The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 29, Issue 3 (2022) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Social Status of Women in Iran and Turkey (Case Study: Reigns of Reza Shah and Atatürk)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۵
Developments and accomplishments of the newly founded Republic of Turkey in the first half of the 20 th century had long been the focus of Reza Khan, the Pahlavi ruler of Iran. He considered Atatürk and his actions to be a good model for modern life. After ascending the throne, in parallel with the implementation of Western models, he applied the dominant thinking of Turkey about people’s way of life. Emphasis on the role of women, believing that the backwardness of social organization is the reason for the humiliation of women in the society, was closely pursued by Reza Shah as an important policy and as an ideology of his governance. Among special features and components of women's issues are their presence in the social fields, clothing, health, work and financial independence, and their education, which are addressed comparatively. The main question of this article is that despite the policies of Reza Shah's government regarding women, following the example of Atatürk, what similar achievement was made? If not, what were the reasons for this? The present article tries to identify different aspects of Iran and Turkey by using archival documents, newspapers, written sources, historical researches, and descriptive-analytical methods in examining instances of modernization by imitating Turkey. The result confirms the main point that it is not correct to equate the social modernization activities of Reza Shah and Atatürk. The personality structure, the level of knowledge and awareness, and how the two came to power had a different process, and finally, the society's approach to their position in power was also different. Reza Shah's perspective with Atatürk on women's issues and the actions taken by each of them to change the position of women followed different conditions, reactions, and consequences, which in this article is highlighted using a grounded theory and a background study on issues and finally an appropriate analysis is made based on the author's perception.

The Impact of Injuries Inflicted on a Rape Victim in Determining Punishment:Case Study of New Zealand’s Criminal Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۲
The victim's intervention in the proceeding and the hearing of the pain and injuries inflicted on them are considered influential factors while passing judgment on the accused under New Zealand criminal law. The victim is either injured because of the crime or has already been vulnerable for some reasons exuberates the situation. The New Zealand criminal system assesses type and offense-seriousness in both cases to pass sentence on the accused. The present research aims to study the impact inflicted on rape victims in determining sentences. It is a descriptive, analytical study conducted using the content analysis technique. A purposive sample of 15 rape cases was selected from the New Zealand criminal system and coded using ATLAS software. The results show that if the accused is found guilty of pre-planned raping by resorting to physical violence, making sense of humiliation and severe mental harm, or rape is committed against vulnerable victims, the court aggravates the culprit's punishment based on the extent of the harms inflicted on them. It can be in the form of an increases period of preventive imprisonment, rejection of the plea for mercy or conditional discharge, the traverse of revision, and the extension of therapeutic or rehabilitation courses or compelling the offender to join them.

The Issue of Self and Other: The Identity Challenge of Victorian Women (Case Study: CMS Women’s Interaction with Women of Qajar Era)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۱
At the beginning of the Victorian Era (1837-1901), although British women’s activities were limited to housekeeping, their restriction in social activities and job choices, the increase in their population, were among the issues that led to the formation of new perspectives on women and their possibility of working outside the home. Meanwhile with the expansion of missionary activity in British colonies, Victorian women gained the opportunity to participate in missionary works beyond their homes. A significant number of them were attached with the Church Missionary Society (CMS) and came to Iran. They faced two challenges for proving their ability in creating a “new self and identity” versus “others”: 1) in Victorian society as a social identity equal to men, 2) in Qajar society for introducing “themselves” as a preacher of “new social identity” to Iranian women. Focusing on the conceptual framework related to the issue of “self, other and identity”, reviewing the surviving reports and documents, this article examines the causes and manner of the process that led to the formation of the “new identity” of these missionary women and their demarcation between “themselves” and the “other”, i.e. , patriarchal structure of the Victorian society and the CMS. It also reviews the feedback from their interactions with Iranian women as “other” in shaping their “new self and identity”. The achievements of this article show that the liberal and feminist actions of missionary women in creating a “new self and identity” in their homeland led to an open competition with missionary men in patriarchal structure of the CMS. Furthermore, following the interaction of the CMS women with different strata of Qajar women, their “missionary identity” faded and “their humanitarian self and identity” aspects replaced.

Application of Discourse Analysis Method in Family Studies (A Review of Linguistic Strategies in Films, Book of Law, Forever and One Day)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۹۵
The present tries to study and review the manner the discourse analysis method is being used in family studies. This method especially emphasizes the role of research in the social context. Considering the key role of the family and women and their place in ensuring the prosperity, this sacred institution should be researched upon in this so that we can reveal the structures and processes that are based on ideology and power. However, considering past researches in the field of women and family, a majority of researchers have paid little attention to the social context while investigating those problems. Therefore, it seems a research gap in this field and hence, this article aims to answer to this question: How can family and women's issues be investigated through the discourse analysis method? The influencing factors on this social phenomenon have been written with the aim of determining the type of linguistic strategies in representation, alienation, highlighting, etc. And in the meantime, we will also discuss the evolution of the discourse analysis method. In order to achieve this goal and to understand this matter more easily, we have used the movies Kitab Qanun (Book of Law), Abed and One Day (Forrever and One Day) as examples.

The Effectiveness of Non-Governmental Organizations in Women's Access to Social Citizenship Rights in Iran (Case Study: Tehran)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۷
Non-governmental organizations as the third pillar and representative of civil society play a main role in socially excluded groups’ access to their citizenship rights including women. The most important aspect of citizenship is social citizenship which has a close relationship with public sphere. It seems that NGOs play a substantial role in facilitating women’s access to their social rights; however, their role, efficiency and effectiveness in realizing this goal are disputed by experts. The purpose of this study is to investigate efficiency of non-governmental organizations in women’s access to their social citizenship rights in Iran. This research has been conducted by a quantitative approach, survey method and questionnaire tool. The questionnaire, consisting of effective factors, was developed by library method and was presented to experts of women study in order to examine its face validity. The data of this study was gathered from three groups including 30 scientific and executive experts, 10 NGO managers and 319 people of NGO’s target population which were selected via stratified sampling. Data analysis rejected hypothesis of high efficiency and great power of NGOs in women’s access to their social citizenship rights in Iran.

An Analysis of Barriers to Woman’s Economic Participation in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۷۰
It is important to investigate the status of women's presence in different economic sectors and formal and informal economies. Also, considering the special situation of Iran in terms of increasing number of women with higher education and economic sanctions, identifying the effective factors for recognizing barriers to women's presence in economic, social, and cultural dimensions and providing solutions for removing those barriers is the need of the present time to obtain practical results for the field of employment policy. Accordingly, this study, after identifying the effect of these barriers on women's economic participation, intends to provide solutions to eliminate and reduce the effect of barriers and suggest appropriate solutions for creating opportunities and increasing women's economic participation. Based on the results, using a correlation test and multivariate regression, it was shown that three of them, economic, social, and occupational barriers had a negative and significant effect on women's economic participation in Iran's labor market, while the effect of institutional barriers was not statistically confirmed.


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