The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 28, Issue 2 (2021) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Sexual Harassment at Workplace: Effects and Reactions(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۳
Sexual harassment at workplace is a phenomenon that has many implications for women. Also, organizations and other employees are not immune to the devastating consequences of sexual harassment against women. Victimized women respond to harassment differently, such as silence, tolerance, bullying and aggression, leaving the workplace and even positive responding to sexual demands. In this article, in-depth interviews with victims will address the reactions and effects of harassment. We have also used the same tool to analyze the consequences of sexual harassment in organizations. The main questions of the study were the type of victim response to the harasser, the impact of the harassment on the victim, and the organization or other staff. The findings are obtained from interpretation and classification of in-depth and semi-structured interviews with 25 women in 23-47 age groups. They were selected from those with bachelor and doctoral degrees and working in government and private sectors. In order to obtain data, 5 open-ended and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 5 managers and administrative and financial assistants of public and private companies. The results of qualitative content analysis of interviews with victims, focused group, and the organizational management panel showed that women's responses differed by education, age, public or workplace privacy, from fear and silence to aggressive responses and complaints. And even retreats toward harassers were different. From individual perspective, harassment causes depression, morbid fears, prolonged anxiety, pessimism and suspicion, physical illness, labeling and social isolation. From an organizational point of view, there is virtually no protection mechanism for victims, which results in the abandonment of work, unwanted displacements, harassing dismissals, and even harassment and reduced organizational productivity.

Iranian Women’s Leisure Time Dilemmas: from the Experts’ Perspective(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۶
Leisure is an opportunity for self-development, self-definition and community rejuvenation, acquisition of experience and development of social interactions. However, it is "relatively" free and constrained by factors such as gender, cultural and social policies governing societies. The current study is aimed at examining married women's leisure problems in Tehran from the viewpoint of experts. The research method is qualitative while the Thematic Analysis is used for data analysis and the illustrated problems. 23 semi-structured interviews conducted with three groups of experts (policymakers, executives and university professors). Two global themes of "Intra-governmental" and "Extra-governmental" problems are taken through the experts on the leisure problems of the target group. "Marginalization", "inequality and discrimination", "scattered policy making and implementation", "demonstrative policies" and "apathy" are "Intra-governmental problems" whereas "restriction", "excess and negligence in leisure activities" and "body as project" are forming "Extra-governmental problems". The results of this study illustrate that leisure problems for married women in Tehran have a cultural root and are caused by "cultural neglect and misunderstanding". Thus, cultural solutions can provide a framework for other solutions to function.

Analyzing the Role of Media in Preventing Sexual Abuse of Girls in Cyberspace(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۶
In the present era which is known as the era of communications and technology revolution, cyberspace is considered as one of the most important tools in shaping the public opinion. The role of this media in preventing crime from happening is of interest to scholars and thinkers. The current study analyzes the role of the media in preventing sexual harassment of girls in cyberspace, because cyber space can, with its media policy, be able to provide appropriate solutions to reduce crime. The research method applied in the course of the study is descriptive and analytical and includes library materials and case files available at Iranian courts as well as the Cyber Police department. It also takes into account interviews conducted with sexual assault victims through semi-structured interview technique. The snowball sampling gathered from 30 victims of theoretical saturation. The findings of the study include: 1- Cyber-sexual harassment with various forms such as: cyber-propaganda, cyber-distortion, illicit intercourse, etc. 2- Given that women and girls are the main victims of this crime, the best way to prevent it is situational and social prevention.

Employment and the Nonlinear Relationship of Household Income on Divorce in Iran Using the Quasi-Panel Data Logit Model(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۷
In this paper, the effect of income distribution on divorce in Iran has been investigated using micro data of Household Expenditure and Income Survey of urban households in 2014 and applying the Quasi-panel data method. Primary data included 18885 urban households. At first, sub-section of the data were selected including divorced and married male and female (16503 Households) and clustered in provinces. The data was then analyzed based on the initial and categorized data. In the next step, using the Deaton (1985) Quasi-panel data, Logit model is estimated with the Maximum likelihood method. The results of first estimation indicate that household per capita income reduces the probability of divorce, and the result of the secondary model (the initial model with including the square of per capita income) indicates a U shape effect of per capita income on the probability of divorce. That is, the probability of divorce in the two groups of income (low and high) is higher than the middle income holders. Threshold per capita income is estimated equivalent to 1275 thousand Toman on average and monthly for urban households or 5100000T in a month for a family of four in 2014. Also, having job reduces the probability of divorce. Therefore, unemployment reduction policies and supportive policies to reduce income inequality in society will be a way to reduce the probability of divorce.

Knowledge-based Economy as an Opportunity to Closing the Gender Gap(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۰
In the last three decades, along with the development of knowledge-based economy, the development of businesses related to this field has also taken a growing trend and the concept of entrepreneurship has found an important role in the growing economy. Knowledge-based economics as an emerging field and with the focus on information technology and communication technology grew significantly. According to the International Telecommunication Union (2016), ICT-related businesses will account for 95% of all global companies, as well as one-third of all global formal-related businesses in the next decade. The purpose of the present study is to explore the contribution of women in the Persian Gulf region in the field of science, technology and knowledge-based economy using the documentary research method. The research results revealed that in the said field, there is an extensive opportunity to reduce the economic gender gap. Comparing the trend of women's participation in this field shows that the progress of women has been smooth in some countries while in some others, more development is needed. Suggestions have been made for the development of women's technical and professional knowledge, balancing between work and life, and implementing supportive policies.

Investigating Female Students’ Vision of Iranian Labor Market(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۲
Some researches in the domain of women's employment show that gender is a significant factor in the professional position i.e. gender makes women less likely to achieve lucrative and high-paying jobs compared to their men folks. However, in many countries, increasing women's education and skills are key indicators of their growing participation in the labor market. In Iran, despite a decline in women's illiteracy and spectacular rise intheir presenceat universities, even in some traditionally masculine fields, the unemployment rate of educated women is higher than those of men. This study is aimed at understanding the female students' opinions about the gap between higher education and their career prospects. For that purpose, a qualitative research in four government universities from four regions of Iran has been conducted. The data of the study shows that despite theirgrowing number in these universities, most female students are worried about their professional future. In nutshell, it can be said that the massification of higher education has not resulted into more access of girls to the labor market, and there is much disappointment among them of finding a suitable job after graduating from universities.

The Socio-Political Role of Women from New Salafist Point of Views and Their Comparison with Old Salafist Perspectives(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۵۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۹
Almost all Islamic classical movements believe that the main task of women is motherhood and housekeeping. However, from the perspective of new Salafist groups, there have been transformations in women’s rights and duties. Studying the political and social role of women from the new Salafist point of views and comparing them with the views of old Salafists was because the issue was unexplored. This paper investigates differences between the perspective of the new and old Salafists regarding the role of women, through examining primary resources such as the works of old and new Salafist ideologues, as well as secondary sources susch as magazines, manifesto, tweets, and websites. Based on the critical discourse analysis, this paper concludes that both the new and old Salafist groups shared the same theological sources and references, but the old ones have a literal (and not a contextual or interpretative) reading of the holy book (the Qur’an) and the Sunna as their fundamental resource and reference. In the new Salafist discourse, women have the right to participate in all social and military activities. Therefore, the big shift created in terms of social and political participation of women through new Salafists is based on new circumstances, ambitions as well as their different understanding and interpretation of theology concerning the role and duty of women.


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