0.01). Spiritual leadership also predicts 0.45 variance of variable psychological empowerment of Farhangian University faculty members. Among the dimensions of spiritual leadership, perspective (0.83), altruism (0.81) and faith and hope (0.80) had the highest path coefficient on empowerment, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the effect of spiritual leadership on the psychological empowerment of faculty members, it is necessary to review the patterns of leadership in cultural universities and the appointment of individuals as the president of universities should be done more with the style of spiritual leadership.
Background: Morality is one of the main components of the durability and consistency of human societies. Moral commitment is one of the determinants of social health. The degree of commitment of individuals in society to moral values can cause deviation or prevent social deviations in society. The present study aimed to study the social factors affecting the occurrence of moral gap. Method: The method of this research is applied and descriptive-correlation survey. The statistical population included all citizens over 18 years in Abhar in 2020. The research samples were selected based on Morgan table and 411 people were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Data were collected using the Questionnaire Social Factors Affecting the Moral Gap. The content validity was measured by qualitative method and the reliability was measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the moral gap of citizens are 2.49 and 1, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient test has a significant relationship between social factors and moral gap (p = 0.00, R = 0.219). Unfavorable social conditions increase the moral gap and, conversely, favorable conditions reduce the moral gap. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the effect of social components on the moral gap. Among the social components, the role of feelings of insecurity and feelings of injustice is directly acknowledged in the moral gap, so these results can help officials and managers to plan to reduce citizens' feelings of injustice and insecurity.
Background: Employees have a set of stable attitudes towards their work environment and employees' job commitment increases the social capital of the organization. Therefore, the present study was formed with the aim of investigating the factors affecting employees' job commitment and presenting a model in this field. Method: The present study is applied research that was conducted in a mixed (qualitative-quantitative) manner. In the qualitative part of the research, the foundation was formed by the data method. The statistical population included university professors in the field of human resource management and senior managers of government organizations, 12 of whom were selected using purposive snowball sampling as a sample. The interview tool was in-depth. Data were analyzed by triple coding method. In the quantitative part, the descriptive-correlation method was used. The statistical population included all senior and middle managers and postgraduate and doctoral staff of government organizations in Tehran. 240 people were selected as a statistical sample by random cluster sampling. The questionnaire was a closed Likert scale. Data were analyzed by structural equation method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and PLS software Results: The findings of the qualitative section showed 95 open codes that were organized into 27 secondary codes and 14 concepts and the conceptual model of the research was formed. The findings of the quantitative section indicated that the research model of the thesis has a good fit. Conclusion: Based on the research model, it was found that causal conditions such as job satisfaction and underlying conditions such as organizational climate affect the level of salary and job commitment by intervening and strategies such as proper management and employee support undoubtedly lead to attitude management. Job and increase the level of professional ethics in employees.
Background: The secret of sustainable and development of modern civilized organizations is to observe the ethics of the organization. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the ethical components of comprehensive performance management in Iranian public organizations. Method: The present study was applied and mixed. In the qualitative section, the experts of public organizations whose field of activity was wide were considered as a community. Using snowball sampling, 20 people were selected as the sample. The interview tool was semi-structured. Content analysis method was used for analysis. In the quantitative part statistical population includes employees and managers of government organizations in West Azerbaijan province, 273 of whom were selected using stratified cluster sampling. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. For data analysis, structural equation modeling, factor analysis, and hierarchical analysis and pairwise comparison test in the form of Amos software were used. Results: The results led to the identification of 27 organizational components, 8 individual components and 5 group components. The results showed that the incompatibility rate was calculated in 0.09 in three components, which indicates the suitability of the pair comparison (reliability). Organizational factors with a weight of 0.48, individual factors with a weight of 0.3 and group factors with a weight of 0.22 have the highest and lowest weight, respectively. Conclusion: According to studies conducted in this field, so far, no comprehensive study has been conducted on identifying and ranking the ethical components of comprehensive performance management in public organizations. As a result, the proposed structure is the first model for identifying and ranking the ethical components of comprehensive performance management in these public organizations, which has the ability to formulate and implement strategies according to the current changing situation.
Background: The advent of social networks has created an easy way and cost-effective communication between the company and its customers and the need for them to pay attention to the ethical components in providing services and attract customer loyalty has led this research to provide an ethical model in using networks. Social in providing products and services and maintaining customer loyalty in banks. Method: The present study was qualitative and the method of process team analysis was used. The statistical population was the banking industry experts, 14 of whom were selected by purposive sampling method (snowball). The interview data collection tool was semi-structured and thematic analysis using MAXQDA software was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Based on the analysis of the interviews, 200 concepts were identified which, by reviewing the themes, 54 primary codes were extracted and classified into 3 main categories and 16 sub-categories. Customer loyalty is in the first place with 116 assigned codes, social networks are in the second place with 69 codes. Providing services with 15 codes is in the third place. The abundance of sub-criteria related to each category showed that service delivery, sub-category of service innovation, in social networks, sub-category of ethical communication, customer loyalty, sub-category of advertising and ethical marketing and economic growth, have the highest repetition. Conclusion: From the perspective of banking industry experts, ethical components such as; Ethical branding, ethical-organizational factors, service innovation, ethical communication, content sharing, validation, cyberspace, customer value, customer trust, customer awareness, ethical advertising and marketing, customer desire, customer acquisition and retention, competitive advantage, Social responsibility, customer ethical attitude are among the factors affecting customer loyalty in social networks.
Background: Awareness of prioritizing the variables affecting the threat to the security and financial health of a bank is a very important issue. Also, the appropriate and ethical use of the set priorities is a more important issue in decisions related to the merger of branches with continuous losses. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fundamental factors affecting the formation and development of loss syndrome in Bank Mellat branches with emphasis on ethical variables. Method: The present study was qualitative and based on the data foundation approach. The statistical population included experts in the field of planning, decision-making and strategic decision-making of Bank Mellat, from which 21 people were purposefully selected as a sample. The analysis tool was interview and the data were analyzed using open, axial and selective coding. Results: The results of open and axial coding were the estimation of 53 initial codes in the form of 11 categories out of 280 concepts which were finally positioned in the research model using selective coding. Conclusion: In addition to conditions such as general economic conditions and inefficient management practices, inefficient decisions, lack of efficient regulatory and judicial systems, declining quality of banking services, etc., ethics can be an important factor in the occurrence of bank loss syndrome.