During the last decade, researchers embarked on several archaeological surveys and excavations in Luristan and they could unearth 29 Neolithic sites there. The current paper, taking into accounts the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Settlement Analysis, tries to analyze the role of environment on the aforementioned Neolithic sites. The study indicates that Neolithic communities chose foraging as the most important way of their livelihood. Water and food resources, wild plants, and animals were found impressive in the site-catchment process. All of the 29 Neolithic settlements are located at the altitudes between 500 and 2000 meters above sea level. These altitudes cover the southern, central, and northern parts of Luristan, the region that enjoys semi-arid climates, cool winters and hot summers, where pastoral livestock has been common. There are many rivers at these heights, but locals often disposed of using springs water. The distance from 26 sites to the springs is about 300 meters.
Educationalists and methods designers realize that a good command over a foreign language depends on following supra-segmental elements consisting rhythm and intonation, which are considered as the first step towards mastering the pronunciation of a language.Among the supra-segmental elements, we focus on the rhythm. Since, it has been clear that despite having good pronunciation of sounds and consonants separately, most of Iranian learners of FFL, fail to realize the correct rhythm of the French language. In this article, we try to know why Iranian FFL learners of make little attention to the correct rhythm of French or why are they totally indifferent? In fact, our goal is to find the cause of various errors in the use of the correct rhythm among Iranian FFL learners. We realized that there is a significant relationship between age, gender and level of participants with the rhythm production and the same is true for L1 and the first foreign language (English in Iran) which are most dramatic obstacles for learning and the correct rhythm production.
Northwestern Iran is one of the key regions in the archaeological researches, especially during the Iron Age. Tepe Hasanlu is an important ancient site due to its long-term occupation and extensive excavations, with relatively complete studies. This paper dealing with the results of recent archaeozoological researches of Hasanlu, to complete the lack of studies on the subsistence economy of the site. The studied faunal remains of Hasanlu derived from campaigns of 1970, 1972 and 1974, which are housed in the Osteology Department of the National Museum of Iran. This paper intends to examine the subsistence economy and animal exploitation patterns during the Iron Age in Tepe Hasanlu. The faunal remains of Middle and Late Bronze Age and Historic period also evaluated to better perception of changes and evolutions in subsistence strategies of Iron Age. The results of studies pointed to the developed animal husbandry during all periods of Hasanlu, which domesticated sheep and goats, and cattle were the most important exploited resources. Equids also allocated the considerable portion of the collection which especially bred in Iron Age. The same pattern identified in contemporaneous sites such as Haftavan Tepe and Dinkhah Tepe in northwestern Iran.
Unlike Aristotle, Lakoff considers metaphor as an integral part of the process of human thinking and believes that humans often automatically and unconsciously learn and use a wide range of conceptual metaphors. A large part of our scientific and philosophical literature is full of conceptual metaphors. According to Lakoff, like other abstract concepts, causation is made of a small literal part which is extended by various kinds of conceptual metaphors in several directions. The current paper shows that a large part of the metaphors introduced by Lakoff, has been used by Muslim philosophers to describe causation. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Mulla Sadra are two of the most significant Islamic philosophers. According to Ibn Sina, causation is based on ‘Causation is Transfer of Possessions’ metaphor. This metaphor depicts causation as a three-component relation in which the boundaries are very strong and sharp. According to Mulla Sadra, causation is based on ‘Causation is Motion out’ metaphor. This metaphor makes causation to have two components and decreases the strength of boundaries between the components of the relation.
The present study deals with imperative mood in Persian language based on prototype theory which is one of sub-theories of the cognitive linguistics approach. The research hypotheses are based on distinctions between the form and meaning components in the imperative mood and its distribution in the language corpus of contemporary literature. The aim of this paper is to describe and classify the criterion of the imperative mood in different language levels and beyond. According to the cognitive linguistics approach, language is part of a cognitive system and the syntactic structure of a language can't be studied separately, but all influential factors should be considered from different lingual aspects. The data analysis was carried out through descriptive and qualitative methods. It was found that the base of the verb has a high frequency in the corpus, but the form and meaning are different, with the meaning of imperative mood depending on the context. As a result, all language layers, forms and meanings in description and classification of the imperative mood should be taken into account to be analyzed cognitively.
Throughout history and prehistory, death has been one of the most important issues occupying the minds of humans. They wondered as what causes death, why and when it comes, and whether any portion of an individual survives after such occurrences. Accordingly, they formulated answers to these questions and incorporated them into religious beliefs and practices. The Khanghah Gilavan cemetery, extending over 2000 hectares, is one of the unique sites located in the northwestern Iranian province of Ardabil. Until now, four archaeological excavations, have been carried out at this cemetery that have resulted in burials from the Middle Bronze Age up to the Parthian period. We have witnessed a variety of burial traditions practiced there over the course of two thousand years. One of the most distinctive burials in this cemetery is Number 29 burial in which the skeleton has been buried in prone position and its skull has been separated from the spot of its maxilla’s joint to the mandible, and then put 39 cm far from the body. This burial belongs to the Middle Bronze Age, and is comparable with the one obtained from the Caucasus. In this paper, we attempt to study this rare burial and compared it with other excavated sites to chronology it.