The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 19, Issue 1 (2012) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



A Hierarchical Artificial Neural Network for Gasoline Demand Forecast of Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۶
This paper presents a neuro-based approach for annual gasoline demand forecast in Iran by taking into account several socio-economic indicators. To analyze the influence of economic and social indicators on the gasoline demand, gross domestic product (GDP), population and the total number of vehicles are selected. This approach is structured as a hierarchical artificial neural network (ANN) based on supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP), trained with back-propagation (BP) algorithm. This hierarchical ANN is designed properly. The input variables are GDP, population, total number of vehicles and the gasoline demand in the last one year. The output variable is the gasoline demand. The paper proposes a hierarchical network by which the inputs to the ending level are obtained as outputs of the starting levels. Actual Iranian data between 1967 and 2008 were used to test the hierarchical ANN hence; it illustrated the capability of the approach. Comparison of the model predictions with validation data shows validity of the model. Furthermore, the demand for the period between 2011 and 2030 is estimated. It is noticeable that if there will not be any price shock or efficiency improvement in the transportation sector, the gasoline consumption may achieve a threatening level of about 54 billion liters by 2030 in Iran.

Investigating the Philosophical Foundations of Habermas’ Political Thoughts: A deliberative approach for democracy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۶
The investigation of Habermas’s political ideas of philosophical perspective and measuring his philosophical principles ratio, which is the deliberative democracy, is a purpose of this study that will be followed. On the one hand, the importance of this issue is this that represents the new readings of democratic standards and on the other hand, consolidates one type of the democracy that has an epistemological distinction with the liberal democracy. Because of this, it is trying to analyze the philosophical foundations of Habermas, and the main components and standards of reinforcing ideas of deliberative democracy to be explained. The findings of present paper suggesting the political views and beliefs of this political philosopher that are arisen from his philosophical thought, has been based on the standards and teachings of communicative action, discourse ethics, rational consensus and public spheres; In addition, the theory of Habermas’ democracy with the discourse consensus has a relatively flexible capability to confront the globalization challenges and from one perspective tries to realize the real sovereignty of people over their own fate.

Multidimensional Description of Social Capital in Different Contexts: With Regard to Indian and Iranian Female Students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴۴
The core concept of this article i.e. social capital consists of three main components: scope of social relations , level of social trust, and rate of reciprocity. The research is accomplished through 600 cases of Indian and Iranian female secondary school students and their parents, in two cities of Chandigarh in India and Tehran in Iran. Findings of the research show that the scope of social relations in India is higher than Iran, while the true level which was measured in the social network in Iran was far higher than India. Even the third aspect i.e. the reciprocity is also higher in Iran than India. Therefore, the social capital measured among the Iranian cases is higher than the Indian students and their families. Likewise, the level of trust estimated among Indian people is higher than the true level of trust present in the social network whereas; an exact opposite situation could be seen in Iran. In other words, the different aspects of social capital do not necessarily have a high co-variation among themselves.

The Role of Social Security Spaces of Traditional Iranian Cities in Urban Crimes Reduction: With Emphasis on CPTED* Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۷ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳۸
Importance of security and sense of peace is a one of the most important factors of urban environment. Therefore, the necessity of security in urban spaces has caused the emergence of authentic theories like Defensible Spaces and Crime Prevention through Environment Design (CPTED)*. In this paper, various literatures related to defensible space theories have been reviewed and the related keywords have been defined. Then, the role of defensible urban spaces as a social capital in the reduction of urban crimes is examined. Further, condition of defensible spaces in traditional Iranian cities has been studied with reference to the city of Isfahan. The research method is based on data and documents collected through field survey.The conclusion justifies the precedent of defensible space, in design and planning, as well as shaping historical cities. Safe and secure spaces which support social capital concept, under public surveillance and collective responsibility, works as an important aspect in reducing crimes hence; bringing about a state of stable urban security.

The Concept of Monotheism and Oneness in Islam and Sikhism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱۲
In this summary, there is an effort to explain the concept of monotheism and oneness in Islam and Sikhism. Sikhism is the youngest of the world religions and the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in the Punjab area of India in the fifteenth century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam. A Sikh believes (EK ONKAAR) there is only One God. IK ONKAAR the most significant word used in the Sikh teachings. But believe in one God in Sikhism is the same Muslim's believe? However, some believe that the first part of this statement of faith ( La ilaha illa'Llah ), expresses the absolute monotheism which is inherent in Islam “There is no god other than God." This is the essence of the Muslim profession of faith ( shahadah ) (Kristu, Jyoti). Pronouncement of the Islamic creed, the Shahadah , is the supreme religious act. Its mere recitation suffices for an entry into the "community of the believers." this is also rejection of polytheism, the destruction of idols, and the witness given to the one and unique God, the Lord and Creator of all that exists? Mircea, Eliade, 1987:26)"

Contrastive Rhetoric: Investigating Politeness and Intimacy in Business Email Communications in Four Asian Countries(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۹
511 commercial emails from four Asian countries, namely China, Pakistan, India, and Iran have been analyzed in a mixed-method design. The focus of the study is on the two features of politeness and intimacy. In the quantitative analysis, the model proposed by Brown & Levinson (1987) and that of Coulmas (2005) which have drawn upon the features of indirectness in requesting and the length of letters as the indicators of politeness are used. In the qualitative and descriptive analysis formality in salutation and opening clause as well as the use of abbreviated forms are taken into account. The result shows that Iranians use the most polite style in their business letters, while Chinese use the most intimate discourse. On the other hand, Indians use both the least polite and intimate style in their business letters. Pakistanis’ use of polite and intimate style is not as conspicuous as that of Iranians and Chinese respectively. The findings are hoped to help better inter-cultural understanding, especially with respect to written rhetorical characteristics.

Parthian Burials at Khaneghah Gilvan Cemetery in Ardabil Province(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۷
Khanghah Gilvan cemetery is located in Khalkhal, in the Iranian province of Ardebil. This cemetery came into light during a highway construction project in Khanghah village. Until now, three archeological excavations, under the author’s supervision, have been carried out in this cemetery that has resulted in burials from the Middle Bronze Age up to Parthian period. Among the excavated burials, four of them belong to the Parthian period. These burials are pit graves containing gifts such as potteries, bronze and iron materials, metal ornaments and beads with different forms. Grave usually containing single body had different conditions such as open or closed burials in different directions. Samples of pit graves of Parthian period, apart from Khanghah Gilvan cemetery, have also been discovered at Sad Eskandar in Gorgan, Sang Shir at Hamadan, Cheshmeh Sar at Takht-e-Jamshid and Vaskeh cemetery. The burial samples with open-pit were prevalent during Parthian period that apart from Khanghah Gilvan cemetery have also found at Sang Shir tepe at Hamadan, Kangavar, and Cemetery at Susa, Cheshmeh Sar at Takht-e-Jamshid, Sad Eskander at Gorgan, Veskeh and Mianrud in Talesh. Likewise, samples showing closed-pit burials of Parthian period, apart from Khanghah Gilvan cemetery, have also found at Sang Shir at Hamadan, Kangavar, Tagh Bostan, Germi, Vaskeh and Mianrud cemetery.


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