During the course of our studies on archaeometallurgy in southeastern Iran, we tried to survey the triangle of the Sirdjān, Neiriz and Shahr- e- Bābak. As a result, remains of old iron mining residues of smelting furnaces, and iron smelting slag heaps were observed and recorded. A few samples of iron ore and smelting slag have been analysed classically and instrumentally. According to the acquired results, it has been suggested that the blacksmiths of this region applied two methods to produce iron: first, producing sponge iron, and second, of molten cast iron. According to the classification and the dating, these metallurgical activities have been estimated as old as 500 years before the advent of Islam and that continued till the beginning of Islam.
The goal of this paper is to compile strategies for a Chinese international telecommunication vendor which entered into Iran telecom market in the year 2000. Since ZTE is involved with business in more than 135 countries and it is out of our power to collect huge data from all over the world, we have limited our strategies to Iranian market and we will compile strategies for Iran business unit only. To proceed with compiling strategies for ZTE Company, we will firstly give a brief introduction about ZTE. Then we will give a short explanation about the method of compiling strategies for any kind of firm. At the end, based on the method introduced, we will select the most adequate strategies in order to maintain ZTE’s competitive advantage in Iran telecom market.
A Comparative Study on the Role of the Religious and Political Thoughts of Qom , Ray , Baghdad and Khorasan on Shiites of the Third Century
In the third century, the political multiplicity of Iran was influential on various thoughts and expansion of the opposite religious interactions. Benefiting from the attention towards the masses of people and equalizing among them, Murjae and Hanafiae could affect Iran and missionaries deeply. In the middle of the third century, with the Shafei’s influence in the fascinating cities of Ray, Neishabur, Samarghand and Tashkand, limited the dominance of Hanafi-Hanbali thoughts. The increase of city dwelling caused by the attraction of missionaries from countryside and villages to these cities would have been another factor in this process. The appropriateness of political geography and the struggling of Zaydieh Shiite direction , tinged with Motazeli thought , against Taherian caused that even Samanid did not succeed in eradicating the social roots of this course in some parts of Iran. In Khorasan, at the end of the third century, Ismaeli missionaries gave priority to change rural religious thought into the alteration of urban political elites’ beliefs. It was Ahmad Ibn Hassan Maderani, who put some emphasis for Imami –Shiite thought in Ray. Kolein in the outskirt of Ray, witnessed the appearance of Mohammad Ibn Yaghub( Jacob ) , the Imami narrative connector , who could present a pattern with Qomi view , for the rationalizing and reconstructing the society of Imami people of Baghdad. It should be noted that the connecting base among Imami populations in Neishabur , Ray, Qom , Marve and Balkh of the third century was something beyond the exchanges of trade :union:s , in particular , it was Qom ,benefiting from the scholarly elites who were in majority, that in the light of Asharites at the end of the third century witnessed the centralization of Imamieh and planning for faithful or economic expansion . In this case, the ideas of Andrew Newman, Wilfred Madelung , Donlop and Pelt are disputable.
The present article aims to investigate the appropriateness of the concepts introduced by modern sciences of the sign, particularly by structural and poststructural approaches, to studying God-man communication in the Quran. Such a conception of communication can be described in terms of two models, namely, communication as sending and communication as reading. These two concepts which represent an uncompromising dualism in the modern approaches to the sign, come to a compromise in the religious discourse, leading us not merely to conceiving a powerful God but also to a powerful man.
Granting of intellectual property rights on biological materials could be very contentious issue from cultural, legal, ethical and religious points of view. This could be even more complicated, once it acquires an international dimension. The Agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is the latest international arrangement under which, a complex structure for international protection of intellectual property rights has been created. However, while it embodies some provisions of pervious international documents on intellectual property rights, it reflects a unique and unprecedented scheme of protection of intellectual property rights, which also highlights a tension between developed and developing countries especially over the patentability of biological inventions. The provisions of TRIPs make it difficult for developing countries to deny such protection. However, it is possible for them to limit the scope of such protection by relying on exceptions provided by TRIPs and also by relying on the distinction between invention and discovery. These strategies would allow developing countries to exercise some discretion in defining the scope of patentable biotechnologies.
