The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 30 , Issue 1 (2023) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



A Survey of the Concepts of Court Documents of Safavid in Iran and Mughals in India(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۲ تعداد دانلود : ۵۵
The administrative system during Iran's Safavid and India's Mughal empires had a complex structure. During that era, writing, recording, and dispatching of royal decrees as well as administrative, judicial, revenue figures, and rulings were carried out by three administrative divisions dealing with composition, execution, and judiciary. Such documents are exiting in two primary and secondary forms and their compositions are varied based on their themes. The components of documents are also distinguished in terms of their header, seal, and monogram. To prevent any type of forgery, they went through lengthy and complicated stages. These documents show the evolution of the bureaucratic system in both dynasties and were issued for purposes such as appointments, grants, exemptions, contracts, treaties, and so on. The research method applied in the present research is based sources extracted from library and archival materials and then the court documents of both Safavid and Mughals were compared and analyzed through the descriptive-analytical method. Research findings show that different administrative units were under the supervision of the minister (vazir), the second powerful figure after the King, who in fact led state, financial and judicial affairs. Although both dynasties had common roots, they created one of the most effective executive systems of their time by upgrading those prevalent in previous empires.

A Methodological Analysis of the Concept of Critique(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۶ تعداد دانلود : ۵۴
Researching is considered one of the functional needs of the scientific community. However, this field of study is faced with a series of issues, such as the dismissal of the concept of critique as only a secondary phenomenon and the lack of a methodological perspective while dealing with the concept of critique. Thereby, after having an overview of the topic of literary and art criticism, this paper will attempt to argue that in the background of the discussion, the elements of “methodic critique” are ignored. Then, to distinguish the characteristics of methodic critique from that of subjective and non-academic critique, the eight elements of methodic critique will be explained in detail, which include: 1. Systematicity, 2. Model-orientedness, 3. Comprehensiveness, 4. Critical perspective, 5. Having philosophical basis, 6. Expert-orientedness, 7. Creativity, and 8. Being ethical. Undoubtedly, reaching a “(comprehensive) theory of critique in the field of humanities” necessitates an explanation of the necessities, definitions, and characteristics of the concept of methodic critique as avoiding the shortcomings of the study of critique in the field of humanities is impossible without a “theory of critique.”

A Petrographic Analysis of Early Bronze Age Ceramics from Sonqor County, Kermanshah(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۶۷
The petrographic analysis of ceramics can often answer a wide variety of archaeological questions, especially regarding fabrication, manufacturing processes which were despite focused on the construction and trade of pottery. However, ceramics which were collected from the same site can mostly differ in their chemistry as well as fabrics. As is applied in many cases, essential archaeological survey and documentations in a theoretical framework are key to the proper application of ceramic petrography through the archaeometrical research. This paper deals with the petrographically approach on Kura-Araxes or Early Bronze Age ceramics manufacturing processes of Sonqor Plain. It is of worth-knowing to contribute that the contact and exchange strategies between indigenous communities and several cultural-spheres during Early Bronze Age (beginning of the fourth millennium BC) in this area. Morphological data along with mineralogical composition of ceramics were applied to determine the major elements of the pottery sherds. Based on the result, one can be suggested that all of sherds are in the same group and were demonstrated mightily local productions. The ceramic manufacturing technology indicates same patterns of material interactions during the ETC or Kura-Araxes in all of the investigated sites in Sonqor Plain.

Study of the Correlation between Learner Autonomy and Multiple Intelligence(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۴ تعداد دانلود : ۷۰
In the framework of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, we have studied the possible impact of emphasis on multidimensional intelligence on developing learner autonomy and we asked ourselves if a syllabus designed based on the learners' multiple intelligences help develop learner autonomy more effectively. Autonomy is considered to be a key factor in the promotion of the process of learning a foreign language, through enhancing learner motivation and self-confidence. Nevertheless, it is not always the focus of teaching. We believed it possible to help develop learner autonomy more efficiently, by emphasizing on individual intelligence profiles. Thus, we aim to establish, if and how effectively, an Iranian learner’s autonomy is influenced, when reached out to, through his multiple intelligences. In this research, a descriptive and synthetic approach will be applied. After presenting the main theoretical guidelines on which our research is based, we will share results of a field study conducted in this respect, on 30 adult Iranian learners of French as a foreign language (FFL) of the lower intermediate level (B1 of the CEFRL) and analyze the data quantitatively and qualitatively.

Domesticating/Foreignizing Strategies in Translating the Persian Writer’s Style: Two Voices of a Blind Owl(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۱ تعداد دانلود : ۷۳
This paper investigates the Persian writer’s style through domesticating/foreignizing strategies used in two English translations of Hedayat’s The Blind Owl. As the ‘thumbprint’, style is concerned with some recurring patterns of linguistic habits of any writer; hence, any translator. As proposed by Venuti, these strategies may result from various shifts made by translators in transferring the ST style into the TT one. The question is raised: Is there any relationship between the translator’s style and the used strategies by the translators? Having reviewed the main literature and strategies, this paper puts into practice the main used strategies in 200 sentences chosen randomly from each English translation of the novel, related to the given categories of domestication and foreignization. The results showed that Costello’s translation was dominated by such domesticating strategies as borrowing and extra-lingual gloss; Bashiri’s with foreignizing ones. In both translations, the dominant domesticating strategies are deletion, approximation, and paraphrasing. However, regarding the macro-level structure, keeping or losing the original author’s style has nothing to do with domesticating/foreignizing strategies. In conclusion, it seems perplexing to apply such strategies to the texts translated from non-hegemonic languages such as Persian into hegemonic languages such as English.

The Effects of Inundation on Archeological Materials: The Case Study of Jamalo Village/Archeological Site in Zayanderoud Dam, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱
This paper, reflecting on the village and archaeological site of Jamalo located on the top of the Zayanderud dam, aims to explore the circumstances human settlements would have encounter with the construction of the dam and when its reservoirs were flooded. About 30 years ago, as the images from Google Map showed, the water strip emerging from the Zayanderud dam, wherein the left riverbank hosted the village and archaeological site of Jamalo. This site had been occupied for much of the sixth and fifth millennium BC until the beginning of the Early Bronze Age. In the Middle Bronze Age, it had been dominated by the Proto-literate, historic, and Islamic periods. Archaeological evidence from surface surveys also indicated that pottery shreds were similar to those of Sialk III and Bakun A. Now, Jamalo is exposed to the waters of the dam reservoir. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of what would have happened to archaeological sites with the construction of the dam, its reservoirs were flooded, and when landscapes were radically altered. Another question was: “What would have happened to archeological sites as floods made it inaccessible?” Based on the excavation at Jamalo and the comparison of images taken from the region before and after the construction of the dam, it was observed that the reservoir had destroyed the village, and the slopes of the site, especially on the eastern and northeastern parts, had been covered with a layer of deposits.


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