State Responsibility for Nationalization and Expropriation:A Preliminary Survey of the Awards of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal
The present article deals with the issues of nationalization and expropriation in the light of Iran-United States Claims Tribunal Awards by looking at their legality and the limits on the rights of states to nationalise and expropriate, while discussing some case law. I will argue that the state’s right to nationalize foreign property is an attribute of its sovereignty and derives from territorial supremacy of the state. It is also proposed to examine the questions of State responsibility for the injurious consequences of certain wrongful acts or omissions during the Revolution of 1979. The question is whether the events of the revolution and the appointment of temporary managers to administer the foreign companies’ affairs could be interpreted as constituting an expropriation and whether this measure is in full accord with international jurisprudence. The Tribunal’s decisions make it clear that regardless of whether the state has obtained any value of property or not, responsibility exists whenever acts attributable to a state have deprived a foreigner of his property rights.
Managers in developed countries are increasingly interested in outsourcing as a potential source of competitiveness and value creation. One of the most useful outsourcing activities in service sector is information system/technology outsourcing. This paper is trying to determine the ISP managers’ perceived risks and benefits of IT/IS outsourcing and also the rate of awareness about potential of IT/IS outsourcing. Design/methodology/approach - In order to achieve those aims, we first review the previous literature on this topic and later analyze the results of a survey carried out from 30 ISPs managers in Tehran using the structured interview method. Findings: According to the ISPs under analysis, the main advantage of IT outsourcing is reducing/controlling the general cost while the main risk is the excessive dependence on the provider. Nevertheless, some characteristics of the ISPs (e.g. their size and outsourcing level) can determine to some extent what risks and benefits are more relevant. Originality /value: The conclusions explains that total IT/IS outsourcing can turn out to be a very dangerous strategy, mainly due to the dependence it creates. However, it can enable the ISP managers to reduce and/or control the general cost of building a new IT/IS service. The paper investigates the advantages, risks and some dimensions of IT/IS outsourcing decisions in ISPs of Tehran which can potentially develop the services in-house. Therefore, the “make-or-buy” decision for managers of ISPs requires even more attention to these aspects of IT/IS outsourcing (advantages, risks and decision criteria) than other service companies.
There are nearly 14000 exegetical hadiths, narrated from Prophet's family, collected by some Shi'ah scholars in a number of commentaries well-known as Tafasir –e Ma'thur (traditional commentaries) in Shi'ah. In the 12th century, most of these traditions were collected in the two large collections entitled Al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an, the work of Bahrani (d. 1107 A.H), and Nur al-Thaqalayn, the work of Huwayzi (d. 1112 A.H). These hadiths can generally be classified in three categories: 1. the hadiths explaining outward meanings of the Qur'an, 2. the hadiths expressing the inward meanings of the Qur'an, and 3. the hadiths applying the Qur'anic concepts to the certain individuals and groups of people. For example, some verses of the Qur'an have been interpreted as symbols for the Prophet, the Prophet's household and the opponents of the Prophet's family. The last type of traditions is called the hadiths of Jary (flow). The term comes from Shi'ah hadith concerning ta'wil. According to some hadiths, the Qur'an is like the sun and the moon; it flows through history as same as the sun and the moon flows in cosmos. Among 14000 exegetical hadiths of shi'ah, more than 2100 hadiths are classified as hadiths of Jary. These hadiths have been extremely criticized by some of Sunni Muslim scholars. However, some modern Quranic Shi'ah exegetes such as Muhammad Husayn Tabatabayi, the author of Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an hold that it was the method of Imams of Ahl al-bayt to apply a Quranic verse to all things it might be applied to. Nevertheless, our study shows that the numerous traditions in this respect have been fabricated. Many of these hadiths do not possess an authentic chain of narrators. Moreover, most of them came to Shiah hadith books via Ghulat (exaggerators) whom our Imams refused as heretics. In fact some of them are more similar to trite phrases, rather than interpretations of the Quran, like applying "ba'uza" (mosquito)(Q.2:26) to Imam Ali! There are some sound hadiths from the Imams of Shi'ah that they have denied some applications of the verses to themselves. Having clarified main exegetical concepts and presented two classifications of shi'ah exegetical hadiths, this paper examines these kinds of traditions and evaluates them with criticisms in both textual content and narrators through whom these hadiths have been narrated.